Research Article


DOI :10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012   IUP :10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012    Full Text (PDF)

Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis

Olugbenga A. OnafoworaOluwole Owoye

This paper investigates the possibility of Granger causality between tourism development and air pollution in twelve Caribbean small island developing states (SIDs) over the period 1995-2017 in a panel-based model that both allows for the assessment of causality in countries with cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity and avoids the problem of incorrect specification associated with conventional panel unit root and cointegration tests. The empirical results indicate bidirectional causality between tourism and air pollution for Barbados, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, St. Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago; unidirectional causality running from tourism to air pollution in Antigua and Barbuda, Cuba, and Guyana; reverse causality from air pollution to tourism in The Bahamas, British Virgin Islands and Haiti, while no causality is found for St. Kitts and Nevis. Our empirical findings provide important policy implications for the Caribbean countries being studied.


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APA

Onafowora, O.A., & Owoye, O. (2020). Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis. Journal of Tourismology, 6(2), 221-239. https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012


AMA

Onafowora O A, Owoye O. Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis. Journal of Tourismology. 2020;6(2):221-239. https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012


ABNT

Onafowora, O.A.; Owoye, O. Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis. Journal of Tourismology, [Publisher Location], v. 6, n. 2, p. 221-239, 2020.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Onafowora, Olugbenga A., and Oluwole Owoye. 2020. “Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis.” Journal of Tourismology 6, no. 2: 221-239. https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012


Chicago: Humanities Style

Onafowora, Olugbenga A., and Oluwole Owoye. Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis.” Journal of Tourismology 6, no. 2 (Feb. 2021): 221-239. https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012


Harvard: Australian Style

Onafowora, OA & Owoye, O 2020, 'Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis', Journal of Tourismology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 221-239, viewed 24 Feb. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Onafowora, O.A. and Owoye, O. (2020) ‘Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis’, Journal of Tourismology, 6(2), pp. 221-239. https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012 (24 Feb. 2021).


MLA

Onafowora, Olugbenga A., and Oluwole Owoye. Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis.” Journal of Tourismology, vol. 6, no. 2, 2020, pp. 221-239. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012


Vancouver

Onafowora OA, Owoye O. Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis. Journal of Tourismology [Internet]. 24 Feb. 2021 [cited 24 Feb. 2021];6(2):221-239. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012 doi: 10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012


ISNAD

Onafowora, OlugbengaA. - Owoye, Oluwole. Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis”. Journal of Tourismology 6/2 (Feb. 2021): 221-239. https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012



TIMELINE


Submitted17.07.2020
Accepted16.09.2020
Published Online27.12.2020

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