Research Article


DOI :10.26650/meshk.2024.0004   IUP :10.26650/meshk.2024.0004    Full Text (PDF)

The Place of Music in the Cultural Personality of Sultan Mohammad Fateh and Mahmoudi’s Nazm-ı Advar

Seyid Muhammed Taki Hüseyni

The education and training that Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror received under the shadow of his father, Sultan Murad, made him one of the leading patrons of science and culture in the Islamic world. After conquering Istanbul, Sultan Mehmet quickly turned this city into an important scientific center of the Islamic world with the construction of scientific and cultural centers. Upon his invitation, many scholars settled in Istanbul. Many of them decided to reside here after hearing about Istanbul and Fatih’s knowledge friendship. This led to works in various branches of science being written or copied in his name. The science of music was one of the sciences that Fatih was interested in and several works were written in his name. The first musical work presented to Sultan Fatih and at the same time the first independent verse work in the field of Persian music science is Mahmudi’s “Nazm-ı Advâr”. Mahmudi, among the poets and writers of this period, came to Istanbul after hearing the praises of Fatih and dedicated his work to Fatih. In this article, after examining the cultural personality of Mehmet the Conqueror and especially his place in music science, the content of Mahmudi’s work “Nazm-ı Advâr” will be discussed.

DOI :10.26650/meshk.2024.0004   IUP :10.26650/meshk.2024.0004    Full Text (PDF)

جایگاه موسیقی در شخصیت فرهنگی سلطان محمد فاتح و ِ نظِم ِ ادواِ محمودی

Seyid Muhammed Taki Hüseyni

آموزش و پرورشی که سلطان محمد فاتح در سایۀ پدرش ـ سلطان مراد ـ دید، سبب شد تا او یکی از حامیان برجستۀ علم و فرهنگ در جهان اسالم شود. فاتح، پس از فتح استانبول، با ساخت مراکز علمی و فرهنگی، در مدتی بس کوتاه این شهر را به یکی از مراکز مهم علمی ـ فرهنگی جهان اسالم ساخت. با دعوت او بسیاری از علماء رهسپار استانبول شدند. بسیاری نیز پس از شنیدن اوصاف استانبول و دانش دوستی فاتح، رحل اقامت در استانبول افکندند. همین نیز سبب شد تا آثار بسیاری در علوم گوناگون به نام او تألیف و یا استنساخ شود. دانش موسیقی نیز از جمله علومی بود که فاتح بدان عالقه داشت و آثاری چند به نام او نگاشته شد. نخستین اثر موسیقایی که به نام فاتح نوشته شد و نیز نخستین منظومۀ مستقل فارسی در علم موسیقی، نظِِم ادوار محمودی مولوی است. محمودی از شعرا و ادبای این دوران، پس از شنیدن اوصاف فاتح، رهسپار استانبول شد و منظومۀ خود را تقدیم فاتح کرد. در این مقاله، پس از بررسی شخصیت فرهنگی سلطان محمد فاتح و جایگاه علوم بویژه موسیقی نزد او، به منظومۀ نظِِم ادوار محمودی و محتوای آن پرداخته خواهد شد. 

DOI :10.26650/meshk.2024.0004   IUP :10.26650/meshk.2024.0004    Full Text (PDF)

Fatih Sultan Mehmet’in Musikiye Yaklaşımı ve Mahmûdî’nin Nazm-ı Edvar’ı

Seyid Muhammed Taki Hüseyni

Fatih Sultan Mehmet’in babası Sultan Murad’ın sayesinde gördüğü eğitim ve öğretim, onu İslam dünyasında ilim ve kültürün öncül hâmilerinden biri yapmıştır. Fatih, İstanbul’u fethettikten sonra, bilimsel ve kültürel merkezlerin inşasıyla bu şehri kısa sürede İslam dünyasının önemli bir ilim merkezi haline getirdi. Daveti üzerine birçok âlim İstanbul’a yerleşti. Birçoğu da İstanbul’u ve Fatih’in ilim ehline olan saygısını duyduktan sonra burada ikamet etmeye karar verdi. Bu durum, çeşitli bilim dallarında eserlerin onun adına yazılmasına veya istinsahedilmesine yol açtı. Müzik ilimi de Fatih’in ilgi duyduğu ilimlerden biriydi ve birkaç eser onun adına yazıldı. Fatih’e adanmış ilk musiki eseri ve aynı zamanda Farsça müzik bilimi alanında ilk müstakil manzum eser Mahmudi’nin Nazm-ı Edvâr’ıdır. Mahmudi, bu dönemin şairleri ve edipleri arasında, Fatih’in övgülerini duyduktan sonra İstanbul’a gelmiş ve eserini Fatih’e ithaf etmiştir. Bu makalede, Fatih Sultan Mehmet’in kültürel kişiliği ve özellikle müzik bilimindeki yeri incelendikten sonra, Mahmudi’nin Nazm-ı Edvâr adlı eserinin içeriği ele alınacaktır.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


The education that Sultan Mohammad Fatih received under the shadow of his father Sultan Murad made him become one of the prominent supporters of science and culture in the Islamic world. After conquering Istanbul, Sultan Mohammad Fatih, by building scientific and cultural centers, made this city one of the most important scientific and cultural centers of the Islamic world in a very short period of time. With his invitation, many scholars went to Istanbul. Many people decided to stay in Istanbul after hearing about the qualities of Istanbul and the friendship of Sultan Mohammad Fatih. This also caused many works in various sciences to be authored or copied in his name. The knowledge of music was also one of the sciences that Fatih was interested in and on behalf of people such as Abd al-Qadir Maraghi’s son, Abd al-Aziz who named “Naqawa al-Adwar” and Fath Allah Shirwani who wrote “Al-Majla fi al-Musiqi” in his name. Also, Yusuf bin Nizam al-Din Qarshahri’s treatise on music was translated from Persian to Turkish by Darvish Hariri in 873 AH (1468). The first musical work written under the name of Fateh and also the first independent Persian poem in the science of music is Mahmoudi Molavi’s “Nazm-ı Advar”. Mahmoudi, one of the poets and writers of this era, after hearing the attributes of Fatih, left for Istanbul and dedicated his poem to Fatih. Mahmoudi composed his work, which is a poem of 337 verses in ten chapters, in 875 AH (1470). There is not much information about Mahmoudi’s life. Based on what can be understood from his works, he was one of the poets and writers of the time and in the Maulviyyah Tariqat. In addition to literature and music, he was also familiar with other sciences such as mathematics and astronomy. A manuscript of Mahmoudi’s “ Nazm-ı Advar “ is known, which is kept in Sulaimaniye library in Istanbul and in Asher Effendi library with number 450. Mahmoudi, in the first two chapters of “ Nazm-ı Advar “, praised the Lord and praised the Prophet and the four caliphs, in the third chapter he mentioned the reason for authoring his work, and in the fourth to sixth chapters he praised Sultan Muhammad Fatih. In the seventh chapter, he talks about the importance and honor of the science of music and tells the famous story of Safi al-Din and the camel. In the 8th and 9th chapters, twelve musical Maqam are: Rast, Iraq, Isfahan, Hosseini, Bozorg, Hijazi, Kochak, Zanguleh, Nava, Ushak, Rahavi, Buslik; Seven Avazeh, which are: Gavasht, Salmak, Nowruz, Shahnaz, Hisar, Mayeh, Gardanieh; Four Shubeh, which are: Yekgah, Dogah, Segah, Chargah; And fifty-four Tarkibs, some of which are Sabz Ander Sabz, Baste Negar, Niriz, Panjgah, Isfahan Baste, Dilkash Khavaran, Khajesti, Sambleh, Bad Saba, Ashiran, Rahah Al-Arwah, Negar, Uzzal Ajam, Muhalifak, Mukhalif Hijaz, Ashiran Nawa, Iraq Maye, Segah Maye, Rast Maye, Zavuli, Mubarqa, Zamzam, Nowruz Rumi, Nowruz Ajam, Rakb, Rakb Nowruz, Zirafkand, Neishaburak, Sazghara, Nahavand Rumi, Ajam, Gardanieh, Negarink, Muhayyir, Vejhi Hosseini, Qarachghar, Mustaar, Naheft, Sepehr, Hosseini, Ajam, Sehgah Ajam, Ajam Rast, Ovj, Nahavand, Bahr Nazoq, Homayun, Hisar, Hisarak, Hisar Ovj, Turki Hejaz, Shushtarak, Mahoor, Urian, Marghak, have been described. Is. In the ninth chapter, the Makams and Avaze of these Tarkib, their names and combinations, and their relationship with the four elements, twelve towers, and the hours of the day and night have been discussed. In the 10th chapter, by mentioning an anecdote from Rumi’s Masnavi, he spoke about his own Tariqat and attribution to Rumi and Maulviyyah.


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APA

Taki Hüseyni, S.M. (2024). The Place of Music in the Cultural Personality of Sultan Mohammad Fateh and Mahmoudi’s Nazm-ı Advar. Meshk Journal of Religious Music, 1(1), 51-70. https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0004


AMA

Taki Hüseyni S M. The Place of Music in the Cultural Personality of Sultan Mohammad Fateh and Mahmoudi’s Nazm-ı Advar. Meshk Journal of Religious Music. 2024;1(1):51-70. https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0004


ABNT

Taki Hüseyni, S.M. The Place of Music in the Cultural Personality of Sultan Mohammad Fateh and Mahmoudi’s Nazm-ı Advar. Meshk Journal of Religious Music, [Publisher Location], v. 1, n. 1, p. 51-70, 2024.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Taki Hüseyni, Seyid Muhammed,. 2024. “The Place of Music in the Cultural Personality of Sultan Mohammad Fateh and Mahmoudi’s Nazm-ı Advar.” Meshk Journal of Religious Music 1, no. 1: 51-70. https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0004


Chicago: Humanities Style

Taki Hüseyni, Seyid Muhammed,. The Place of Music in the Cultural Personality of Sultan Mohammad Fateh and Mahmoudi’s Nazm-ı Advar.” Meshk Journal of Religious Music 1, no. 1 (Jul. 2024): 51-70. https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0004


Harvard: Australian Style

Taki Hüseyni, SM 2024, 'The Place of Music in the Cultural Personality of Sultan Mohammad Fateh and Mahmoudi’s Nazm-ı Advar', Meshk Journal of Religious Music, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 51-70, viewed 25 Jul. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0004


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Taki Hüseyni, S.M. (2024) ‘The Place of Music in the Cultural Personality of Sultan Mohammad Fateh and Mahmoudi’s Nazm-ı Advar’, Meshk Journal of Religious Music, 1(1), pp. 51-70. https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0004 (25 Jul. 2024).


MLA

Taki Hüseyni, Seyid Muhammed,. The Place of Music in the Cultural Personality of Sultan Mohammad Fateh and Mahmoudi’s Nazm-ı Advar.” Meshk Journal of Religious Music, vol. 1, no. 1, 2024, pp. 51-70. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0004


Vancouver

Taki Hüseyni SM. The Place of Music in the Cultural Personality of Sultan Mohammad Fateh and Mahmoudi’s Nazm-ı Advar. Meshk Journal of Religious Music [Internet]. 25 Jul. 2024 [cited 25 Jul. 2024];1(1):51-70. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0004 doi: 10.26650/meshk.2024.0004


ISNAD

Taki Hüseyni, SeyidMuhammed. The Place of Music in the Cultural Personality of Sultan Mohammad Fateh and Mahmoudi’s Nazm-ı Advar”. Meshk Journal of Religious Music 1/1 (Jul. 2024): 51-70. https://doi.org/10.26650/meshk.2024.0004



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Submitted06.02.2024
Accepted28.02.2024
Published Online24.04.2024

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