Research Article


DOI :10.26650/jos.1251713   IUP :10.26650/jos.1251713    Full Text (PDF)

Using Concept Maps in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language

Yusuf CeylanSenem Ceylan

Today’s understanding of education shows that the constructivist paradigm, which focuses on high-level thinking skills, emphasizes cognitive processes, and is based on meaningful learning, has replaced the mechanical, passive, individual, and rote learning approach of behavioral learning theory. The change in the educational and scientific point of view regarding the learning and teaching processes of foreign language teaching makes itself felt more each day. Accordingly, this article discusses the role of the teacher and the student in teaching Arabic and the applied methods within the framework of new techniques, and explains the use of new methods and techniques and how they have become widespread alongside the traditional ones. Although the acquisition of language skills varies from student to student in foreign language teaching, more positive results are known to obtained from well-structured teaching. The use of various methods and techniques for acquiring basic and secondary language skills has great importance in terms of addressing different areas of intelligence and minimizing individual differences. Providing students with a cognitive, affective, and visually supported learning environment makes a significant difference in terms of holistic learning. The process learners undergo to construct knowledge is highly dependent on previous knowledge and concepts. In this respect, using concept maps to teach the concepts of a subject area plays an important role in realizing meaningful learning. Concept maps facilitate the construction of learning in the mind by showing the relationships between concepts and embodying their ties with other concepts in the same category through figures or words. Concept maps are also effective at minimizing learners’ misconceptions. This study will discuss how concept maps can be used as a method for teaching Arabic grammar subjects. After introducing the constructivist theory on which the concept maps method is based, the article will then focus on the relationship between meaningful learning and concept maps and evaluate the contributions concept maps make to acquiring the basic concepts in Arabic grammar and to having students effectively learn the relationships between concepts. In addition, the article will provide application examples that can be used with regard to the types of concept maps that are frequently used, especially in preparatory classes.

DOI :10.26650/jos.1251713   IUP :10.26650/jos.1251713    Full Text (PDF)

Yabancı Dil Olarak Arapça Öğretiminde Kavram Haritalarının Kullanılması

Yusuf CeylanSenem Ceylan

Günümüz eğitim anlayışında, davranışçı öğrenme kuramının mekanik, pasif, bireysel ve ezber öğrenme anlayışının yerini, üst düzey düşünme becerilerine odaklanan, bilişsel süreçleri vurgulayarak anlamlı öğrenmeyi temel alan, yapılandırmacı paradigmanın aldığı görülmektedir. Yabancı dil öğretiminin öğrenme ve öğretme sürecinde de söz konusu bakış açısının değişimi gün geçtikçe kendini hissettirmektedir. Buna bağlı olarak Arapça öğretiminde öğretmen ve öğrencinin rolü ve uygulanan yöntem, yeni teknikler çerçevesinde ele alınmakta böylece geleneksel olanın yanında yeni yöntem ve tekniklerin kullanımı yaygınlaşmaktadır. Yabancı dil öğretiminde, dil becerilerinin edinimi süreç bakımından öğrenciden öğrenciye değişiklik göstermekle birlikte iyi yapılandırılmış bir öğretimde kazanımlara yönelik olumlu sonuçlar elde edildiği bilinmektedir. Temel ve yan dil becerilerinin edinimi sürecinde çeşitli yöntem ve tekniklerin kullanılması, farklı zekâ alanlarına hitap etmede ve bireysel farklılıkları en aza indirgemede büyük önem arz etmektedir. Öğrencide bilişsel, duyuşsal ve görsel olarak desteklenmiş bir öğrenme ortamı, bütüncül öğrenme açısından anlamlı bir fark oluşturmaktadır. Öğrenenlerin bilgiyi yapılandırma süreci büyük oranda önceki bilgi ve kavramlara bağlıdır. Bu açıdan konu alanına dair kavramların kavram haritalarıyla öğretimi, anlamlı öğrenmenin gerçekleşmesi açısından önemli rol oynar. Kavram haritaları, kavramlar arasındaki ilişkileri göstermek ve aynı kategorideki diğer kavramlarla bağlarını şekil ya da sözcüklerle somutlaştırmak suretiyle öğrenmenin zihinde inşasını kolaylaştırır. Aynı zamanda öğrenenlerin kavramsal yanılgılarının en aza indirilmesinde de etkili olur. Bu çalışmada, kavram haritaları yönteminin Arapça dil bilgisi konularının öğretiminde nasıl kullanılabileceği ele alınacaktır. Kavram haritaları yönteminin dayandığı yapılandırmacı kuram ana hatlarıyla tanıtıldıktan sonra anlamlı öğrenme ile kavram haritaları arasındaki ilişki üzerinde durulacak, kavram haritalarının, Arapça dil bilgisinde temel kavramların edinilmesine ve kavramlar arası ilişkinin etkin bir şekilde öğrenilmesine yapacağı katkı değerlendirilecektir. Ayrıca sık kullanılan kavram haritaları çeşitleri üzerinden özellikle hazırlık sınıflarında kullanılabilecek uygulama örneklerine de yer verilecektir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


The behavioral learning approach has been effective in the field of education for many years, and teaching practices based on it have started to be replaced by the constructivist learning approach. In fact, a paradigm shift has occurred in the background of this transformation in the field of education. Accordingly, the positivist paradigm, which directs education in terms of understanding knowledge, has been the subject of criticism due to the educational problems it has created and has been said to fall short of meeting the educational needs of people living in today’s society. The positivist point of view is based on teaching practices that only transfer information, with learners tending to memorize information completely, and has remained ineffective in the field of education. The literature on education shows how learning and knowledge have been moved from object-centeredness and placed in an intersubjective context in the transition from behaviorism to cognitivism and then to constructivism. Accordingly, interpreting and reproducing information instead of memorizing it have become even more important in an environment where information is rapidly produced and disseminated. Regardless of the subject being taught, education is expected to go beyond knowledge and focus on developing learners’ cognitive skills. In this respect, the focus is on having the teaching processes contribute to learners’ holistic development in terms of cognition, affection, and behavior. Accordingly, learning-centered strategies, methods, and techniques have been used in place of a teacher- and content-oriented teaching process. Teaching methods can be evaluated under two basic categories (i.e., traditional and modern methods) depending on the paradigms upon which they are based. Traditional methods (e.g., lectures, question-and-answer) are teacher-centered and passively position learners in the learning environment. In traditional teaching environments where teacher-centered methods are applied, learning is mostly at the knowledge level where information is memorized as is. Research shows teaching situations that are designed in this way to fall short of supporting the development of high-level skills that today’s individuals need, such as problem solving and creativity. Therefore, focusing on methods and techniques that will support the formation of meaningful learning and the development of high-level thinking skills has been recommended over memorization. In the constructivist approach, learning is evaluated as a meaning-making process and explained as a mental structuring. In this respect, this approach emphasizes the factors that will enable learning to become meaningful and gives priority to learners’ individual and social creation of knowledge. Individual structuring of knowledge takes place based on learners’ previous knowledge, experience, schema, and concepts. The use of methods that will reveal learners’ prior knowledge and experiences in learning situations is thought to also be able to contribute to knowledge that is meaningfully structured. At the same time, social constructivists emphasize the social nature of learning and development and suggest using teaching strategies and methods that support learner interaction in which cultural tools, especially language, are effective in the meaningful creation of knowledge. According to meaningful learning, learners’ prior knowledge is the most basic factor affecting learning. Learners who have insufficient prior knowledge and conceptual background in any subject will not be able to meaningfully construct knowledge. Likewise, meaningful learning will not take place in the absence of any meaningful connection between concepts and principles. For this reason, the use of pre-organizers is recommended in order to eliminate learners’ lack of knowledge and concept. Concept maps contribute to making learning meaningful in terms of learning concepts from general to more specific levels by revealing learners’ previously learned concepts. In this context, foreign language teaching and its methods are also being renewed based on conditions and circumstances, as well as being reconstructed to meet the needs. Arabic is taught as a foreign language in Türkiye and had been taught in the past based on traditional methods. Based on the changing conditions of today, constructivist learning approaches have started being used to teach Arabic. One situation that can be encountered involves the context of concepts that have different forms and structures during foreign language learning compared to when used in the mother tongue, and all these new kinds of information appear as points where students have difficulty understanding. In this case, having students actively participate plays an important role in students’ ability to make sense of the information. Therefore, concept maps can generally be used in every stage of teaching a foreign language, especially when teaching Arabic as a foreign language, because learning the concepts and the relations between concepts fully and correctly will contribute to meaningful learning. In this context, the concept maps method is thought to have an important role in acquiring any skill, especially with regard to grammar lessons, teaching basic concepts, concretizing information in the mind, and shaping information visually. This study presents examples of concept maps related to acquiring the basic concepts used in Arabic grammar lessons. As a topic title, the grammatical subject of sentence types was chosen at random. In terms of preparing students for the subject, the students were presented with the concepts of word and vocabulary in the context of remembering previous learning and associating it with new learning and were asked to think about related concepts. The students also created concept maps under the teacher’s guidance.


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APA

Ceylan, Y., & Ceylan, S. (2023). Using Concept Maps in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language. Journal of Oriental Studies, 0(42), 361-377. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1251713


AMA

Ceylan Y, Ceylan S. Using Concept Maps in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language. Journal of Oriental Studies. 2023;0(42):361-377. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1251713


ABNT

Ceylan, Y.; Ceylan, S. Using Concept Maps in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language. Journal of Oriental Studies, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 42, p. 361-377, 2023.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Ceylan, Yusuf, and Senem Ceylan. 2023. “Using Concept Maps in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language.” Journal of Oriental Studies 0, no. 42: 361-377. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1251713


Chicago: Humanities Style

Ceylan, Yusuf, and Senem Ceylan. Using Concept Maps in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language.” Journal of Oriental Studies 0, no. 42 (Jul. 2024): 361-377. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1251713


Harvard: Australian Style

Ceylan, Y & Ceylan, S 2023, 'Using Concept Maps in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language', Journal of Oriental Studies, vol. 0, no. 42, pp. 361-377, viewed 20 Jul. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1251713


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Ceylan, Y. and Ceylan, S. (2023) ‘Using Concept Maps in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language’, Journal of Oriental Studies, 0(42), pp. 361-377. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1251713 (20 Jul. 2024).


MLA

Ceylan, Yusuf, and Senem Ceylan. Using Concept Maps in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language.” Journal of Oriental Studies, vol. 0, no. 42, 2023, pp. 361-377. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1251713


Vancouver

Ceylan Y, Ceylan S. Using Concept Maps in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language. Journal of Oriental Studies [Internet]. 20 Jul. 2024 [cited 20 Jul. 2024];0(42):361-377. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1251713 doi: 10.26650/jos.1251713


ISNAD

Ceylan, Yusuf - Ceylan, Senem. Using Concept Maps in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language”. Journal of Oriental Studies 0/42 (Jul. 2024): 361-377. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1251713



TIMELINE


Submitted28.11.2022
Accepted10.02.2023
Published Online28.04.2023

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