Investigating Smart Parcel Locker System s in the Framework of Planned Behavior Theory: A Study of Electronic Last Mile Delivery Processes on E-Commerce PlatformsYavuz Toraman
As digitalization touches human life at many different points, consumers’ perceptions toward innovations have been a matter of curiosity for experts. In this context, examining the factors affecting consumer acceptance of new technologies constitute the main problem of the research. The study uses planned behavior theory (PBT), which is suitable for the purpose of the research and has been frequently mentioned in the literature. The study also uses structural equation modeling due to the presence of more than one relationship in the PBT model. The study uses the program SmartPLS 3, which has also been frequently used for structural equation modeling in the literature. The results from the reliability and validity analyses of the study data were found to be within accepted values, and thus the SmartPLS 3 path analysis was conducted. The study accepted all its hypotheses except for the H4. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) variable could not provide reliable data regarding the additional questions included in the study because less than 30% of the participants used locker technology. Because a sufficient number of smart parcel locker users could not be reached and the obtained R² value was 0.122, the research focused on explaining user intent rather than behavior. The fact that PBC affects both intention and behavior indirectly reveal a result to have been obtained that is parallel to the literature. However, with the accelerated use of technology and the spread of parcel lockers to a wider area, the rate of smart parcel locker technology usage in last mile delivery will increase. By benefitting from technology, this study predicts that the last mile delivery process with parcel lockers will be called electronic last mile delivery.
Planlı Davranış Teorisi Çerçevesinde Kargo Otomat (Kargomat) Sisteminin İncelenmesi: Elektronik Son Adım Teslimat Süreçlerinin E-Ticaret Platformları Özelinde AraştırılmasıYavuz Toraman
Dijitalleşmenin insan hayatına çok farklı noktalarda temas etmesiyle yeniliklerin tüketiciler tarafından algılanması uzmanlar tarafından süreç içerisinde merak konusu olmuştur. Bu bağlamda tüketicilerin yeni teknolojileri kabulünü etkileyen faktörlerin incelenmesi araştırmanın temel problemini oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada araştırmanın amacına uygun ve literatürde de sıkça değinilen Planlı Davranış Teorisi (PDT) kullanılmıştır. PDT modelinde birden çok ilişki söz konusu olduğundan çalışmada literatüre uygun olarak yapısal eşitlik modellemesi kullanılmıştır. Ayrıca yapısal eşitlik modellemelerinde sıkça kullanılan Smart PLS 3 programı kullanılmıştır. Çalışma verilerinin güvenilirlik ve geçerlilik analizleri sonuçları kabul edilen değerler aralıklarda bulunmasıyla Smart PLS 3 programı yol analizi yapılmıştır. Çalışmaya ait H4 hipotezi reddedilirken diğerleri kabul edilmiştir. H8 hipotezinde ise negatif diğerlerinde ise pozitif bir etki tespit edilmiştir. Çalışmaya dahil edilen ek sorularda katılımcıların %30’undan azı kargomat teknolojisini kullanmadığından dolayı Algılanan Davranışsal Kontrol (ADK) değişkeni sağlıklı bir şekilde veri sağlayamamıştır. Yeterli sayıda aktif kargomat kullanıcısına ulaşılamadığı ve R² değeri 0.122 olarak elde edildiği için araştırmada davranıştan ziyade kullanıcı niyetinin açıklanmasına odaklanılmıştır. ADK’nın niyeti dolaylı olarak hem niyeti hem de davranışı etkilemesi literatüre paralel bir sonuç elde edildiğini göstermektedir. Fakat teknoloji kullanımının tabana yayılımının hızlanmasıyla birlikte kargomatlar fiziksel olarak geniş bir alana yayılmasıyla kargomat teknolojisi son adım teslimatındaki kullanım oranı artacaktır. Kargomatlar son adım teslimatı sürecinde elektronik son adım teslimatı adıyla alt başlık açabileceği öngörülmektedir.
As technological developments continue, new technologies enter human life every day. The technological changes and develops that closely impact human life have been a subject of curiosity for experts. Many studies have also been carried out in academia on this field. The theory of reasoned action (TRA) has been handled by social psychologists for use as a steppingstone in understanding human behavior. This study will examine the acceptance of new technologies in particular within the framework of planned behavior theory (PBT) as a modernized variation of TRA. PBT argues that the relationship among perceived behavioral control, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms affects behavior by way of intention (Ajzen, 1991), and the current study uses this original model of PBT.
Digitalization has touched humanity at many different points, during which consumer perceptions of innovations have been a matter of curiosity for experts. Examining the factors affecting consumer acceptance of new technologies in this context constitutes the main problem of the research.
This research examines smart parcel locker systems that are offered to consumers. Smart parcel lockers are a form of last mile delivery, and the thought is that it will be called e-last mile delivery in the future. Smart parcel locker technology involves machines that deliver cargo and allow products consumers to have purchased to be received 24/7 without the need for a third party. It is a delivery method that is often used in place of traditional last mile delivery methods with regard to product delivery in e-commerce platforms. Smart parcel lockers deliver products by automatically opening the panel of the closed compartment in which the product has been placed once the final consumer enters the password the retailer or e-commerce platform has given them. By using the code, the e-commerce platform has sent, consumers will be able to receive their product contact free.
Smart parcel lockers in this context are becoming a part of the shopping experience of consumers on electronic platforms due to the increased number of users and usage areas in the future. This study analyzes the factors affecting consumers’ attitudes, intentions, and behaviors of consumers toward smart parcel locker usage within the framework of PBT.
In accordance with the subject and content of the study, the main body of the research consists of people who use smart devices. Individuals at least 18 years of age were included in the main population of the study. Due to the density of electronic commerce platforms and electronic commerce being specific to the province of Istanbul, the study has limited itself to being conducted in Istanbul Province.
The sample of the study were selected using convenience sampling, a non-random sampling method in which only accessible users are included in the research (Kurtuluş, 2010).
The study has 165 participants. Upon examining the questionnaires in detail, those that were not suitable for analysis were disregarded, and thus the research analysis was carried out with the available data from 149 people. The prepared research questionnaire was applied online between August 15 and September 4, 2021, using Google Forms.
This research has also examined the various studies that have been conducted in the literature within the scope of PBT, using structural equation modeling (SEM) in parallel with the literature to observe the complex relationship between the dependent and independent variables more clearly (Hair et al., 2010).
Factor loadings, composite reliabilities, averages, and Cronbach’s alpha values for the variables of the study were observed to be within their expected ranges. The path analysis was performed using the program SmartPLS 3.
As a result of the analysis, consumers’ intentions, and behaviors toward using parcel lockers were observed to be affected by their attitudes and subjective norms. The study accepted all the hypotheses except for H4.
The literature contains few studies that have examined the factors affecting the user acceptance of smart parcel lockers, which is a new technology within the framework of PBT. As smart parcel locker usage increases, studies on this subject are expected to increase.