Research Article


EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA

Leman Gürlek

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EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA

Leman Gürlek

XX. Yüzyıl, Latin Amerika’da özellikle de Meksika’da, modernizasyon sürecinin yükselişiyle başlar ve sanayinin ilerlemesiyle devam eder. Meksika, özellikle de başkent, yoğun göç akışı sonucunda hızla kentleşir. Ulaşım ve iletişim imkanları mesafeleri birbirlerine yaklaştrırken hükümetin ülkeyi denetlemesini kolaylaştırır. Büyük mesafeler demiryolu ağlarıyla küçülür. Meksika Devrimi üstüne yazılan romanların ortaya çıkışı bu modern döneme rastlar. Bu romanlar, ülkedeki derin toplumsal, ekonomik ve kültürel gelişimi en iyi ortaya koyan kaynaklardır. Mariano Azuela romanları bu bağlamda ele alınması gereken eserlerdir. Yazarın romanlarında, demiryolu, sembolik bağlamda ülkenin gerilemesinin veya ilerlemesinin göstergesi olarak yer alır.

Bu çalışmanın amacı, Mariano Azuela romanlarında demiryolu simgesinin, gerek ulaşım aracı ve/veya uygarlaşmanın aracısı olarak ülkenin gelişiminin veya gerilemesinin üstündeki etkisini çözümlemektir. Uygarlaşmanın aracısı olan demiryolu, Meksika kentlerinde yaşanan toplumsal değişim aracılığıyla bir dizi dönüşüm meydana getirir. Azuela romanlarında demiryolu simgesi, olay örgüsünde sahne/uzam bağlamında temel ögedir. Çoğu zaman orta-alt sınıfla ilintili olan trene, roman başkişisinin bir yerden bir yere hızla kaçmasına olanak sağlayan olumsuz özellikler yüklenir. Öte yandan, tren usul usul romanda “edebi kişiye” dönüşür ve bir yandan gözlemci özelliği taşırken, öte yandan roman başkişisinin yanında ayrılmaz bir karaktere olarak yer alır. Bir yerden ötekine yol alma sürecinde tren düşünceleri, eylemleri,söyleşileri paylaşır ve Meksika toplumunun gelişimisürecinde orta sınıfın eşlikçisine dönüşür

EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA

Leman Gürlek

The twentieth century begins in Latin America, and specifically in Mexico, with modernization at its peak which supposes an incipient industrial growth. The impressive migratory flow strengthens the fast urbanisation of the country, especially in Mexico City. The transportation and communication reduce the distance and help the governmental control on the whole country. The large extensions are reduced by use of trains. The novel of the Mexican Revolution, that was representing in the best way the profound social, economic and cultural transformation, appeared in this modern world. This is the case of Mariano Azuela novels, in which the train appears many times as a symbolic consequence of the progress and set back of the country.

The following study aims to analyse the influence of the train in the works of Mariano Azuela, as a way of transportation and/or as a civilizing agent which supposes a series of transformations by means of the social change that the big cities of Mexico suffer. The train in the works of Azuela is a fundamental element in the scene/space of the plot. The train, that most of the times is in relation with the middle- lower social class, has been attributed negative characteristics that make possible the fast escape of the protagonist from one place to another. On the other hand, we observe that the train turns little by little in a “literary character” that is observer and an inseparable “character” by the side of the protagonist. In other words, the train shares thoughts, actions and conversations which take place during the trajectory from one place to another and turns into a companion of the middle class during the progress of the Mexican society


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APA

Gürlek, L. (2013). EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA. Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, 26(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/null


AMA

Gürlek L. EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA. Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies. 2013;26(1):1-15. https://doi.org/null


ABNT

Gürlek, L. EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA. Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, [Publisher Location], v. 26, n. 1, p. 1-15, 2013.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Gürlek, Leman,. 2013. “EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA.” Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies 26, no. 1: 1-15. https://doi.org/null


Chicago: Humanities Style

Gürlek, Leman,. EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA.” Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies 26, no. 1 (Jan. 2021): 1-15. https://doi.org/null


Harvard: Australian Style

Gürlek, L 2013, 'EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA', Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1-15, viewed 17 Jan. 2021, https://doi.org/null


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Gürlek, L. (2013) ‘EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA’, Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, 26(1), pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/null (17 Jan. 2021).


MLA

Gürlek, Leman,. EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA.” Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, vol. 26, no. 1, 2013, pp. 1-15. [Database Container], https://doi.org/null


Vancouver

Gürlek L. EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA. Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies [Internet]. 17 Jan. 2021 [cited 17 Jan. 2021];26(1):1-15. Available from: https://doi.org/null doi: null


ISNAD

Gürlek, Leman. EL TREN COMO SÍMBOLO DE PROGRESO/RETROCESO EN LAS OBRAS DE MARIANO AZUELA”. Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies 26/1 (Jan. 2021): 1-15. https://doi.org/null


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Published Online01.06.2013

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