Research Article


DOI :10.26650/YTA2020-003   IUP :10.26650/YTA2020-003    Full Text (PDF)

A Public Official in the Ottoman Province, Ali Saib Bey and His Annex on Shkoder Province

Hüseyin Baha Öztunç

The bureaucracy of the Ottoman State expanded considerably upon the foundation of new institutions in the 19th century following the Rescript of Gülhane, and the emerging needs for staff were met with staffing efforts both in the center and in the provinces. The civil service life of Ali Saib Bey, one of the last Ottoman bureaucrats, who started his mission as correspondence officer at the age of 15 in Malatya sanjak, will be revealed in this study. And later, his report the “İşkodra Vilâyeti’nde İcrâsı Tasavvur Buyurulan Tedâbir-i Islâhiyeye Dâ’ir Baʻzı Maʻlûmât ve Mütâlaʻât-ı Fâhirâne”, which was written by Ali Saib Bey as a manuscript on October 29, 1911 and obtained from an auction by the researcher, and was unavailable in the Presidential State Archive, will be evaluated. So, both the bureaucratic process of a bureaucrat who served in different services in the Ottoman provinces and the detection and elimination recommendations of the problems related to this province by Ali Saib Bey, who also served as the deputy governor of Shkoder, will be examined. The main source of the study consists of this relevant annex and documents found about Ali Saib Bey in the Presidential State Archive, and the previous research in the literature on this subject will also be utilized.

DOI :10.26650/YTA2020-003   IUP :10.26650/YTA2020-003    Full Text (PDF)

Osmanlı Taşrasında Bir Kamu Görevlisi, Ali Saib Bey ve İşkodra Vilayetine Dair Layihası

Hüseyin Baha Öztunç

Osmanlı Devleti’nin bürokrasi kadrosu, 19. yüzyılda ve özellikle Gülhâne Hatt-ı Hümayunu akabinde oluşturulan yeni kurumlarla oldukça genişlemiş ve ortaya çıkan personel ihtiyacı gerek merkez gerekse taşrada bu ihtiyaca cevap verecek kadrolaşma çalışmalarıyla giderilmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu çalışmada öncelikle son dönem Osmanlı bürokratlarından olan Ali Saib Bey’in 15 yaşında Malatya sancağı tahrirat kaleminde başlayan memuriyet hayatı ortaya konulacaktır. Daha sonra, Ali Saib Bey’in 29 Ekim 1911 tarihinde el yazması olarak kaleme aldığı ve tarafımca bir müzayededen temin edilmiş olup Cumhurbaşkanlığı Devlet Arşivi’nde tespit edilemeyen “İşkodra Vilâyeti’nde İcrâsı Tasavvur Buyurulan Tedâbir-i Islâhiyeye Dâ’ir Baʻzı Maʻlûmât ve Mütâlaʻât-ı Fâhirâne” başlıklı raporu değerlendirilecektir. Böylelikle hem Osmanlı taşrasında değişik hizmetlerde bulunan bir bürokratın memuriyet serüveni ortaya çıkartılacak hem de İşkodra vali vekilliği görevinde de bulunan Ali Saib Bey’in bu vilayetle ilgili problemlerin tespit ve giderilmesi hakkındaki önerileri incelenecektir. Çalışmanın ana kaynağını söz konusu layiha ve Cumhurbaşkanlığı Devlet Arşivi’nden Ali Saib Bey’le ilgili tespit edilen belgeler oluşturmakla beraber konuyla ilgili literatürde bulunan araştırma eserlerden de faydalanılacaktır. 


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


This study’s purpose is to provide information about Ali Saib Bey, who was in service in various provincial offices in the Ottoman State for many years and was the author of the annex which constitutes the main subject of the article. On the other hand, another purpose of the study was to determine the issues and recommendations stated in the annex and reveal whether these recommendations were realized through archive documents.

The civil service life of a public servant who served in the Ottoman provinces for many years will be examined in this study. Many issues such as his duties, assignments, and rewards taken by this officer in the provinces will be revealed in this section. In addition, the presentation of the annex that Ali Saib Bey wrote was also important in terms of showing what problems he had in Shkoder, which would come out shortly after the Ottoman Empire, and what recommendations were put forward to overcome these problems. The question of whether these recommendations were taken into consideration were examined through documents in the Presidential Ottoman Archives. It is thought that the findings obtained within the framework of this annex, which reveal the central-provincial relations and have not been studied before, will contribute to the history of this territory.

The first step in the method followed during the study was to collect data about the civil service life of Ali Saib Efendi, the owner of the annex. Later, it was evaluated in accordance with the original partition by making content analysis of the annex. And then, the documents obtained as a result of the review carried out in the Presidential Ottoman Archive on the subjects mentioned in the annex were compared. The studies conducted on the related territory were utilized for the data related to Shkoder. In this respect, the main source of the study was the annex of Ali Saib Bey and the documents obtained in the Presidential Ottoman Archive.

Ali Saib Bey, the son of a soldier father, started his career as a correspondence clerk in Malatya sanjak at a very young age and served in many parts of the country. Ali Saib Efendi, who came to Shkoder with his position as a provincial letter officer on February 1, 1909, also served as deputy governor of Shkoder during this duty. Ali Saib Bey, who briefly summarized his civil service life in this way, wrote an annex dated October 29, 1911 that formed the subject of this study. Initially, he transferred the geographical borders and population information of the province. In the section titled political and social situation and urgent needs of Shkoder, he emphasized the issue of Malesori, for which he was also assigned. One of the important determinations he made was that it was the most important problem of the people in this place to be in ignorance and misery. Also, the efforts of Austria and Italy to influence here are another issue that was mentioned in the annex. It was understood from the statements of Ali Saib Bey that they took the hearts of the people through the great investments they made in the region and that even some of the Muslims in the Malesori region left their religions for this reason. It was a remarkable determination that the people in Malesori and Shkoder took refuge in the patronage of Montenegro, which was their enemy. An important determination in this section was that the Ottoman ambassador in Çetine was acting as if he were supporting Montenegro. After this section, Ali Saib Bey gave information about the law that he defined as “not fit for civilization and humanity” under the title of Dukakin Law. The next title was education. In the annex stating that Shkoder was not at the desired level in education, it was worth noting that many of the teachers with insufficient salaries did not know Ottoman Turkish. The most important recommendation in this section was that an industrial school should be opened there. Under the title of Public Works, it mentioned that the situation of the roads was very bad and that it was necessary to do something as soon as possible. Another point mentioned in this section was that foreign engineers and conductors did not want to go to their places owing to various excuses. Under the public order title, it determined that the coast of Shkoder Lake, up to Boyana and Drac, was open to smuggling and that it was a necessity to set up observation towers in suitable places on the coast, and he emphasized the necessity of installing a telephone line between them. In the title on agriculture, he stated that agriculture was done in the old way due to the financial deficiencies of the people. Therefore, he emphasized that it was necessary to increase the capital of the agricultural bank there and to open the branch of the bank in some towns. Opening a sample field on which Ali Saib Bey was standing was one of the recommendations put into practice. Another important determination in this section is that Shkoder was very rich in terms of forest but it was not utilized properly. Under the heading of civil service, some significant opinions were given about administrative arrangements that needed to be made by giving the current administrative division of Shkoder. The most noteworthy of these was the proposal to assign the Muslims or Christians in Shkoder, who could speak the local language, as the head of the district. Under the heading of officers to be assigned to Shkoder, it was requested that the unqualified ones be taken from there and replaced by experienced officers, and that the salaries and liabilities of the officers who would work there should be made regularly. The most striking point in the headline of politics to be implemented in Shkoder was that almost all of the people across the province had an attitude towards the government and that the people of the territory should not behave violently as a result of their nature, but it would not also result in being too soft. The only thing to do was to meet in the middle. It was another recommendation that mobile doctors should be assigned there and that these doctors should constantly treat people who were sick in the villages and mountains and make the state propaganda. Finally, it was recommended that the loyalty of the people to the state should be provided through the Muslim and Christian opinion leaders and that the financial support should be provided to poor people as much as possible.

The annex written by an officer who worked in different parts of the Ottoman Empire as the correspondence clerk of Shkoder was an important document in order to understand center-provincial relations. There were some recommendations by Ali Saib Bey that were realized as well as those that could not be realized due to financial difficulties. As a result, thinking about how to manage Shkoder better and how to handle the current problems, Ali Saib Bey explained these issues in detail. However, neither this annex nor the efforts of the Ottoman State yielded any results, and Shkoder came out of the hands of the Ottomans as a result of the Balkan Wars.


PDF View

References

  • Ali Saib Bey Layihası, 16 Teşrîn-i Evvel 1327 (29 Ekim 1911). google scholar
  • Bâbıâli Evrak Odası (BEO) google scholar
  • Dahiliye İdare (DH.İD) google scholar
  • Dahiliye Mektubi (DH.MKT) google scholar
  • Dahiliye Mütenevvia (DH.MTV) google scholar
  • Dahiliye Defterler (DH SAİD.d) google scholar
  • Dahiliye Şifre, (DH ŞFR) google scholar
  • Hariciye Siyasi, (HR.SYS) google scholar
  • Haritalar, (HRT.h) google scholar
  • İrade Dahiliye (İ.DH) google scholar
  • İrade Hariciye (İ.HR) google scholar
  • Meclis-i Vâlâ (MV) google scholar
  • Akyıldız, Ali: Tanzimat Dönemi Osmanlı Merkez Teşkilatında Reform (1836-1856), İstanbul, Eren Yayınları, 1993. google scholar
  • Armaoğlu, Fahir: 19. Yüzyıl Siyasî Tarihi (1789-1914), Ankara, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, 2003. google scholar
  • Başkan, Ahmet: 1876-1909 Balkan Vilayetlerindeki Ormanlar ve Ormancılık Faaliyetleri, Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi Mardin Artuklu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Bitlis 2016. google scholar
  • Bello, Hasan: Osmanlı ve Arnavut Kaynaklarına Göre Arnavutluk’ta 1911 Malisörler İsyanı, Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul 2009. google scholar
  • Bilge, L. Mustafa: “Arnavutluk”, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi, C. 3, Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları, İstanbul 1991, ss. 383-390. google scholar
  • Erim, Nihat: Devletlerarası Hukuku ve Siyasi Tarih Metinleri, C. 1, Ankara, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, 1953. google scholar
  • Erken, İlkay: İşkodra Vilayetinin İdari ve Sosyal Yapısı (1876-1912), Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Samsun 2014. google scholar
  • Erken, İlkay: “İşkodra Vilayeti’nde Nahiye İdaresi’nin Uygulanması (1868-1912), Sosyal, Beşeri ve İdari Bilimler’de Akademik Araştırmalar-1, ed. Mehmet Yavuz Erler-Abdullah Şevki Duymaz, Ankara, Gece Kitaplığı Yayınları, 2018, ss. 185-200. google scholar
  • Findley, V. Carter: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda Bürokratik Reform Babıâli, 1789-1922, çev. Ercan Ertürk, İstanbul, Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları, 2014. google scholar
  • Güneş, Mehmet: Osmanlı Devleti’nde Kaymakamlık (1842-1871), İstanbul, Kitabevi Yayınları, 2014. google scholar
  • İpşirli, Mehmet: “Kalemiye”, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi, C. 24, Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları, İstanbul 2001, ss. 248-249. google scholar
  • Kiel, Machiel: “İşkodra”, Diyanet İslam Ansiklopedisi, C. 23, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları, İstanbul 2001, ss. 433-434. google scholar
  • Kuzucu, Kemalettin: “Layihalar Işığında Bağımsızlık Sürecinde Arnavutluk’un Sosyal ve Siyasal Durumu (1860-1908)”, Türk Dünyası İncelemeleri Dergisi, C.XII/2, Kış 2012, ss. 309-332. google scholar
  • Kütükoğlu, S. Mübahat: Osmanlı Belgelerinin Dili (Diplomatik), İstanbul, Kubbealtı Neşriyat, 1998. google scholar
  • Kütükoğlu, S. Mübahat: “Lâyiha”, Diyanet İslam Ansiklopedisi, C. 27, Ankara 2003, ss. 116-117. google scholar
  • Ortaylı, İlber: Tanzimat Devrinde Osmanlı Mahallî İdareleri (1840-1880), Ankara, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, 2000. Öztekin Yusuf: XIX. Yüzyılda İşkodra Gölü ve Boyana Nehri (Siyasi, Ekonomik ve Uluslararası Hukuki Durumu), Ordu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ordu 2014. google scholar
  • Seyitdanlıoğlu, Mehmet: Tanzimat Devrinde Meclis-i Vâlâ (1838-1868), Ankara, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, 1999. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Öztunç, H.B. (2020). A Public Official in the Ottoman Province, Ali Saib Bey and His Annex on Shkoder Province. Recent Period Turkish Studies, 0(37), 51-94. https://doi.org/10.26650/YTA2020-003


AMA

Öztunç H B. A Public Official in the Ottoman Province, Ali Saib Bey and His Annex on Shkoder Province. Recent Period Turkish Studies. 2020;0(37):51-94. https://doi.org/10.26650/YTA2020-003


ABNT

Öztunç, H.B. A Public Official in the Ottoman Province, Ali Saib Bey and His Annex on Shkoder Province. Recent Period Turkish Studies, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 37, p. 51-94, 2020.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Öztunç, Hüseyin Baha,. 2020. “A Public Official in the Ottoman Province, Ali Saib Bey and His Annex on Shkoder Province.” Recent Period Turkish Studies 0, no. 37: 51-94. https://doi.org/10.26650/YTA2020-003


Chicago: Humanities Style

Öztunç, Hüseyin Baha,. A Public Official in the Ottoman Province, Ali Saib Bey and His Annex on Shkoder Province.” Recent Period Turkish Studies 0, no. 37 (Jul. 2024): 51-94. https://doi.org/10.26650/YTA2020-003


Harvard: Australian Style

Öztunç, HB 2020, 'A Public Official in the Ottoman Province, Ali Saib Bey and His Annex on Shkoder Province', Recent Period Turkish Studies, vol. 0, no. 37, pp. 51-94, viewed 24 Jul. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/YTA2020-003


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Öztunç, H.B. (2020) ‘A Public Official in the Ottoman Province, Ali Saib Bey and His Annex on Shkoder Province’, Recent Period Turkish Studies, 0(37), pp. 51-94. https://doi.org/10.26650/YTA2020-003 (24 Jul. 2024).


MLA

Öztunç, Hüseyin Baha,. A Public Official in the Ottoman Province, Ali Saib Bey and His Annex on Shkoder Province.” Recent Period Turkish Studies, vol. 0, no. 37, 2020, pp. 51-94. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/YTA2020-003


Vancouver

Öztunç HB. A Public Official in the Ottoman Province, Ali Saib Bey and His Annex on Shkoder Province. Recent Period Turkish Studies [Internet]. 24 Jul. 2024 [cited 24 Jul. 2024];0(37):51-94. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/YTA2020-003 doi: 10.26650/YTA2020-003


ISNAD

Öztunç, HüseyinBaha. A Public Official in the Ottoman Province, Ali Saib Bey and His Annex on Shkoder Province”. Recent Period Turkish Studies 0/37 (Jul. 2024): 51-94. https://doi.org/10.26650/YTA2020-003



TIMELINE


Published Online25.06.2020

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.