Analyzing the Turkish and Arabic Subtitle Translations of English Idioms in the Animated Movie Ice Age: The MeltdownArife Eray, Muammer Sarıkaya
Idioms play an important role in cultural formation and are also an indispensable part of a language. These phrases usually have different unique meanings and cause much confusion in the translation process. Idioms carry the semantic values of each society and contain the customs, traditions, and lifestyles of that geography; thus, they may not have a direct equivalent in the target language. Therefore, the translation with the closest meaning to the desired expression in the source language is preferred in the translation process. As with every kind of translation, idioms are frequently observed in audio-visual translation products as well. Just as the importance of audio-visual translations has increased these days in the communications between different societies, so has the interest of translation scholars in this field also increased. This brings up dubbing and subtitle translation studies, which are the two basic types of audio-visual translation. This study analyzes the types of English idioms used in Ice Age: The Meltdown, produced by Blue Sky Studios in 2006 as the second in the series of animated Ice Age movies, and the translation strategies used for the Turkish and Arabic subtitle translations of the idioms encountered in this movie. The data analysis section of this study utilizes Chitra Fernando’s idiom typology, Henrik Gottlieb’s subtitle translation strategies, and Mona Baker’s idiom translation strategies. Within this scope the analyses evaluate whether the idioms in question are source- or target language-oriented. In this context, the study has determined that the analyzed translations are closer to the target language.
Ice Age: The Meltdown Animasyon Filmindeki İngilizce Deyimlerin Türkçe ve Arapça Altyazı Çevirilerinin İncelenmesiArife Eray, Muammer Sarıkaya
Bir kültürün oluşumunda önemli bir rol oynayan deyimler aynı zamanda dilin vazgeçilmez bir parçasıdır. Genellikle gerçek anlamından farklı, kendine özgü anlamları olan bu söz öbekleri çeviri sürecinde çeşitli karmaşalara sebep olmaktadır. Her toplumun kendine ait anlamsal değerlerini taşıyan ve söz konusu coğrafyanın örf, adet, gelenek, görenek ve yaşam biçimlerini barındıran deyimlerin çeviri esnasında hedef dilde birebir karşılığı bulunmayabilir. Bundan dolayı çeviri sürecinde kaynak dilde ifade edilmek istenen anlama en yakın çeviri tercih edilmektedir. Her çeviri türünde olduğu gibi görsel-işitsel çeviri ürünlerinde de deyimler sıklıkla karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Günümüzde toplumların birbiriyle iletişiminde görsel-işitsel çevirinin önemi arttıkça çeviribilimcilerin bu alana olan ilgisi de aynı ölçüde artmaktadır. Bu da görsel-işitsel çevirinin iki temel türü olan dublaj ve altyazı çeviri çalışmalarını gündeme getirmektedir. Bu çalışmada 2006 yılında Blue Sky Studios tarafından üretilen Ice Age animasyon film serisinin ikinci filmi olan Ice Age: The Meltdown (Buz Devri: Erime Başlıyor) filminde kullanılan İngilizce deyimlerin türleri ve bu deyimlerin Türkçe ve Arapça altyazı çevirilerinde kullanılan çeviri stratejileri analiz edilmiştir. Verilerin analizinde Chitra Fernando’nun deyim tipolojisi, Henrik Gottlieb’in altyazı çeviri stratejileri ve Mona Baker’in deyim çeviri stratejileri kullanılmıştır. İncelemede söz konusu deyimlerin kaynak dil odaklı mı yoksa hedef dil odaklı mı oldukları değerlendirilmiştir. Bu bağlamda yapılan çevirilerin hedef dile yakın aktarımlar olduğu belirlenmiştir.
Idioms are linguistic expressions that are frequently used in daily life. Thanks to idioms, much can be explained in a few words. Additionally, the characteristics of a language and the culture to which it belongs can be reflected through the use of idioms. Audiovisual translation is a concept used in media translation and includes many translation activities such as subtitles and dubbing. Audiovisual translation is defined as a general term for translation products consisting of a verbal dimension supported by media features. Translation scholars have become greatly inclined toward audiovisual translation studies recently. Thus, study of the area has become a common practice. Idioms are of course an indispensable part of these translation products. The idioms used during the dialogue in movies provide a good opportunity to get to know cultural items for individuals learning the native language in these movies. These individuals may learn information about idioms by reading and listening to both the dialogue in the source language and the translated text in the subtitle of the film. However, the idiom as used in the source language may not always have a literal equivalent in the target language. Therefore, the translation process prefers the translation closest to the meaning desired to be expressed in the source language. For subtitle translations, the translator has to focus as much on the importance of the written text as on the visual and auditory expressions. One of the main types of audiovisual translation is subtitle translation. Technical factors such as time and place limitations come to the fore in the subtitling process. The Ice Age animated series of movies is loved and watched all over the world; the series has a humorous structure in general but also contains idiomatic expressions. This study analyzes the types of English idioms used in Ice Age: The Meltdown, the second movie in the Ice Age animated film series, and the translation strategies used for the Turkish and Arabic subtitle translations of these idioms. First, the study analyzes the obtained idioms according to Fernando’s idiom typology, then evaluates them in the context of the subtitle translation strategies put forward by Gottlieb as well as the idiom translation strategies of Mona Baker. Fernando divides idioms into three types: pure idioms, semi-idioms, and literal idioms. Meanwhile, Gottlieb’s subtitle translation strategies can be listed as follows: expansion, paraphrase, transfer, transcription, dislocation, condensation, decimation, deletion, and resignation. Lastly, Mona Baker’s idiom translation strategies involve using idioms with similar meaning and form, using idioms with similar meaning but dissimilar form, borrowing from the source language idiom, translation by paraphrase, translation by omitting a word play on the idiom, and translation by omitting the entire idiom. Lily-livered is an English idiom meaning coward. Because the words included in the idiom are utilized outside of their literal meanings, it is known as a pure idiom. During this idiom’s translation into Turkish as a subtitle, Mona Baker’s strategy of using an idiom of similar meaning but dissimilar form is observed to have been used. In the Arabic translation, the meaning of the idiom was transferred to the target language using Gottlieb’s expansion strategy and Mona Baker’s translation by paraphrase strategy. The English expression “give someone a hand” is an idiom that means to help someone. When the meanings of the words that make up the idiom are examined one by one, they are also seen to contain the real meaning. Therefore, this idiom is accepted as a semi-idiom. During the subtitle translation process, Gottlieb’s expansion strategy and Mona Baker’s translation by paraphrase strategy were seen to be used to translate the idiom into the target languages of Turkish and Arabic. “As far as the eye can see” is a literal English idiom. The words that make up the idiom are used with their literal meanings. This idiom was omitted in the Turkish subtitle translation, while in the Arabic subtitle translation, the idiom was transferred to the target language using Mona Baker’s translation by paraphrase strategy. Idiom translations can be considered a difficult procedure for translators because they can encounter various difficulties while translating an idiom. For example, noticing the idiom in the text, the lack of an equivalent idiom in the target language, the use of idioms both literally and idiomatically, and limitations of time and space are difficulties translators can face. Therefore, translators are expected to be experts in both the source and target languages. This study examines the second movie of the Ice Age animated film series, Ice Age: The Meltdown and has identified 15 English idioms within its scope. Eight of these are semi-idioms, six are pure idioms, and one is a literal idiom. The study also examines both the Turkish and Arabic subtitle translations of the idioms and has seen Gottlieb’s expansion strategy and Mona Baker’s translation by paraphrase strategy to generally be the ones used for the translations. This indicates that the idioms do not have exact equivalents in the target languages. In addition, translating an idiom with an equivalent idiom is a process that requires long research. The translator’s knowledge, skills, and reproducibility are very important when translating idioms. In this context, the translations can be said to have mostly been target language-oriented. Because idioms have structures that are specific to a certain society and culture, a comprehensive study is required in the translation process.