Research Article


DOI :10.26650/LITERA2019-0011   IUP :10.26650/LITERA2019-0011    Full Text (PDF)

Re-publicizing the Nation: Slavery and the American Revolution

Aşkın Çelikkol

July 4, 1776 marks the national beginnings of the United States and is celebrated as the date of its independence from the imperial dominion of the United Kingdom. This turning point in the history of the nation is accepted as the genesis of the American freedom that champions the unassailable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Amidst the general enthusiasm for freedom, however, the existence of slavery stood out as the ultimate paradox which the new nation had to contend with. Contrary to the accepted historiographical explanations for the incongruous presence of slavery in this land of freedom, the article claims that the principles that defined the US citizenry also drew a racial boundary between white and black communities where whiteness, inflected by nationhood, was held to be coterminous with being American, while other (colored) identities were hyphenated incessantly. The first part of the article addresses the teleological and apologetic explanations for the slavery problem and argues against them by giving a detailed analysis of the inconsistent attitudes of the abolitionist politicians and communities towards African-American populations. The second part of the article studies the black responses to American freedom and Frederick Douglass’s famous speech that excoriates the hypocrisies coiled in the founding principles of the nation.

DOI :10.26650/LITERA2019-0011   IUP :10.26650/LITERA2019-0011    Full Text (PDF)

Ulusun Yeniden İlanı: Kölelik ve Amerikan Devrimi

Aşkın Çelikkol

4 Temmuz, 1776 tarihi Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nin Birleşik Krallık sömürgesinden kurtulduğu ve ulusun temellerinin atıldığı gün olarak kutlanmaktadır. Ulusun tarihinde önemli bir dönüm noktası teşkil eden bu tarih, Amerikan özgürlüğünün değişmez ve tartışılmaz unsurları olan yaşam, özgürlük ve mutluluğa erişim haklarının başlangıç noktası olarak kabul edilmektedir. Ancak, genel özgürlük coşkusu içinde, kölelik gibi bir sorunun varlığı, yeni ulusun yüzleşmek zorunda olduğu nihai çelişki olarak göze çarpıyordu. Özgürlük ülkesinde varlığı eğreti duran kölelik müessesinin varlık nedenlerini açıklayan genel ve kabul edilen tarihsel açıklamaların aksine, mevcut çalışma Amerikan vatandaşlığını tanımlayan ilkelerin beyaz ve siyah topluluklar arasında ırksal bir sınır çizdiği ve Amerikan vatandaşlığını, Amerikalı olmayı, beyazlık ile özdeş tuttuğu noktasını savunmaktadır. Makalenin birinci kısmı, kölelik sorununa açıklamalar getiren teleolojik yaklaşımlara karşılık olarak, kölelik karşıtı politikacıların ve toplulukların siyah topluluklara karşı sergiledikleri tutarsız tavırları incelemektedir. İkinci kısımda ise, Amerikan özgürlüğüne siyahların verdikleri tepkiler ve Frederick Douglass’ın ülkenin kuruluş ilkelerindeki mürai fikir ve uygulamaları eleştirdiği konuşması irdelenmektedir. Irk, etnik köken odaklı ulusalcı yapılar ile Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nin sosyopolitik ve sosyokültürel temellerini oluşturan kölelik ve Ulusal Bağımsızlık Günü gibi tarihsel dönüm noktalarının vatandaşlık kavramı ile kurduğu karmaşık ilişkilerin ele alınması çalışmanın amaçları arasındadır. Sonuç olarak bu çalışma, ulusal aidiyet ve kimlik yapılarının toplumsal tezahürleri doğrultusunda ırk ve ırkçılık konuları üzerine bir tartışma sunmaktadır.


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APA

Çelikkol, A. (2019). Re-publicizing the Nation: Slavery and the American Revolution. Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, 29(1), 41-58. https://doi.org/10.26650/LITERA2019-0011


AMA

Çelikkol A. Re-publicizing the Nation: Slavery and the American Revolution. Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies. 2019;29(1):41-58. https://doi.org/10.26650/LITERA2019-0011


ABNT

Çelikkol, A. Re-publicizing the Nation: Slavery and the American Revolution. Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, [Publisher Location], v. 29, n. 1, p. 41-58, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Çelikkol, Aşkın,. 2019. “Re-publicizing the Nation: Slavery and the American Revolution.” Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies 29, no. 1: 41-58. https://doi.org/10.26650/LITERA2019-0011


Chicago: Humanities Style

Çelikkol, Aşkın,. Re-publicizing the Nation: Slavery and the American Revolution.” Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies 29, no. 1 (Dec. 2022): 41-58. https://doi.org/10.26650/LITERA2019-0011


Harvard: Australian Style

Çelikkol, A 2019, 'Re-publicizing the Nation: Slavery and the American Revolution', Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 41-58, viewed 2 Dec. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/LITERA2019-0011


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Çelikkol, A. (2019) ‘Re-publicizing the Nation: Slavery and the American Revolution’, Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, 29(1), pp. 41-58. https://doi.org/10.26650/LITERA2019-0011 (2 Dec. 2022).


MLA

Çelikkol, Aşkın,. Re-publicizing the Nation: Slavery and the American Revolution.” Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, vol. 29, no. 1, 2019, pp. 41-58. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/LITERA2019-0011


Vancouver

Çelikkol A. Re-publicizing the Nation: Slavery and the American Revolution. Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies [Internet]. 2 Dec. 2022 [cited 2 Dec. 2022];29(1):41-58. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/LITERA2019-0011 doi: 10.26650/LITERA2019-0011


ISNAD

Çelikkol, Aşkın. Re-publicizing the Nation: Slavery and the American Revolution”. Litera: Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies 29/1 (Dec. 2022): 41-58. https://doi.org/10.26650/LITERA2019-0011



TIMELINE


Submitted14.02.2019
Accepted28.03.2019
Published Online01.06.2019

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