Kumru as a Subject of PassionAyşe Eziler Kıran
In this study, Kumru, the heroine in Tahsin Yücel’s Kumru ile Kumru (Kumru and Kumru) and the objects that guide her life are analyzed from a semiotics aspect. However, the study is limited to subject-object relations and subject types. The analysis starts with the presentation of methods and the terms of the second order language. The subject is an agent who has a will and consciousness and carries human features while the object is the concrete or abstract unit that the subject impels one’s consciousness with. After presenting theoretical information about value object and information object, two types of subjects were identified: one who does not have a will thus does not have subject quality, and one who has a will thus has subject quality. The subjects in the second group are divided into four subcategories based on their relationships with the objects: empty subject, request subject, knowledge subject, and separation subject. If the subject in this location depends on a stronger sender, they are defined as dependent, if not they are defined as independent (autonomous) subjects. While Kumru did not carry the subject features at first, after being the dependent empty subject, dependent request subject, independent request subject positions respectively and returning to the starting state, losing both her will, her objects, and features of being a subject. Since Kumru is not associated with knowledge, Kumru never comes into the subject of knowledge and separation. The value objects in the novel include underwear, refrigerators, televisions, and cars that can be consumed and lose value over time. Each object converts, strengthens, then depresses Kumru. According to Kumru, when human relationships are correlated to objects, if objects have no value, humans do not have value.
Bir Tutku Öznesi Olarak KumruAyşe Eziler Kıran
Bu çalışmada Tahsin Yücel’in Kumru ile Kumru başlıklı romanının baş kahramanı özne Kumru ve onun yaşamını yönlendiren nesneler göstergebilimsel açıdan çözümlenmeye çalışılacaktır. Bu bağlamda, çalışma özne nesne ilişkileri ve özne tipleri ile sınırlandırılmıştır. Çözümleme, kullanılan yöntemin ve üst dil terimlerinin sunulmasıyla başlatılmıştır. Özne, iradesi ve bilinci olan insan özelliği taşıyan eyleyendir; nesne ise öznenin bilincini yönelttiği somut ya da soyut bütünlüktür. Değer nesnesi ve bilgi nesnesi konusunda kuramsal bilgiler verildikten sonra, önce iradesizlik nedeniyle özne özelliği taşımayan, sonra da iradeli olmasıyla özne özelliği taşıyan iki tür özne tanıtılmıştır. Sonra da ikinci gruptaki özneler nesneleriyle ilişkilerine göre, dört ulam içinde örneklendirilmiştir: Boş özne, istek öznesi, bilgi öznesi ve ayrılık öznesi. Bu konumdaki özneler kendilerinden güçlü bir gönderene bağımlı iseler bağımlı, değillerse bağımsız (özerk) özneler olarak tanımlanırlar. Kumru önce özne özelliği taşımazken, sırasıyla Bağımlı Boş Özne, Bağımlı İstek Öznesi, Bağımsız İstek Öznesi konumlarına geldikten sonra başlangıç durumuna dönerek hem iradesini, hem nesnelerini hem de özne özelliğini yitirir. Kumru, bilgi ile ilişki kurmadığı için hiçbir zaman bilgi ve ayrılık öznesi konumlarına gelmez. Romandaki değer nesnelerinin tümü tüketilebilen, zamanla değerini yitiren iç çamaşırı, buzdolabı, televizyon ve otomobildir. Her nesne önce Kumru’yu dönüştürür, güçlendirir, sonra bunalıma sokar. Kumru’ya göre insan ilişkileri nesnelerle bağıntılı olduğunda, nesnelerin değeri yoksa insanın da değeri yoktur.
This study aims to analyze the protagonist of the novel titled Kumru ile Kumru by Tahsin Yücel from a semiotics perspective. However, the research is limited to subjectobject relations and subject types.
In the narration, Kumru is not defined by subject features because she cannot have a will on anything until she is married. When she realizes that she does not want the person she is married to, she realizes her will. Kumru, who went from her father’s rule to her husband’s rule, and became a dependent empty subject. As dowry, she requests private objects: by obtaining ten new underwear, she also obtains her position on the dependent request subject of her own volition. Kumru comes to İstanbul as an empty subject. With her husband’s imposition, she starts to go to other’s people houses as a cleaner with the dependent request subject and she sees other people, other objects, and special areas. Kumru is affected by only Mrs. Tuna and her refrigerator. The purpose of achieving the value object that turns into a passion changes her. With the placement of the refrigerator in the concierge’s apartment in the basement, Kumru’s object moved from confidential space to private space. Even if it is not mutual, Pehlivan gradually falls in love with his wife and his dominance over his wife is lifted. Thus, the positions changed to the dominant independent request subject, which increasingly feels free, becomes Kumru. The one who is dominated becomes her husband who also becomes the dependent request subject. Kumru is far removed from her husband’s feelings and thoughts that made her the empty subject. Kumru, inadvertently objectifies and devalues her husband whom she considers an empty subject, by comparing her husband to the refrigerator which she is now starting to lose her attention in. Pehlivan’s unexpected rise is embodied by the move from their concierge apartment in the basement to the apartment overlooking the Bosporus. This spatial vertical rise seems to be a symbol of the transition from poverty to wealth, from cleaner to the lady.
This sudden change in the life of Pehlivan and Kumru leads to increasingly hostile actions from the doormen and their spouses in the neighborhood. Even though when she was the concierge’s wife, she was always an outsider in that world, Kumru increasingly feels lonely and cuts off from that world.
The television eventually transforms her once again, giving Kumru two new objects to reach. She learns how to read and write first as she cannot use this tool as an information object because she does not understand what she reads. It is the first time that she realizes ignorance has made her a dependent request subject. Kumru is a Dependent Separation Subject in terms of the information object. Her second object is the car. Kumru, who never loses the feature to become an Independent Request Subject, becomes the owner of the car without any effort, without dreaming too much, and also learns how to drive. Unlike confidential and private space objects, the car is seen on the street where those who are hostile to them live. Pehlivan is killed by doormen and children whose hostility rose after the violent behavior of Pehlivan.
She lost her last object when she lost Pehlivan, who had been with him since she got married, It is like that he seemed to be there, his existence came naturally. She loses her subject position once again because there is no value object left to replace her husband. The fact that she constantly mixes the truth with the dream, and her consciousness cannot turn to a particular object shows that Kumru is no longer in the subject position. Without being able to perceive danger like she will in a dream, she steps on the gas pedal and falls from the sky to the creek at a terrible speed.
Kumru ile Kumru is a sad story of a young woman whose will made her subject but could exist with value objects. She is a person without a life and whose life process is composed of step-by-step objects for her. The Request Subject Kumru’s relationship with objects always fits the same line: dreaming, persuading her husband, getting bored, being depressed, turning to a new value object. Kumru as a desire subject, never desires knowledge. Kumru as an acquirer of value objects always becomes stronger, always transforms. But when Pehlivan, the dependent request subject that allows her to obtain these objects, disappears, Kumru enters the process of extinction. She only recognizes the existence of her objectified husband, who has always been there for her. She is not able to find an object to replace him, and has no will, desire, knowledge, or power anymore.