Research Article


DOI :10.26650/meshk.2024.0002   IUP :10.26650/meshk.2024.0002    Full Text (PDF)

Inclusive Music Policy of the Ottoman Empire and Musical Change in the 19th Century

Hikmet Toker

Although the Ottoman dynasty members had a long history of involvement with Western music, the Ottoman Empire’s first Western music foundations were established in the nineteenth century. At the beginning, Westernization was viewed as a component of army modernization; naturally, the foundation of Western music of the Ottoman had been Musika-i Hümâyûn (Military band of the sultan). The musical life of seraglio changed dramatically after Ottoman dynasty members moved to Dolmabahche Palace, which was built in the Western court style, and the first Western music ensembles of courts were founded. The community has felt the impact of this change process. Although there were disconnections in the classical Turkish music education chain during this time, the Ottoman Empire’s strategic intelligence took precautions to keep Turkish music and its educational system alive. In this regard, we can conclude that the Ottoman state pursued a highly inclusive music policy during the aforementioned period. This situation can be observed by looking at the various musical institutions closely related to one another and the profiles of the musicians who performed in these institutions. This article traces the changes that occurred in music during the 19th century, referred to as the Ottoman Empire’s age of change, and focuses on revealing the inclusive policy implemented during this change. Furthermore, the philosophical foundations of musical change during the aforementioned period are discussed.

DOI :10.26650/meshk.2024.0002   IUP :10.26650/meshk.2024.0002    Full Text (PDF)

19. Yüzyılda Osmanlı Devleti’nin Kapsayıcı Müzik Politikası ve Müzikteki Değişim

Hikmet Toker

Osmanlı hanedanının Batı müziği ile ilk tanışmasının çok eski tarihlere dayanmasına karşın, Osmanlı Devleti’nde ilk Batı müziği kurumlarının 19. Yüzyıl başlarında kurulduğunu görmekteyiz. Başlangıçta müzikal Batılılaşma, askerî modernizasyonun bir parçası olarak görülmüş ve tabiatıyla ilk Batı müziği kurumu askerî sistemin bir parçası olan Musika-i Hümâyûn olmuştur. Özellikle Dolmabahçe sarayının açılması ile kadim Osmanlı saray yaşantısı önemli oranda değişime uğramış̧̧ doğal olarak sarayda bulunan müzik hayatı da değişmiş ve sarayda Batılı anlamda ilk müzik kurumları oluşmaya başlamıştır. Bu değişim süreci toplum yaşantısında da hissedilmiş̧̧ İstanbul başta olmak üzere önemli şehir merkezlerinde açılan tiyatrolar ve çeşitli eğlence merkezleri sayesinde Batı müziği toplumsal hayatta da icra yoğunluğunu artırmıştır. Tüm bu gelişmeler yaşanırken Türk müziği icrası da bu yeni yapı içinde kendine yer bulmuştur. Bahsettiğimiz değişim sürecinin etkisiyle kadim icra ve eğitim zincirinde bazı kopukluklar olsa da devlet aklı devreye girmiş̧̧ ve Türk müziğinin yeni sisteme ayak uydurması için gerekli dokunuşları yapmıştır. Bu yönüyle mezkur dönemde Osmanlı devletinin oldukça kapsayıcı bir müzik politikası uyguladığını söylemek mümkündür. Bu durumu müzik kurumlarının iç içe geçmişliğinden, müzisyenlerin müzikal donanımlarına kadar pek çok alanda müşahede etmek mümkündür. Bu makale Osmanlı devletinin değişim çağı olarak gösterilen 19. Yüzyılda müzik alanında meydana gelen değişimin izlerini sürerken bu değişim esnasında yürütülen kapsayıcı politikayı gözler önüne sermeye odaklanmaktadır. Tüm bunların yanı sıra bu çalışmada, bahsi geçen dönemdeki müzikal değişimin felsefi temelleri üzerinde de durulmuştur.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Although the Ottoman dynasty members had a long history of involvement with Western music, the Ottoman Empire’s first Western music foundations were established in the nineteenth century. At the beginning, Westernization was viewed as a component of army modernization; naturally, Musika-i Hümâyûn (the Sultan’s Military Band) served as the first foundation of Ottoman Western music. The musical life of seraglio changed dramatically after Ottoman dynasty members moved to Dolmabahche Palace, which was built in the Western court style, and the first Western music ensembles of courts were founded. The community has felt the impact of this change process. Western music’s intensity of performance in social life has increased due to the theaters and other entertainment venues that have opened in important urban centers, particularly in Istanbul. During these changes, Turkish music found a place in the new structure. Despite occasional disconnections in the classical Turkish music education chain, the Ottoman Empire’s strategic intelligence took steps to preserve Turkish music and its educational system. In this regard, it is possible to conclude that the Ottoman state pursued a highly inclusive music policy during the aforementioned period. This situation can be observed by looking at the various musical institutions closely related to one another and the profiles of the musicians who performed in these institutions. For example, regardless of their musical profession, many musicians working in one institution were very knowledgeable about Turkish and Western music. This article traces the changes that occurred in music during the 19th century, referred to as the Ottoman Empire’s age of change, and focuses on revealing the inclusive policy implemented during this change. Furthermore, the philosophical foundations of musical change during the aforementioned period are discussed. The first part of this article focuses on the Ottoman Empire’s social changes and their effects on musical life in the nineteenth century. It focuses primarily on changes in court life following the discovery of the Dolmabahche Palace, the Ottoman Empire’s first Western-style palace. Changes in court music are one of the article’s main topics. This chapter also discusses the new court music management system developed following the foundation of the first Western-style palace. The versatile musical personalities of the Ottoman dynasty members is another topic of this article. The text pushes the musical abilities and skills of the dynasty members on the table for this purpose. The purpose of this table is to show that the dynasty’s members had a thorough understanding of music. If we examine this table, we can see that many members played Western or Turkish music instruments. In addition, some members played both Western  and Turkish instruments simultaneously. The second major section of this article discusses the versatile personalities of prominent Ottoman musicians from this era. During this time, we can see many musicians skilled in both genres. This situation serves as an indicator of the Ottoman government’s inclusive music policy. Because many of these musicians were on the court. The Ottoman Empire’s inclusive music policy is then analyzed regarding musical foundations. Some regulations and curriculums of the musical foundations were analyzed for this purpose. Following the analysis process, we gathered some information, which we present in this text. The final section of the text was used to analyze the representation problem in Turkish music and the precautions for resolving it. This situation was discussed within the framework of reform and representation theories.


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APA

Toker, H. (2024). Inclusive Music Policy of the Ottoman Empire and Musical Change in the 19th Century. Meshk Journal of Religious Music, 1(1), 19-33. https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0002


AMA

Toker H. Inclusive Music Policy of the Ottoman Empire and Musical Change in the 19th Century. Meshk Journal of Religious Music. 2024;1(1):19-33. https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0002


ABNT

Toker, H. Inclusive Music Policy of the Ottoman Empire and Musical Change in the 19th Century. Meshk Journal of Religious Music, [Publisher Location], v. 1, n. 1, p. 19-33, 2024.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Toker, Hikmet,. 2024. “Inclusive Music Policy of the Ottoman Empire and Musical Change in the 19th Century.” Meshk Journal of Religious Music 1, no. 1: 19-33. https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0002


Chicago: Humanities Style

Toker, Hikmet,. Inclusive Music Policy of the Ottoman Empire and Musical Change in the 19th Century.” Meshk Journal of Religious Music 1, no. 1 (Jul. 2024): 19-33. https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0002


Harvard: Australian Style

Toker, H 2024, 'Inclusive Music Policy of the Ottoman Empire and Musical Change in the 19th Century', Meshk Journal of Religious Music, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 19-33, viewed 25 Jul. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0002


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Toker, H. (2024) ‘Inclusive Music Policy of the Ottoman Empire and Musical Change in the 19th Century’, Meshk Journal of Religious Music, 1(1), pp. 19-33. https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0002 (25 Jul. 2024).


MLA

Toker, Hikmet,. Inclusive Music Policy of the Ottoman Empire and Musical Change in the 19th Century.” Meshk Journal of Religious Music, vol. 1, no. 1, 2024, pp. 19-33. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0002


Vancouver

Toker H. Inclusive Music Policy of the Ottoman Empire and Musical Change in the 19th Century. Meshk Journal of Religious Music [Internet]. 25 Jul. 2024 [cited 25 Jul. 2024];1(1):19-33. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0002 doi: 10.26650/meshk.2024.0002


ISNAD

Toker, Hikmet. Inclusive Music Policy of the Ottoman Empire and Musical Change in the 19th Century”. Meshk Journal of Religious Music 1/1 (Jul. 2024): 19-33. https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0002



TIMELINE


Submitted03.01.2024
Accepted01.03.2024
Published Online24.04.2024

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