Algeria - France Relations in the Perspective of Financial HistoryÖzgenur Özyalçın
Algeria is the largest country in Africa by surface area and has important Mediterranean ports and extremely rich natural resources. Its geopolitical location and strength of resource have made Algeria the cradle of different cultures and civilizations throughout history. The French occupation left bloody traces on the political and financial history of the country, and The French influence is still observable today in many areas, especially in the culture, language, and political structuring. Therefore, the history of the country and the people’s spirit of freedom need to be examined in order to Algeria’s current fiscal system. After the Algerian War of Independence, The Algerian State declared the goal of “developing the country by making it an industrial country by making maximum use of its natural resources and raising the welfare and cultural level of the people in this way”. (Erinç, 1993, s. 494-497) This aim indicates that the utilization of the country’s resources has been seriously delayed. All foreign-owned companies, industrial facilities, businesses, and agricultural areas had been nationalized for this purpose, and all economic and social planning and foreign trade, major industrial facilities, banks, credit institutions, transportation, communication equipment, and economic sectors are entirely under the control of the State of Algeria. Past experiences that had made Algeria’s national identity invisible have laid the groundwork for conservative policies nowadays in favor of state control.
Tarihi ve İktisadi Açılardan Cezayir - Fransa İlişkileriÖzgenur Özyalçın
Yüz ölçümü itibariyle Afrika’nın en büyük ülkesi olan Cezayir, önemli Akdeniz limanlarına ve son derece zengin doğal kaynaklara sahiptir. Jeopolitik konumu ve kaynak gücü Cezayir’i tarih sahnesinde birbirinden farklı kültür ve uygarlıkların beşiği kılmıştır. Yaklaşık 132 yıl süren Fransız işgalinin ise Cezayir’in gerek siyasi gerek mali tarihinde kanlı izler bıraktığı açıktır. Bugün hala kültür, dil ve siyasi yapılanma başta olmak üzere pek çok alanda Fransız etkisi gözlemlenebilmektedir. Dolayısıyla Cezayir’in mevcut mali düzenini anlayabilmek için ülke tarihinin ve halkın sahip olduğu özgürlük ruhunun mercek altına alınması gereği hasıl olmuştur. Nitekim Cezayir Bağımsızlık Savaşı’nı takip eden süreçte devlet tarafından ilan edilen “ülkeyi sahip olduğu tabii zenginliklerden azami ölçüde faydalanarak bir sanayi ülkesi haline getirmek suretiyle kalkındırmak ve halkın refah ve kültür seviyesini bu yolla yükseltmek” hedefi ülkenin öz kaynaklarından yararlanılmasının ne kadar geciktirildiğine işaret etmektedir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda yabancılara ait bütün şirketler, sanayi tesisleri, işletmeler ve tarım alanları millîleştirilmiştir. Cezayir’de iktisadî ve sosyal alandaki bütün planlamalar ve dış ticaret, bütün büyük sanayi tesisleri, bankalar, kredi kurumları, ulaşım, iletişim araç ve gereçleri gibi ekonominin her sektörü tamamıyla devletin elindedir. Ulus kimliğini görünmez kılan geçmiş acı tecrübeler, günümüzde devlet kontrolünün lehine uygulanan muhafazakar politikalara zemin hazırlamıştır.
Algeria is a North African country and geographically is considered among the Maghreb countries, which cover west of Egypt and north of the Sahara Desert. The country’s northern border lies on the Mediterranean coast, and its southern border lies within the Sahara Desert. Geographically, Algeria is the largest country in the African continent, covering an area of 2,381,741 sq. The country’s border neighbors are Tunisia to the northeast, Libya to the east, Niger to the southeast, Mauritania and Mali to the southwest, and Morocco and Western Sahara to the west. Algeria has important ports in the Mediterranean, as well as rich natural resources, especially in the south. For this reason, Algeria has been a frequent destination for many civilizations, as well as competition to states that want to establish sovereignty in the region. Two sovereignties that have left their mark in shaping Algeria’s history and culture are the Ottoman Empire and France. Algeria continued to exist as an Ottoman province for more than three centuries, starting with its attachment to the Ottoman Empire through Ottoman pirates in 1516 and the French occupation in 1830, up until the Ottoman Empire officially renounced its rights over Algeria in 1847. James McDougall (2017) compiled the way different historical sources had addressed Ottoman sovereignty in the region in his work A History of Algeria, published by Cambridge University. According to this book, some history books mostly belonging to French authors had classified the Ottoman rule in Algeria as antiquated stereotypes of piracy, white slavery, and despotism. One should keep in mind that historiography shows Turkish to have not become an official language during the Ottoman rule in the region for more than three centuries, not until the people asked for help from the Ottoman Empire against the Spanish occupation, when Algeria became an Ottoman governorship with the consent of the people. Algeria was exposed to intense French imperialism in all social and political fields, especially regarding economy and language. This period lasted for 132 years, starting with the French occupation in 1830 until gaining its independence in 1962 with a bloody struggle. The Algerian people never gave up on the idea of independence. Inadequate coordination between rebel organizations can be cited among the reasons why internal revolts had failed to succeed. France’s attitude toward popular uprisings had been to increase the inhumane violence and restrictions on social rights. After Algeria’s independence, remarkable progress was made economically through the plans made to diversify economic activities on a sectoral basis. French influence still exists in the country, especially on language and state organization. After the Algerian War of Independence, the Algerian state declared the goal of “developing the country by making it an industrial country by making maximum use of its natural resources and raising the welfare and cultural level of the people in this way.” For this purpose, all foreignowned companies, industrial facilities, businesses, and agricultural areas were nationalized. All economic and social planning and foreign trade, major industrial facilities, banks, credit institutions, transportation, and communication equipment, and all economic sectors are entirely under the control of the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria. The past experiences that had made a national identity invisible have laid the groundwork for conservative policies nowadays in favor of state control. This article aims to cover the French influence over Algeria’s financial history. In this context, the paper will first examine the political, geographical, mineralogical, and economic characteristics of the country and then present the peoples and sovereignty the region has hosted throughout its history, as well as their interactions with Algeria and Algerians. Recognizing the strategic location of the region and its resources is important for understanding the path to French imperialism.