The Impact of the Teacher’s Assessments on Learning in French Class in Ivory CoastJean Claude David Kouadıo, Stanislas Kouassı
The teacher is an important actor in teaching-learning situations. It is the teacher who defines the objectives of the course, implements strategies to achieve them, and initiates and organizes teaching situations. It is also the teacher who chooses the tools needed to achieve the initial objective, identifies and explains the problem to be solved, explains the activity, gives instructions and organizes exchanges. The teacher is also the one who validates or invalidates the students’ proposals and evaluates what they have learned. In his activity, he is led to appreciate the work of the pupils. This facet of the teacher’s activity is the subject of this study, which aims to report on the impact of the assessments made by teachers in Côte d’Ivoire on their pupils. Analysis of the lexicon used by the teachers reveals both laudatory and pejorative assessments. The former lead all learners to take an active part in the construction of knowledge and in teaching-learning activities while the latter serve the pedagogical activity. This is all the more so since the latter humiliate and frustrate the learners. Appraisals should therefore not be made in all directions. Rather, they should be used for learning purposes by teachers in order to stimulate school performance, build on learners’ strengths and guide them in their learning.
Les impacts des appreciations de l’enseignant sur l’apprentissage en classe de Français en Côte d’IvoireJean Claude David Kouadıo, Stanislas Kouassı
L’enseignant est un acteur important des situations d’enseignement-apprentissage. C’est lui qui définit les objectifs du cours, met en œuvre les stratégies pour les atteindre, initie et organise les situations d’enseignement. C’est aussi lui qui choisit les outils nécessaires à l’atteinte de l’objectif de départ, identifie et expose le problème à résoudre, explique l’activité, donne des consignes et organise les échanges. L’enseignant est également celui qui valide ou invalide les propositions des élèves et évalue leurs acquis. Dans son activité, il est amené à apprécier les travaux des élèves. Cette facette de l’activité de l’enseignant est l’objet de la présente étude qui vise à rendre compte de l’impacts des appréciations des enseignants de Côte d’Ivoire sur leurs élèves. L’analyse du lexique utilisé par ceux-ci révèle d’une part des appréciations à valeur laudative et d’autre part celles à valeur péjorative. Les premières amènent tous les apprenants à prendre une part active dans la construction des savoirs et aux activités d’enseignement-apprentissage tandis que les secondes desservent l’activité pédagogique. Cela d’autant plus que ces dernières humilient et frustrent les apprenants. Les appréciations ne doivent donc pas se faire dans tous les sens. Elles doivent plutôt être exploitées à des fins d’apprentissage par les enseignants en vue stimuler la performance scolaire, valoriser les points forts des apprenants et les orienter dans leurs apprentissages.
The teacher plays an important role in the teaching and learning process. He or she first defines the objectives of the course and the tools needed to achieve them before implementing the strategies to achieve them. Then he or she initiates, organizes teaching situations, identifies and explains the problem to be solved by explaining the activity before giving instructions. Finally, he organizes the exchanges, validates or invalidates the students’ proposals and evaluates their achievements. In his activity, he is led to appreciate the students’ work. This facet of the teacher’s activity is the subject of this study, which aims to report on the impact of the assessments made by teachers in Côte d’Ivoire on their pupils.
It is based on data collected over the period from December 2017 to May 2018 in eleven general secondary schools. The analysis of the lexicon they used was carried out in the light of the theoretical and methodological foundations of the competencybased approach. It revealed on the one hand laudatory and on the other hand pejorative assessments.
As for the assessments with a positive connotation, they lead all students to participate in the learning process. The students as a whole experience real satisfaction when teachers reinforce their answers. They see it as a source of motivation that pushes them to give more of themselves, to always want to bring something new and to change their practice. In such a situation, students feel that their efforts and academic achievements are valued, recognized and taken into account. They experience feelings of joy and pride that make learning positive. The implication is that when appreciation is appropriate, it is very useful for learning. This position is similar to that noted among students by Christophe Chapuis (2011, p. 25), for whom students appreciate above all passionate teachers who are really there to give them something and not just because it is their job.
On the other hand, when teachers formulate pejorative assessments, they are severely criticized by students who say they are humiliated and frustrated by the derogatory remarks teachers make about them. These assessments, which they find difficult to accept, give rise, they say, to feelings of frustration and humiliation that lead to students dropping out of school and absenteeism. This is to escape the mockery of their classmates, who do not hesitate to make fun of them. Clearly, these teachers seem to be unaware of the significance of what they are saying and the disastrous consequences of their judgements on the learning process of students. It is clear that they have not yet grasped the importance of judgements on learning in general.
In sum, assessment in a didactic situation is meaningful in many ways. In view of its importance, their contents must create learning conditions for all students. For this reason, we recommend the integration in teacher training programmes of modules on annotations and assessments of students’ work so that assessments can be effectively taken into account in the definition of teacher training content.