The Image of “Turk” in Greek Primary School TextbooksDamla Demirözü
A large number of studies have been carried out that analyze Greek history writing, Greek textbooks used in school curricula, and Greek fiction in general within the framework of national narratives and the image of “the other.” Thanks to research conducted in the field, we now have access to detailed information on the Greek narrative, the positioning of the image of “Greek” within this narrative, and the image of “the other,” which, in this context, is represented by the Turkish people with whom the Greeks share a common history. The study aims to add a new perspective to the research generally carried out on the subject, namely, what the image of a “Turk” represents in the Greek narrative. The main objective of the study is to identify and describe the image of the Turk in the textbooks students use in primary schools in Greece.
Yunan İlkokul Edebiyat Kitaplarında Türk İmajıDamla Demirözü
Şimdiye kadar yapılmış pek çok araştırma Yunan tarih yazıcılığı, edebiyatı ve tarih kitaplarındaki Yunanlı söylemini ve Türk imajını inceledi. Bu araştırmalar sayesinde Yunan anlatısında Türk imajının hangi koşullar altında nasıl şekillendiğine dair ayrıntılı bilgiye sahibiz. Bu çalışma şimdiye kadar Yunan edebiyatında Türk imajı alanında yapılan çalışmalara yeni bir halka eklemeyi amaçlar: Yunanistan ilkokul sisteminde kullanılan edebiyat kitaplarında var olan Türk imajını tespit ederek anlamlandırmayı amaçlar. Bu makalede Yunan ilkokullarında okutulan edebiyat kitapları incelenecektir. Kitapların içeriği, çocukların okuması için seçilen edebiyat metinleri, bu metinlerin sunumu için yazılan müfredat bilgileri ve bu bilgilerin pekiştirildiği alıştırma bölümleri araştırmanın içeriğini oluşturur. Makale bu edebiyat kitaplarında beliren Yunan kimliğini ve Türk imajını tespit etmeyi amaçlar. Bu kitapların içerdiği Türk imajının makalenin ilk kısmında kısaca özetlenen Yunan anlatısı ile ne kadar örtüştüğünü tespit etmeye çalışır. Edebi metinler aracılığı ile çizilen Türk imajının bir analizini sunar. Yunan anlatısının niçin bu imajı çizdiğini anlatmayı amaçlar
In Greek schools, literature textbooks are made up of anthologies, titled Anthology of the Literary Canon. In this study, extracts occurring in these books are analyzed together with the informational notes and exercises. There is a reference to Turkish people in two reading texts in Δελφίνι/ (Dolphin), in eight reading texts in Στο σκολειό του κόσμου (The World School), and in seven reading texts in Με λογισμό και μ΄όνειρο (With Ideas and Imagination). Turkish people predominantly feature in the reading texts that deal with significant events in Greek history. In nearly all of these historic events (Tourkokratia, 1922 Asia Minor Catastrophe, and 1974 Cyprus), Greek and Turkish people constitute the two parties in conflict. There is one common element present in these texts with reference to how they deal with the image of the “Turk.” In most cases, even if the main body of the reading text does not include a negative image of Turkish people, this is conveyed by the additional notes that give the reader some extra information on either the text or the author and the reading exercises concerning the text. Thus, the image of the “Turk” is completed with these notes and exercises, although in most instances the text itself proposes a neutral image of who the “Turk” is. First of all, Tourkokratia is not described as a common history shared by Greeks and Turks. In contrast, Greeks are described as citizens who cannot stand the torture of Tourkokratia and who have no other choice but to struggle against it. The stereotype of a “Turk” that is evident in these texts is an anonymous and undefined figure who only represents martyrs and evil rulers. When the Asia Minor Catastrophe is retold via the reading texts, the figure of the “Turk” is not reflected as part of Greek history or geography. In contrast, the “Turk” appears in the final scene of historic events and represents the figure that may be found guilty of the events. The only instance in which we see Turkish people devoid of any historic meaning, appearing as normal citizens and usual parts of the society, is in the narrative of Cyprus, 1974. In these extracts, the Turk is not a soldier but a mother, a father, a child, or the family in general. They do not appear as stereotypes but as identified people whose names we learn. The Cypriot Turks in those reading extracts have a more positive image when compared with other Turks in other reading texts. What is more, they have some common features shared with the Cypriot Greeks. Therefore, the Greek narrative identifies a Turk in Cyprus as someone who is similar to a Greek living on the same island. Except for the reading text concerning Cyprus, only two other texts describe Turkish people as those who share a historical era and geographical proximity with the Greeks. The image of the Turk is considered harmless if they are able to learn and apply the rules of Greek society, religion, and culture. The study also includes detailed tables depicting the exact readings through which the above mentioned analyses have been conducted, the names of the authors, and the historical eras they refer to.