Research Article


DOI :10.26650/jos.1402030   IUP :10.26650/jos.1402030    Full Text (PDF)

Travel in Afghanistan and Similarities Between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan in Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s Work Called “Tarihce-i Afghanistan’’

Cengiz Keskin

Different civilizations have reigned in Afghanistan throughout history, and a new phase was entered with the establishment of the Afghanistan State in 1747. The work titled Tarihce-i Afghanistan [History of Afghanistan] written by Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp provides valuable information in terms of understanding the geography of the region. Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp, was an important writer who grew up in the last periods of the Ottoman Empire, and talked in detail about the ambitions Britain and Russia had in Afghanistan. In his work, the author touched upon the geographical features, demographic structure and ethnic differences of Afghanistan, an area over which Britain and Russia competed fiercely, and also emphasized the similarities between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan. Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp was of the opinion that his work would arouse curiosity about Afghanistan in Ottoman society and that interest in the region would increase. The main purpose in this study is to understand the region from the perspective of Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp, who attempted to explain the different characteristics of Afghanistan. For this reason, his work titled Tarihce-i Afghanistan, which he considered his mission to introduce Afghanistan, is deemed worth examining.

DOI :10.26650/jos.1402030   IUP :10.26650/jos.1402030    Full Text (PDF)

Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’ün “Tarihçe-i Afganistan’’ Adlı Eserinde Afganistan’da Seyahat ve Osmanlı Devleti İle Afganistan Arasındaki Benzerlikler

Cengiz Keskin

Tarih boyunca Afganistan’da farklı medeniyetler hüküm sürmüş, 1747’de Afganistan Devleti’nin kurulmasıyla yeni bir aşamaya geçilmiştir. Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp tarafından kaleme alınan Tarihçe-i Afganistan isimli eser, bölge coğrafyasını anlamamız açısından değerli bilgiler sunmaktadır. Osmanlı Devleti’nin son dönemlerinde yetişmiş önemli bir yazar olan Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp, bahsedilen eserde İngiltere ve Rusya’nın bölge üzerindeki emellerinden etraflıca bahsetmiştir. Eserinde İngiltere ve Rusya’nın kıyasıya rekabete girdiği bir saha olan Afganistan’ın coğrafi özellikleri, demografik yapısı ve etnik farklılıklarına değinen yazar, Osmanlı Devleti ile Afganistan arasındaki benzerliklere de vurgu yapmıştır. Kendine has anlatımıyla Afganistan’ı Osmanlı toplumuna tanıtmaya çalışan Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp, bu bölgenin layıkıyla ve yeterince bilinmediğini düşünmektedir. Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp, bu eser vesilesiyle Osmanlı toplumunda Afganistan hakkında bir merak uyanacağı ve bölgeye olan ilginin artacağı kanısındadır. Çalışmadaki temel amacımız Afganistan’ın farklı özelliklerini açıklamaya çalışan Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’ün bakış açısıyla bölgeyi anlamaktır. Afganistan’ı tanıtmayı bir misyon olarak gören yazarın kaleme aldığı Tarihçe-i Afganistan isimli eseri bu nedenle incelemeye değer görülmüştür. 


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


When looking at the world map, Afghanistan’s geopolitical and geostrategic importance is clearly recognizable. Afghanistan is in the middle of the Asian continent and was on Britain’s route to India. Afghanistan’s location on Russia’s route to warm seas made the region even more important. For this reason, Afghanistan became a region where Britain and Russia entered into a power struggle, especially in the 19th century. Undoubtedly, this struggle had significant effects on the emergence of Afghanistan’s current borders. 

Afghanistan is an important geography with a long history. 1747 indisputably marked a turning point in Afghanistan, where many civilizations have prevailed. This was when Afghanistan emerged as an independent state. The period that followed was full of ethnic issues, and the one that Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp focused on most in his work was the ethnic diversity in Afghanistan. The author wrote in detail about the nations that were influential in Afghanistan and provided important information about many different peoples, especially the Afghans, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Arabs and Hindus. He made explanations about the population, structure, and physical and cultural characteristics of these peoples, and the cities in which they lived. Although they have some similarities, they also have their differences. He even stated that these people’s were enemies to the point of hating each other, and that fights between them often ended in death. This ethnic and cultural diversity was clearly the biggest reason why no national identity could be formed in Afghanistan. Another important problem in the region was Russia and Britain’s struggle for influence. Russia and Britain deepened the conflicts in the region for the sake of their own interests and provoked problems between the peoples in Afghanistan. These negative developments brought a mess of problems into Afghanistan.

The work Tarihce-i Afghanistan, written by Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp in 1898, provides valuable information in terms of understanding the geography of the region. This work, mentions in detail the tension between Britain and Russia and discusses the developments in the region. The work not only provides information about the political developments in the region at the time but also serves as a handbook explaining the demographic, social, cultural and geographical characteristics of Afghanistan. Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s comprehensively discusses the ethnic groups that make up Afghanistan and the relations among them. It introduces the important cities of Afghanistan such as Kabul, Ghazni, Kandahar and Herat, and present the mountains, rivers and passes in the region.

The work is seen to not introduce all the cities in Afghanistan, only those with historical importance and dense populations. In addition to cities, the work also provides about important passes, some of these being the Bamyan, Kerd and Kabul passes. The work mentions that strategic importance of these passes and emphasizes that these are the only alternative way to reach the interior of Afghanistan. The author also gives important information about the geography of the region, in particular by describing the mountain ranges, hills and rivers in Afghanistan.

Even though Afghanistan had become an independent state, peace had not been achieved due to internal and external factors. Afghanistan can be said to have begun starting to take a national stance once Abdurrahman Khan came to power. Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s main aim was to introduce Ottoman society to aspect of Afghanistan. The language and style the author used give the impression that he had personally visited the region. However, no clear document has been obtained indicating that Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp had gone to Afghanistan himself. Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp is thought to have written his work by interpreting other sources written about Afghanistan.

Afghanistan’s similarities with the Ottoman Empire at that time were also striking. While Afghanistan, appeared to have been caught in the grip of Britain and Russia at the time, Afghanistan can also be said, however, to have been luckier than the Ottoman Empire. The most important reason for this was that Russia and Britain had partially abandoned their political ambitions over Afghanistan. This was a historical chance and turning point for Afghanistan. After years of wars, the two countries no longer wanted to waste their energy in this region. Britain and Russia began to think that having Afghanistan remain as an independent zone between them would be more advantageous.

Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp, tried to fill the lack of information about Afghanistan with his work, and believed that those who read his work could at least have some information about the people of Afghanistan. Readers would also learn about the important passes, straits, castles and cities of the region and be able to understand the historical, cultural and geographical features of Afghanistan. Apart from this, they would also become informed about the latest political developments in the region. Apparently, Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp aimed for his work to introduce Ottoman society to different aspects of Afghanistan, which had not yet become well known.

In fact, the first contact between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan started in 1877 during the reign of Sher Ali Khan. The visit of an Ottoman delegation to Afghanistan under the chairmanship of Ahmed Hulusi Bey can be considered a milestone in this sense. Even though these relations did not progress at the level the Ottoman Empire desired, have always that a policy based on friendship and goodwill. When considering the modernization efforts of the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan in the second half of the 19th century, the similarities between the two countries become clearer. In particular, Abdurrahman Khan’s efforts toward modernization and the methods he implemented in this regard are remarkable. Abdurrahman Khan had taken the system implemented by the Ottoman Empire as an example for modernizing his country and did not hesitate to express this. In this context, by taking the balance policy implemented by Abdul Hamid II had implemented and adapting it to Afghanistan, Abdurrahman Khan pursued an effective policy against great powers such as Britain and Russia.

The main goal of this study is to imagine the region from the perspective of Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp, who discussed Afghanistan through different perspectives. This is because based on Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s explanations, the information about Afghanistan and Afghan society in Ottoman society is understood to have been in sufficient. Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp thought that his work could be used to eleminate the lack of information about Afghanistan in Ottoman society. In this regard, he often emphasized the similarities between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan. First of all, Islam is the most important value that connects the two countries. However, the fact that Afghanistan and the Ottoman Empire were stuck between powers such as Britain and Russia prevented any effective policy between the two countries. 


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APA

Keskin, C. (2024). Travel in Afghanistan and Similarities Between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan in Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s Work Called “Tarihce-i Afghanistan’’. Journal of Oriental Studies, 0(44), 73-100. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1402030


AMA

Keskin C. Travel in Afghanistan and Similarities Between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan in Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s Work Called “Tarihce-i Afghanistan’’. Journal of Oriental Studies. 2024;0(44):73-100. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1402030


ABNT

Keskin, C. Travel in Afghanistan and Similarities Between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan in Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s Work Called “Tarihce-i Afghanistan’’. Journal of Oriental Studies, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 44, p. 73-100, 2024.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Keskin, Cengiz,. 2024. “Travel in Afghanistan and Similarities Between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan in Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s Work Called “Tarihce-i Afghanistan’’.” Journal of Oriental Studies 0, no. 44: 73-100. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1402030


Chicago: Humanities Style

Keskin, Cengiz,. Travel in Afghanistan and Similarities Between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan in Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s Work Called “Tarihce-i Afghanistan’’.” Journal of Oriental Studies 0, no. 44 (May. 2024): 73-100. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1402030


Harvard: Australian Style

Keskin, C 2024, 'Travel in Afghanistan and Similarities Between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan in Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s Work Called “Tarihce-i Afghanistan’’', Journal of Oriental Studies, vol. 0, no. 44, pp. 73-100, viewed 18 May. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1402030


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Keskin, C. (2024) ‘Travel in Afghanistan and Similarities Between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan in Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s Work Called “Tarihce-i Afghanistan’’’, Journal of Oriental Studies, 0(44), pp. 73-100. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1402030 (18 May. 2024).


MLA

Keskin, Cengiz,. Travel in Afghanistan and Similarities Between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan in Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s Work Called “Tarihce-i Afghanistan’’.” Journal of Oriental Studies, vol. 0, no. 44, 2024, pp. 73-100. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1402030


Vancouver

Keskin C. Travel in Afghanistan and Similarities Between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan in Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s Work Called “Tarihce-i Afghanistan’’. Journal of Oriental Studies [Internet]. 18 May. 2024 [cited 18 May. 2024];0(44):73-100. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1402030 doi: 10.26650/jos.1402030


ISNAD

Keskin, Cengiz. Travel in Afghanistan and Similarities Between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan in Yenişehirlizade Halid Eyüp’s Work Called “Tarihce-i Afghanistan’’”. Journal of Oriental Studies 0/44 (May. 2024): 73-100. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1402030



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Submitted08.12.2023
Accepted30.01.2024
Published Online30.04.2024

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