Research Article


DOI :10.26650/oba.1126586   IUP :10.26650/oba.1126586    Full Text (PDF)

Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha [1887-1897]: Newly Discovered Issues and Reassessment

Cem Hakan Başaran

Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman was published between 1887 and 1897 by Spiridon Mavrogeny Pasha, the private physician of Sultan Abdul Hamid II (r. 1876-1909). The journal was studied by Feza Günergun in 2002. This article is an addendum to Günergun’s article in light of the newly opened periodical collection at Bibliothèque interuniversitaire de Santé [Interuniversity Health Library] in Paris, France and the documents kept in the Ottoman Archives. Currently, no library is found to possess a complete collection of the journal. The journal was censured due to the articles Dr. David Pardo had written and discontinued due to funding restrictions. Subsequently, the journal continued to be published in line with the Gazette Médicale d’Orient, the official publication of the Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane [Imperial Medical Society] in Istanbul. Gazette des Hôpitaux was the first bilingual (French and Turkish) medical journal to be published in the Ottoman Empire. Its originality could not be maintained after censorship, and its publication was suspended despite Dr. Mavrogeny Pasha’s continued efforts.

DOI :10.26650/oba.1126586   IUP :10.26650/oba.1126586    Full Text (PDF)

Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l'Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha [1887-1897]: Yeni Bulunan Sayılar ve Yeniden Değerlendirme

Cem Hakan Başaran

Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha, Sultan II. Abdülhamid’in (salt. 1876-1909) özel hekimi olan Mavroyeni Paşa tarafından 1887-1897 tarihleri arasında yayımlanmıştır. Dergi, 2002 yılında Feza Günergun tarafından incelenmiştir. Bu makale ise Fransa’da yeni erişime açılan koleksiyon [BIU Santé, Paris] ve Osmanlı Arşivi belgeleri ışığında Günergun’un makalesine bir zeyl olarak kaleme alınmıştır. Derginin henüz bulunamayan sayıları vardır. Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha, Dr. David Pardo’nun yazdığı yazılar nedeniyle sansüre uğramış ve tahsisatının kesilmesiyle kapanmıştır. Dergi sansüre uğradıktan sonra İmparatorluk Tıp Cemiyeti’nin (Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane, İstanbul) resmi yayın organı olan Gazette médicale d’Orient’un bir kopyası olarak yayın hayatını sürdürmüştür. Türkiye’de iki dilli (Fransızca ve Türkçe) yayımlanan bu ilk tıp dergisinin özgünlüğü sansüre uğradıktan sonra kaybolmuş ve Mavroyeni Paşa’nın sürekli çabalarına rağmen eski günlerine geri dönememiştir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


The journal Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha was published between 1887 and 1897 by Spiridon Mavrogeny Pasha, the private physician of Sultan Abdul Hamid II (r. 1876-1909) and studied by Feza Günergun in 2002. This article is an addendum to Günergun’s article in light of the newly opened periodical collection at Bibliothèque interuniversitaire de Santé [Interuniversity Health Library] in Paris, France and the documents kept in the Ottoman Archives in Turkey. Currently, no library is found to hold a complete collection of the journal. The journal was censured due to the articles Dr. David Pardo had written and was discontinued due to funding restrictions. Subsequently, it continued to be published in line with the Gazette Médicale d’Orient, the official publication of the Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane [Imperial Medical Society] in Istanbul. Gazette des Hôpitaux was the first bilingual (French and Turkish) medical journal to be published in Ottoman Turkey. Its originality could not be maintained after being censored, and its publication was suspended despite Dr. Mavrogeny Pasha’s continued efforts. This article contains the French and Turkish index of the 26 issues of the journal (in addition to Günergun’s article) as well as the testimonial account of Dr. David Pardo about the death of Dr. Marko Pasha’s wife and children from diphtheria in its appendix section. The Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman was a dramatic case that witnessed the effects of Abdul Hamid II’s repressive rules on medical publishing, which made publishing a journal not in allegiance with Abdul Hamid II’s Yıldız Palace impossible. Publications were also controlled by funding restrictions and censorship. Dr. David Pardo had attempted to draw attention in his articles to the inadequate measures that were being taken during the cholera epidemic, the scandalous decisions taken at Toptaşı Asylum, the failures in epidemic management, and the infrastructural problems of Istanbul. During the period when Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman was published and censored, the scientific activities of the Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Osmaniye [Ottoman Medical Society] in Istanbul were also being impeded. The sessions the Society held were banned because the government had deemed them to be unsuitable, and the Society’s function of supervising and encouraging scientific publications had been transformed into one of inspecting publications that were deemed harmful. The Society functioned as a censorship commission until the beginning of the Second Constitutional Era in 1908, when it almost entirely lost its actual function.  

Moreover, physicians during this period were not allowed to create associations. According to the Ottoman archival documents, the Ottoman Medical Society did not have enough linguistically qualified officers to supervise the suitability of medical works for publishing (i.e., to perform its censorship function). While this did impede the publication of medical works, it also prevented the publication of many pamphlets, booklets, books, and journals in other languages in Istanbul. Therefore, many authors lost a great deal of time, spending their efforts all in vain. Another medical society, Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-yi Şahane [Imperial Medical Society] had also been subjected to various pressures in the same period. Important testimonies occurred about the pressure exerted on the Society as well as on sleuthing and whistleblowing activities in Istanbul. Additionally, authorities tried to put the Imperial Medical Society in a difficult situation by reducing its financial aid and even delaying it payments of the reduced aid. This article presents documents regarding what these pressures had led to. Mavrogeny Pasha also appears to have been subjected to various incidents during the period in which he’d published the Gazette des Hôpitaux. He was followed by the Sultan’s sleuths, and reports were written about him. Mavrogeny Pasha was regularly prosecuted, and many investigations were conducted against him. During one investigation, a memoir written in Greek about Abdul Hamid II as well as other personal documents were found in the Pasha’s house. He was interrogated and news about his arrest began to appear in the foreign press. After this incident, Mavrogeny Pasha was forced to swear an oath of loyalty in the presence of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Neophytos VIII and two other witnesses. These events led the Pasha to lose his reputation. As a result of the absolute centralization of the reign of Abdul Hamid II, institutions such as Matbuat Dairesi [the Press Office] lost their authority, and applicants had to apply to the Yıldız Palace either directly or through intermediaries in order to republish journals that had been shut down or to publish new journals; applications needed to include certificates of good status, warrants of guarantee, and safety documents from the communities to which the applicant belonged, with the final decisions being left directly to the will of the Sultan. Journals and newspapers have been directly controlled through funds and censorship. According to archival documents, Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman was the only scientific publication among the journals and newspapers to have received financial aid from the government. Despite this privileged position the journal had, its publication and content seem to have been overshadowed by Mavrogeny Pasha’s private life and the sensationalist atmosphere of the period. Even today that medical phenomenon, deaths from epidemics, and the inadequate measures taken are well known to have been censored in various ways by those in power in various states. Thus the microhistory of Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman invites historical researchers to once again subject medical sources to a more careful reading. 


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APA

Başaran, C.H. (2023). Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha [1887-1897]: Newly Discovered Issues and Reassessment. Studies in Ottoman Science, 24(1), 67-103. https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1126586


AMA

Başaran C H. Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha [1887-1897]: Newly Discovered Issues and Reassessment. Studies in Ottoman Science. 2023;24(1):67-103. https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1126586


ABNT

Başaran, C.H. Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha [1887-1897]: Newly Discovered Issues and Reassessment. Studies in Ottoman Science, [Publisher Location], v. 24, n. 1, p. 67-103, 2023.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Başaran, Cem Hakan,. 2023. “Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha [1887-1897]: Newly Discovered Issues and Reassessment.” Studies in Ottoman Science 24, no. 1: 67-103. https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1126586


Chicago: Humanities Style

Başaran, Cem Hakan,. Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha [1887-1897]: Newly Discovered Issues and Reassessment.” Studies in Ottoman Science 24, no. 1 (Feb. 2023): 67-103. https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1126586


Harvard: Australian Style

Başaran, CH 2023, 'Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha [1887-1897]: Newly Discovered Issues and Reassessment', Studies in Ottoman Science, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 67-103, viewed 1 Feb. 2023, https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1126586


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Başaran, C.H. (2023) ‘Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha [1887-1897]: Newly Discovered Issues and Reassessment’, Studies in Ottoman Science, 24(1), pp. 67-103. https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1126586 (1 Feb. 2023).


MLA

Başaran, Cem Hakan,. Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha [1887-1897]: Newly Discovered Issues and Reassessment.” Studies in Ottoman Science, vol. 24, no. 1, 2023, pp. 67-103. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1126586


Vancouver

Başaran CH. Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha [1887-1897]: Newly Discovered Issues and Reassessment. Studies in Ottoman Science [Internet]. 1 Feb. 2023 [cited 1 Feb. 2023];24(1):67-103. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1126586 doi: 10.26650/oba.1126586


ISNAD

Başaran, CemHakan. Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires de l’Empire Ottoman / Ceride-i Emâkinü’s-Sıhha [1887-1897]: Newly Discovered Issues and Reassessment”. Studies in Ottoman Science 24/1 (Feb. 2023): 67-103. https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1126586



TIMELINE


Submitted06.06.2022
Accepted22.08.2022
Published Online06.01.2023

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