Research Article


DOI :10.26650/jos.1080880   IUP :10.26650/jos.1080880    Full Text (PDF)

Relations Between Irāḳ Seljuk State and ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate According to Tajaribu’s-Salaf

Pınar Kaya Tan

Hindū-shāh as-Sahibî an-Nakhčiwānī (d. 730/1329–1330), one of the 14th century historians, men of letters and scholars, wrote his Persian historical book Tajaribu’s-Salaf der Tawarikhi’l-Khulafa wa’l-Wuzara after 724 (1324), when he was in the service of Nuṣratu’d-Dīn Aḥmad b. Yūsufshah (695–733/1296–1333), one of the Atabakan of Luristan, The work, which contains information about the ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfas and the viziers who served with them, undoubtedly contains detailed information about the neighboring dynasties that had close contact with the ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate. In this respect one of the states written down in the work is the Irāḳ Seljuk State (511–590/1118–1194). Especially due to its close location to Baghdād, the center of the khalīfate, the relations between the two states and the power struggles that sometimes occurred are frequently discussed in the work. In this study, the relations between the Irāḳ Seljuk State and the ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate will be examined in the light of the information given by Hindū-shāh as-Sahibî and the information conveyed by the author will be evaluated by comparing it with the narrations of contemporary sources.

DOI :10.26650/jos.1080880   IUP :10.26650/jos.1080880    Full Text (PDF)

Tecâribü’s-Selef’e Göre Irak Selçukluları ve Abbâsî Hilâfeti Arasındaki İlişkiler

Pınar Kaya Tan

XIV. yüzyılın tarihçi, edebiyatçı ve âlimlerinden Hindûşâh es-Sâhibî en-Nahcıvânî (ö. 730/1329-1330), Lûr-ı Büzürg atabeglerinden Nusretüddin Ahmed b. Yûsufşah’ın (695-733/1296-1333) hizmetinde bulunduğu devirde tarihe dâir Tecâribü’s-selef der Tevârîh-i Hulefâʾ ve Vüzerâ-yı Îşân adlı Farsça tarihî eserini 724 (1324) yılından sonra te’lif etmiştir. Abbâsî Halifeleri ve onların yanında görev yapmış vezirler hakkında bilgiler içeren eserde şüphesiz Abbâsî Hilâfeti ile yakın temaslarda bulunan komşu hânedanlar hakkında ayrıntılı mâlûmat bulunmaktadır. Bu hususta kaleme alınan devletlerden biri de Irak Selçuklu Devleti’dir (511-590/1118-1194). Bilhassa halifelik merkezi olan Bağdat’a yakın konumda bulunması sebebiyle iki devlet arasında yaşanan ilişkiler ve kimi zaman vukū bulan güçlü mücâdeleler eserde sıklıkla ele alınmıştır. Bu çalışmada Hindûşâh es-Sâhibî’nin verdiği bilgiler ışığında Irak Selçukluları ile Abbâsî Hilâfeti arasındaki münâsebetler tetkik edilecek ve yazar tarafından aktarılan mâlûmat çağdaş kaynakların rivâyetleriyle de mukāyese edilerek değerlendirilecektir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


While in the service for Atabak Nuṣratu’d-Dīn Aḥmad, Atabakan of Luristan, Hindū-shāh as-Sahibî al-Kirānī an-Nakhčiwānī wrote Tajaribu’s-Salaf der Tawarikhi’l-Khulafa wa’l-Wuzara (Histories of Khalīfas and Wazirs). The book, dedicated to his atabak, provides a detailed account about Khulafa al-Rasyidin, Emevids, ʿAbbāsīds, Buwayhids, and Seljuk history and wazirs. 

The book was written in al-Muharram 724 (January 1324). Hindū-shāh as-Sahibî based his book in Persian on Ibn al-Tiktakā (d. 709/1309) al-Fakhrī (Münyetü’l-fuzala’ fī tawarikhi’l-khulafa). Moreover, he benefited from the works of Anūshirwān b. Khālid-i Kāsānī, Ibn al-Athīr, Müberred, and Awfi. He wrote in plain language rather than the flamboyant style practiced by many of his contemporaries. Tajaribu’s-Salaf was published by Abbas İkbâl-i Âştiyanî.

The weakened ʿAbbāsīd Government gradually lost its lands to other states. One of the biggest benefactors of Khalīfate territory was the Great Seljuk State. Khalīfa al-Kā’im Bi Amr Allāh, did not have any power. He abdicated his rule to Ṭughril Beg who became a dominating authority in the east to Baghdād. Ṭughril Beg seized the political authority of the Khalīfa. The Khalīfa remained the commanding religious leader. Rulers and roles continued in the following Seljuk Sulṭan’s period. Later, sparked by the attacks of the maliks for the throne in the period of Irāḳ Seljuks, the khalīfas started to stage their independence from the Seljuks. While the Seljuk Sulṭans embraced turning their enemies into their relatives by marrying the daughters of khalīfas or gifting them their own daughters, the khalīfas stayed committed to regaining political dominance. Hindū-shāh as-Sahibî included these issues in the book.

The events mentioned most extensively in the book occurred during the reign of two ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfas. al-Mustarshid Bi’llāh was the first ʿAbbāsīd Khalīf attempting to restore the ʿAbbāsīds political domination. Sulṭan Sandjar (r. 511–552/1118–1157) on the western side of Great Seljuk State established the new Irāḳ Seljuk State by placing his nephew, Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad Tapar on the throne. The Khalīf al-Mustarshid took advantage of the new political posture that resulted from the formation of the Irāḳ Seljuk State. He conspired to rescue his people from the political domination of the Seljukids. He provoked an endless campaign against the Irāḳ Seljukid maliks for the throne. Despite the intervention of Sulṭan Sandjar, upheaval continued in the west. There is detailed information about these issues in Tajaribu’s-Salaf. The second ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfa was al-Nāṣir li-Dīn Allāh (d. 622/1225). al-Nāṣir li-Dīn Allāh initiated political, social, administrative, and intellectual studies to re-establish the dominance of the ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate, which had long been lost to centuries-long domination of the Buwayhids and then the Seljuks. He joined forces with Khwārazm-shāh Tekish (r. 568–596/1172–1200) against the Seljuks. He played an effective role in the destruction of the Irāḳ Seljuks. Along with these striking events, the book includes details about developments between the ʿAbbāsīd khalīf and Irāḳ Seljuk Sulṭan.

Finally, political and social relations developed through the work between the Irāḳ Seljuk State Sulṭān and ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfas are the subject of this study. Consideration regarding relations with the ʿAbbāsīds in the early periods of the Irāḳ Seljuks, relationships with the ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate in the era of Irāḳ Seljuk Sulṭān Masʻud, in Tajaribu’s Salaf, relations with the ʿAbbāsīds in the Sulṭān Muḥammad ibn Maḥmūd era, and developments in the last periods of the Irāḳ Seljuks with the ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate are a part of this study. 


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APA

Kaya Tan, P. (2022). Relations Between Irāḳ Seljuk State and ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate According to Tajaribu’s-Salaf. Journal of Oriental Studies, 0(40), 215-233. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1080880


AMA

Kaya Tan P. Relations Between Irāḳ Seljuk State and ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate According to Tajaribu’s-Salaf. Journal of Oriental Studies. 2022;0(40):215-233. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1080880


ABNT

Kaya Tan, P. Relations Between Irāḳ Seljuk State and ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate According to Tajaribu’s-Salaf. Journal of Oriental Studies, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 40, p. 215-233, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Kaya Tan, Pınar,. 2022. “Relations Between Irāḳ Seljuk State and ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate According to Tajaribu’s-Salaf.” Journal of Oriental Studies 0, no. 40: 215-233. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1080880


Chicago: Humanities Style

Kaya Tan, Pınar,. Relations Between Irāḳ Seljuk State and ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate According to Tajaribu’s-Salaf.” Journal of Oriental Studies 0, no. 40 (Jun. 2022): 215-233. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1080880


Harvard: Australian Style

Kaya Tan, P 2022, 'Relations Between Irāḳ Seljuk State and ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate According to Tajaribu’s-Salaf', Journal of Oriental Studies, vol. 0, no. 40, pp. 215-233, viewed 30 Jun. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1080880


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Kaya Tan, P. (2022) ‘Relations Between Irāḳ Seljuk State and ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate According to Tajaribu’s-Salaf’, Journal of Oriental Studies, 0(40), pp. 215-233. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1080880 (30 Jun. 2022).


MLA

Kaya Tan, Pınar,. Relations Between Irāḳ Seljuk State and ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate According to Tajaribu’s-Salaf.” Journal of Oriental Studies, vol. 0, no. 40, 2022, pp. 215-233. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1080880


Vancouver

Kaya Tan P. Relations Between Irāḳ Seljuk State and ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate According to Tajaribu’s-Salaf. Journal of Oriental Studies [Internet]. 30 Jun. 2022 [cited 30 Jun. 2022];0(40):215-233. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1080880 doi: 10.26650/jos.1080880


ISNAD

Kaya Tan, Pınar. Relations Between Irāḳ Seljuk State and ʿAbbāsīd Khalīfate According to Tajaribu’s-Salaf”. Journal of Oriental Studies 0/40 (Jun. 2022): 215-233. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1080880



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Submitted01.03.2022
Accepted16.03.2022
Published Online28.04.2022

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