Research Article


DOI :10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063   IUP :10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063    Full Text (PDF)

Türkiye’s Policy towards Syrian Asylum Seekers in Light of the Normative Power of the European Union and Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberal Democracy

Özgür Üzelakçil

This study analyses Türkiye’s policy towards Syrian asylum seekers in light of the normative power of the European Union (EU) and Carl Schmitt’s critique of liberal democracy. The article hypothesises that Türkiye, under the influence of the EU’s normative power, prioritised the collectivist discourse in its Syrian asylum seeker policy, pushing universal principles to the background, and finally politicising and bringing them to the bargaining process. This hypothesis was tested, using a qualitative research design, with semi-structured interviews conducted with officials from the Türkiye Red Crescent (TRCO), the Presidency of Migration Management Officer (PMMO), and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Türkiye (MFAO). Furthermore, data was collected through a quantitative survey with non-random sampling from 390 Turkish citizens who were affected by these policies, residing in the Istanbul/Fatih, Mersin/Mezitli, and Kilis city centres, to determine their perceptions. The data shows that Schmitt’s concerns about liberal democracy are reflected in EUoriented Türkiye’s asylum seeker policies. The conflict between the legal texts covering universal human rights and the national interests of EU Members and Türkiye should only be resolved by harmonized universal principles and collectivist consent.

DOI :10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063   IUP :10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063    Full Text (PDF)

Avrupa Birliği’nin Normatif Gücü ve Carl Schmitt’in Liberal Demokrasi Eleştirisi Işığında Türkiye’nin Suriyeli Sığınmacılara Yönelik Politikası

Özgür Üzelakçil

Bu çalışma, Avrupa Birliği’nin (AB) normatif gücü ve Carl Schmitt’in liberal demokrasi eleştirisi ışığında Türkiye’nin Suriyeli sığınmacılara yönelik politikasını analiz etmektedir. Makalenin hipotezi, AB’nin normatif gücünün etkisiyle Türkiye’nin Suriyeli sığınmacı politikasında kolektivist söylemi ön planda tutarak evrensel ilkeleri geri plana ittiği ve son olarak bunları siyasallaştırıp pazarlık sürecine soktuğu yönündedir. Bu iddiayı test etmek amacıyla Türk Kızılayı, Göç İdaresi Müdürlüğü ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Dışişleri Bakanlığı yetkilileriyle nitel bir araştırma yöntemi olan yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Ayrıca İstanbul/Fatih, Mersin/Mezitli ve Kilis il merkezlerinde ikamet eden ve bu politikalardan etkilenen, tesadüfî olmayan örnekleme yoluyla seçilen 390 Türk vatandaşından algılarını belirlemek amacıyla nicel bir anket yoluyla veriler toplanmıştır. Veriler, Schmitt’in liberal demokrasiye ilişkin kaygılarının AB odaklı Türkiye’nin sığınmacı politikalarına da yansıdığını gösteriyor. Evrensel insan haklarını kapsayan hukuki metinler ile AB üyelerinin ve Türkiye’nin ulusal çıkarları arasındaki çelişki ancak uyumlaştırılmış evrensel ilkeler ve kolektivist rıza ile çözülebilir.


PDF View

References

  • Abbey, R.,&Charles T. (1996). Communitarianism, Taylor-made: An Interview with Charles Taylor. Australian Institute of Policy and Science, The Australian Quarterly, Autumn, 68(1), 1-10. https://doi. org/10.2307/20634713 google scholar
  • Abdelaaty, L. (2019). Refugees and Guesthood in Turkey. Journal of Refugee Studies, 34(3), 2827-2848. doi:10.1093/jrs/fez097 google scholar
  • “AB’den Akdeniz’de insan kaçakçılarına karşı yeni operasyon” (7 October 2015). BBC News Türkçe. [EU’s new operation against people smugglers in Mediterranean https://www.bbc.com/turkce/ haberler/2015/10/151007_ab_akdeniz_operasyon google scholar
  • Akçapar, Ş. K. (2017). International migration and diplomacy: Challenges and opportunities in the 21st century. Perceptions, 22(4), 1-34. google scholar
  • Akçapar, Ş. K., & Doğuş, Ş. (2018). The politics of Syrian refugees in Turkey: A question of inclusion and exclusion through citizenship. Social Inclusion, 6(1), 176-187. https://doi.org/10.17645/si.v6i1.1323 google scholar
  • Asylum, S. Statement by Erdogan. (03 May 2022). We are in the Preparation of a Project for the Return of 1 Million Syrians. Cumhuriyet. google scholar
  • Bilgin, P. (2022). Security in Crisis? The Cultural Production of the 2015 ‘Mediterranean Immigrant Crisis. Stefania Panebianco (eds.), In Border Crises and Human Mobility in the Mediterranean Global South, (pp. 43-63). Palgrave Macmillan-Cham, doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-90295-7_3. google scholar
  • Biscop, S. (2004). The European Security Strategy and the Neighbourhood Policy: A new starting point for a Euro-Mediterranean security partnership?. In European Neighbourhood Policy: Political, Economic and Social Issues, University of Catania, pp. 25-36. google scholar
  • Börzel, T., & Thomas, R. (2009). Conceptualizing the domestic impact of Europe. Research Gate Publication, p. 1-23. doi: 10.1093/0199252092.003.0003. google scholar
  • Buzan, B. (1991). New patterns of global security in the twenty - first century. Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-, Jul, 67(3), pp. 431-451. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2621945 (Accessed September 2022). google scholar
  • Campbell, B. F., & Nolting Hylke, De S. (2022). Turkey as normative power: Connections with the muslim brotherhood during the arab spring. Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi, 19(74), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.33458/ uidergisi.1113201 google scholar
  • Carrera S., V., Juan, S., & Strik, T. (2019). The external dimensions of EU migration and asylum policies in times of crisis. Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 1-19. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788972482.00007 google scholar
  • Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan. (09 Mayıs 2022). President Erdoğan: We will never expel Syrians who take refuge in our country. BBC News Türkçe, https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler-turkiye-61381855. google scholar
  • Düvell, F. (2018). From migration transition to integration challenge. New Perspectives on Turkey and Cambridge University Press, No: 58, 179-200. google scholar
  • Directive 2013/32/EU, 26 June 2013 Commen prosedures for granting and withdrawing international protection. www.//data.europe.eu/eli/dir/2013/32/aj. google scholar
  • ECtHR - Hirsi Jamaa and Others v Italy [GC], Application No. 27765/09, https://www.asylumlawdatabase.eu/ en/content/ecthr-hirsi-jamaa-and-others-v-italy-gc-application-no-2776509 google scholar
  • Ejdus, F. (2009). Dangerous Liaisons: Securitization Theory and Schmittian Legacy. Miroslav Hadzic (eds.), This Issue's Theme: Carl Schmitt and Copenhagen School of Security Studies, (pp. 9-16). Western Balkans Security Observer, Journal of the Belgrade School of Security Studies, Belgrad, Centre for Civil-Military Relations, Year 4, no. 13, April-June. google scholar
  • Erdoğan, M. (2020). Suriyeliler Barometresi 2019: Suriyelilerle Uyum İçinde Yaşamın Çerçevesi. [Syrians Barometer 2019: The Framework of Life in Harmony with Syrians]. Ankara, Orion Kitabevi. google scholar
  • European Commission (29 May 2019). Commission staff working document: Turkey 2019 Report. Brussel. google scholar
  • European Court of Auditors. (2018). The Facility for Refugees in Turkey: Helpful Support, But Improvements Needed to Deliver More Value for Money. Report no: 27, https://www.eca.europe.eu/Lists/ECADocuments/ SR18_27/SR_TRF_EN.pdf google scholar
  • Fontana, I. (2022). The EU and the politics of migration in the mediterranean: From crisis management to management in crisis. Stefania Panebianco (eds.), In Border Crises and Human Mobility in the Mediterranean Global South, (pp. 91-118). Palgrave Macmillan-Cham, doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-90295-7_5 google scholar
  • Fouskas, K, V., Gökay, B., & Vankovska, B. (2020). Special issue: Crises in The Eastern Mediterranean and Covid-19”, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 22(3), pp. 295-305. doi: 10.1080/19448953.2020.1755154 google scholar
  • Grey, C. (2017). Refugee Law and Its Corruptions. Canadian Journal of Law&Jurisprudence, August, 30(2), 339-362. doi.org/10.1017/cjlj.2017.16. google scholar
  • Heinrich Böll Stiftung Derneği/Türkiye. (2019). Türkiye’deki Sığınma Mevzuatı ve Politikalarına İlişkin Rapor. https://tr.boell.org/sites/default/files/2019-12/ASYLUM%20TR-S.pdf google scholar
  • Hutter, S., & Hanspeter, K. (2021). Politicising Immigration in Times of Crisis. Journal ofEthnic and Migration Studies, 1-25. Doi: 10.1080/1369183X.2020.1853902 google scholar
  • Innes, J. A. (2021). Banal bordering: Everyday Encounters Between Migrants And Security Officers”, Migration Studies, 9(3), 968-988. doi:10.1093/migration/mnab002 google scholar
  • İçduygu, A. (2011). Europe, Turkey and international migration: An uneasy negotiation. Presentation at the Migration Working Group, European University Institute, 1-25. google scholar
  • İçduygu, A., & Doğuş, Ş. (2016). Syrian refugees in Turkey: Towards integration policies. Turkish Policy Quarterly, 15(3), 59-69. google scholar
  • İçduygu, A. (2017). Türkiye’deki Suriyeli Sığınmacılar: “Siyasallaşan” bir sürecin analizi. [Syrian Asylum Seekers in Turkey: Analysis of a” Politicised “Process]. Toplum ve Bilim, 140, pp. 27-41. google scholar
  • Katharine, G., & Donald, M. (2006). Ethics and exclusion: representations of sovereignty in Australia’s approach to asylum-seekers. Review of International Studies, April, 32(2), pp.269-289. doi.org/10.1017/ S0260210506007029. google scholar
  • Kassam, A. (2024, 17 January). Greece found to have violated Syrian refugee’s right to life by firing on vessel. The Guardian. google scholar
  • Kymlicka, W. (1988). Liberalism and communitarianism., Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Jun, 18(2), p. 181. google scholar
  • Lang, G. I. (2018). The European Union and migration: An interplay of national, regional, and international law. Symposium on Framing Global Migration Law Part III, AJIL, 111, 509-513. doi.org/10.1017/aju.2018.4 google scholar
  • Lavenex, S. (2020). Justice and home affairs. Exposing the limits of political ıntegration. In: Wallace, H. et al. (eds.), Policy-Making in the European Union, p. 344-361. Oxford University Press, 2020. https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:158764 (Accessed January 2023). google scholar
  • Lavenex, S., & Nicola, P. (2022). Regions and global migration governance: perspectives ‘from above’,‘from below’and ‘from beyond’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 48(12), 2022, 2837-2854. https://doi.or g/10.1080/1369183X.2021.1972564 google scholar
  • Lazarev, E., & Sharma, K. (2015). Brother or burden: An experiment on reducing prejudice toward Syrian refugees in Turkey. Political Science Research and Methods, 5(2), 201-219. doi.org/10.1017/ psrm.2015.57 google scholar
  • Mann, M., & John, A. H. (2011). Yirmibirinci yüzyılda iktidar [Power in 21st Century]. Trans. Emre Gerçek. İstanbul: Açılım Kitap Yayınları. google scholar
  • Manners, I. (2006). Normative power europe reconsidered: Beyond the crossroads. Journal of European public policy, 13(2), pp. 182-199. google scholar
  • Melin P. (2021). Two years after the adoption of the global compact for migration: Some thoughts on the role played by the EU”, In W. T. Douma, C. Eckes, P. Van Elsuwege, E. Kassoti, A. Ott, & R. A. Wessel (eds.), In The evolving nature of EU external relations law, (pp. 295-314). TMC Asser Press. doi: 10.1007/978-94-6265-423-5_13 google scholar
  • Mouffe C. (1997). Carl Schmitt and the Paradox of Liberal Democracy. Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, January, Vol. X, No. 1, pp. 21-33. google scholar
  • Neuman, W. L. (2014). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Pearson Nex International Edition, Seventh edition. google scholar
  • Official Journal of the European Communities, “Treaty of Lisbon”. 2007/OJ/C, 306/1, http://publications. europa.eu/resource/cellar/688a7a98-3110-4ffe-a6b3-8972d8445325.0007.01/DOC_19. google scholar
  • Okyay, A. S., Lavenex S., Krizic I., & Düzgit S. A. (2020). External differentiation inMigration: Boosting or hollowing out the common EU Policy?, Policy paper: EU Integration and Differentiation for Effectiveness and Accountability, November. google scholar
  • Olsen, P. J. (2002). The Many Faces Of Europeanization. Journal of Common Market Studies, 40(5), pp. 921952. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00403 google scholar
  • Ott, A. (2021). The building blocks and stumbling stones of constructing the European legal space. In W. T. Douma, C. Eckes, P. Van Elsuwege, E. Kassoti, A. Ott, & R. A. Wessel (eds.), In The evolving nature of EU external relations law, pp. 205-229, TMC Asser Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6265-423-5_9 google scholar
  • Pierson, C. (2015). Modern devlet. [Modern state]. N. Kutluğ and B. Erdoğan, Trans. Ankara: Chivi yazıları Yayınevi, 2. Baskı. google scholar
  • Responsibility of States for International Wrongful Acts, https://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/ draft_articles/9_6_2001.pdf google scholar
  • Schmidt, V. A. (2013). Democracy and legitimacy in the european union revisited: Input, output and throughput. Political Studies, 61, pp. 2-22, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.2012.00962.x google scholar
  • Schmitt, C. (1988). The crisis of parliamentary democracy. (E. Kennedy, Trans.). USA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology First Press. google scholar
  • Schmitt, C. (2005). Siyasi ilahiyat: Egemenlik kuramı üzerine dört bölüm [Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Theory of Sovereignty], (E. Zeybekoğlu, Trans.). Ankara, Dost Kitapevi, 2. Baskı. google scholar
  • Schmitt, C. (2007). The age of neutralizations and depoliticizations (1929). (G. Schwab. Trans.). The Concept of the Political. Expanded Edition, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp. 80-126. google scholar
  • Schmitt. C. (2008). Constitutional theory. (Jeffrey Seitzer. Trans and edit.). Durham and London, Duke University Press. google scholar
  • Shutes, I., & Armine I. (2021). Transnational welfare within and beyond the nation-state: Civil society responses to the migration crisis in Greece. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, pp. 1-18. doi: 10.1080/1369183X.2021.1892479 google scholar
  • Smith, M. (2012). Developing administrative principles in the EU: A foundational model of legitimacy?. European Law Journal, 18(2), March, pp. 269-288. google scholar
  • Sjursen, H. (2006). The EU as a ‘Normative’ Power: How Can This Be?”, Journal of European Public Policy, 13(2), 235-251. doi: 10.1080/13501760500451667 google scholar
  • Soifer, H., & Matthias, V. H. (2008). Un packing the strength of the state: The utility of state infrastructural power. Studies in Comparative International Development, 43(3-4), 219-230. doi:10.1007/s12116.008.9030-z google scholar
  • TEU 21(1) Article, “Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union”, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/ treaty/teu_2008/art_21/oj google scholar
  • Thomas, S. (2021). Migration Management Clientelism. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, pp.1-16. doi: 10.1080/1369183X.2021.1972567 google scholar
  • Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanlığı [Presidency of the Republic of Turkey], (17 December 2019). https:// www.tccb.gov.tr/konusmalar/353/113993/kuresel-multeci-forumu-nda-yaptiklarikonusma. google scholar
  • Toğral Koca, B. (2016). Syrian refugees in Turkey: From “guests” to “enemies”?. New Perspectives on Turkey, Cambridge University Press, No: 54, pp. 55-75. doi:10.1017/npt.2016.4 google scholar
  • Treaty on the functioning of the European Union, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/EN/legal-content/summary/treaty-on-the-functioning-of-the-european-union.html google scholar
  • UNHCR. (2017). Legal Considerations on the Return of Asylum Seekers and Refugees from Greece to Turkey as Part of the EU-Turkey Cooperation in Tackling the Migration Crisis under the Safe Third Country and Country of Asylum Concept, International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol. 29, No. 3, 498-508. Doi: 10.1093/ ijrl/eex035 google scholar
  • Üzelakçil, Ö. (2020). Türkiye’de Suriyeli Göçmenlere Yönelik Politikalar: Devlet Kapasitesi Ve Meşruiyet Sorunu (Doktora tezi) [Policies Towards Syrian Immigrants in Turkey: The Problem Of State Capacity And Legitimacy (Doctoral dissertation)]. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Üzelakçil, Ö. (2021). Türkiye’deki Suriyeliler: Devlet Kapasitesi ve Meşruiyet Konusu. [Syrians in Turkey: State Capacity and Legitimacy]. Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi, 9(2), 387-416. doi: 10.14782/marmarasbd.932110 google scholar
  • Vara S., J., & Matellan L. P. (2021). The externalisation of EU migration policies: The implications arising from the transfer of responsibilities to third countries. In W. T. Douma, C. Eckes, P. Van Elsuwege, E. Kassoti, A. Ott, & R. A. Wessel (eds.), In The Evolving Nature of EU External Relations Law, (pp. 315-331). TMC Asser Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6265-423-5_14 google scholar
  • Vinx, L. (2019). Carl Schmitt. Edward N. Zalta (eds.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Fall Edition, Stanford University, USA. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2019/entries/schmitt/ (Accessed 09 January 2022). google scholar
  • Walzer, M. (1990). The communitarian critique of liberalism. Political Theory, Sage Publications, Inc, 18:1, 6-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/009.059.1790018001002 google scholar
  • Wessel, A. R. (2021). The participation of members and non-members in eu foreign, security and defence policy. In W. T. Douma, C. Eckes, P. Van Elsuwege, E. Kassoti, A. Ott, & R. A. Wessel (eds.), The Evolving Nature of EU External Relations Law, (pp. 177-201). TMC Asser Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6265-423-5_8. google scholar
  • W^ver, O. (2011). Politics, security, theory. Security Dialogue, 42 (4-5), pp. 446-480. doi: 10.1177/0967010611418718. google scholar
  • Yabancıların Çalışma izinleri [Work Permits for Foreigners]. 2021. https://www.csgb.gov.tr/media/90062/ yabanciizin2021.pdf. google scholar
  • Yıldız, A. and Elif U. (2016). Limits to temporary protection: Non-camp Syrian refugees in İzmir, Turkey. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 16:2, 195-211. doi.org/10.1080/14683.857.2016.1165492. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Üzelakçil, Ö. (2024). Türkiye’s Policy towards Syrian Asylum Seekers in Light of the Normative Power of the European Union and Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberal Democracy. Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences, 33(1), 55-70. https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063


AMA

Üzelakçil Ö. Türkiye’s Policy towards Syrian Asylum Seekers in Light of the Normative Power of the European Union and Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberal Democracy. Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences. 2024;33(1):55-70. https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063


ABNT

Üzelakçil, Ö. Türkiye’s Policy towards Syrian Asylum Seekers in Light of the Normative Power of the European Union and Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberal Democracy. Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences, [Publisher Location], v. 33, n. 1, p. 55-70, 2024.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Üzelakçil, Özgür,. 2024. “Türkiye’s Policy towards Syrian Asylum Seekers in Light of the Normative Power of the European Union and Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberal Democracy.” Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences 33, no. 1: 55-70. https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063


Chicago: Humanities Style

Üzelakçil, Özgür,. Türkiye’s Policy towards Syrian Asylum Seekers in Light of the Normative Power of the European Union and Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberal Democracy.” Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences 33, no. 1 (Jul. 2024): 55-70. https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063


Harvard: Australian Style

Üzelakçil, Ö 2024, 'Türkiye’s Policy towards Syrian Asylum Seekers in Light of the Normative Power of the European Union and Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberal Democracy', Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 55-70, viewed 25 Jul. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Üzelakçil, Ö. (2024) ‘Türkiye’s Policy towards Syrian Asylum Seekers in Light of the Normative Power of the European Union and Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberal Democracy’, Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences, 33(1), pp. 55-70. https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063 (25 Jul. 2024).


MLA

Üzelakçil, Özgür,. Türkiye’s Policy towards Syrian Asylum Seekers in Light of the Normative Power of the European Union and Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberal Democracy.” Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences, vol. 33, no. 1, 2024, pp. 55-70. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063


Vancouver

Üzelakçil Ö. Türkiye’s Policy towards Syrian Asylum Seekers in Light of the Normative Power of the European Union and Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberal Democracy. Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences [Internet]. 25 Jul. 2024 [cited 25 Jul. 2024];33(1):55-70. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063 doi: 10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063


ISNAD

Üzelakçil, Özgür. Türkiye’s Policy towards Syrian Asylum Seekers in Light of the Normative Power of the European Union and Carl Schmitt’s Critique of Liberal Democracy”. Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences 33/1 (Jul. 2024): 55-70. https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2024.33.1360063



TIMELINE


Submitted14.09.2023
Accepted14.02.2024
Published Online19.04.2024

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.