Value Similarity of Mother-Child Dyads: An Investigation in Middle ChildhoodAyşe Vildan Ünal, Zeynep Çakmak, Dilek Sarıtaş Atalar, Zehra Uçanok
Recent developmental psychology studies conducted within the context of values and children’s value acquisition have shown that even during the early years of middle childhood, children’s value priorities can occur. Parents, who are the primary actors in the socialization process, play an important role in the value development of their children. In this study, the similarities between mother–child dyads in terms of the 10 value types of Schwartz were examined. For this aim, a total of 172 mothers and their children between ages 6–11 years attending 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade in primary schools in Ankara were included in this study. The Portrait Value Questionnaire was used to assess mothers’ values, and the Picture-Based Value Survey was used to assess children’s values. The findings showed that mothers gave priority to the values of achievement, security, and self-direction and high-order values of self-enhancement and conservation. In contrast, it was found that children gave priority to the values of tradition, benevolence, and universality and higherorder values of self-transcendence and conservation. Furthermore, it was seen that the values of the mother–child dyads had lower similarities, and the order of the priority of the value types differed from each other. In addition, our findings revealed that there were significant relationships among the mother’s education, total monthly income, and mother–child value similarity, which varied according to the age of the child. While the mothers’ education and total monthly income were not associated with the mother–younger child value similarity, these were negatively associated with the mother– older child value similarity. Similarly, it was observed that the relationship among the mothers’ education, total monthly income, and mother–child value similarity also varied according to the gender of the child. While the mothers’ education and total monthly income were not associated with the mother–son value similarity, these were negatively associated with the mother–daughter value similarity. In conclusion, it is thought that these findings can provide information about the intergenerational transfer of values and provide guiding clues for the regulation of curriculum related to value education in schools.
Anne-Çocuk Çiftlerinin Değer Benzerliği: Orta Çocukluk Döneminde Bir İncelemeAyşe Vildan Ünal, Zeynep Çakmak, Dilek Sarıtaş Atalar, Zehra Uçanok
Değerler ve çocukların değer kazanımı kapsamında yürütülen yakın zamanlı gelişim psikolojisi araştırmaları, orta çocukluğun ilk yıllarında bile çocukların değer önceliklerinin oluşabildiğini göstermiştir. Sosyalleştirme sürecinin birincil aktörü olan ebeveynler, çocuklarının değer gelişiminde önemli bir role sahiptir. Bu çalışmada, anne-çocuk çiftlerinin Schwartz’ın 10 değer tipi açısından ne derece benzerlik gösterdiği incelenmiştir. Bu amaçla, Ankara’da yaşayan yaşları 6 ile 11 (Ort. = 8.5, SS = 1.23) arasında değişen ilkokul 1., 2., 3. ve 4. sınıfa devam eden 172 öğrenci ve anneleri çalışmaya dahil edilmiştir. Annelerin değerlerini ölçmek amacıyla Portre Değerler Anketi, çocukların değerlerini ölçmek amacıyla ise Çocuklar için Resme Dayalı Değerler Taraması kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgular anneler için başarı, güvenlik ve özyönelim değerleri ile özgenişletim ve muhafazacılık üst değerlerinin önemli olduğunu göstermiştir. Buna karşılık, çocuklar için geleneksellik, iyilikseverlik ve evrenselcilik değerleri ile özaşkınlık ve muhafazacılık üst değerlerinin öncelikli değerler olduğu bulunmuştur. Ayrıca anne-çocuk çiftlerinin değerlerinin genel olarak düşük benzerlik gösterdiği ve değer tiplerine ait öncelik sıralamalarının birbirlerinden farklılaştığı görülmüştür. Bunun yanı sıra, araştırma bulgularımız anne-çocuk çiftlerinin değer benzerliği ile annenin eğitim düzeyi ve toplam aylık gelirin ilişkili olduğunu ve bu ilişkilerin çocuğun yaşına göre farklılaştığı ortaya koymuştur. Annenin eğitim düzeyi ve toplam aylık gelir küçük yaş grubundaki anne-çocuk çiftlerinin değer benzerliği ile ilişkili değilken büyük yaş grubundaki anne-çocuk çiftlerinin değer benzerliği ile negatif yönde ilişkilidir. Benzer şekilde, annenin eğitim düzeyi ve toplam aylık gelir ile anne-çocuk çiftlerinin değer benzerliği arasındaki ilişkinin çocuğun cinsiyetine göre de farklılaştığı görülmüştür. Annenin eğitim düzeyi ve toplam aylık gelir anne-erkek çocuk çiftlerinin değer benzerliği ile ilişkili değilken anne-kız çocuk çiftlerinin değer benzerliği negatif yönde ilişkilidir. Sonuç olarak, elde edilen bulguların değerlerin nesiller arası aktarımı konusunda bilgi sağlayabileceği ve okullardaki değerler eğitimi ile ilgili müfredatın düzenlenmesinde yol gösterici ipuçları taşıyabileceği düşünülmektedir.
Human values have been one of the key issues in the social sciences where individuals’ attitudes and behaviors are examined. Values can be defined as relatively stable beliefs that determine the individual and social desirability of goals and behaviors (Schwartz, 1992). This research is based on Schwartz’s (1992) theory of values, which is currently the most used theory in the social sciences. Socialization is the process by which the values, expectations, and beliefs of a society are transferred to the next generations and in which the parents and children mutually interact (Grusec & Goodnow, 1994; Kuczynski, Marshall, & Schell, 1997). The value similarity of parents and children is considered an implication of this value socialization process (Grusec & Davidov, 2007). It has been indicated that there are significant associations between parent–child value similarity and several different factors such as the socioeconomic level of parents, parenting behaviors, age, and the gender of the child (Hitlin, 2006). In middle childhood, during cognitive and socioemotional development, children gain the ability to take the other’s perspective, and so they may have a greater priority toward specific other-oriented values (Döring, Blauensteiner, Aryus, Drögekamp, & Bilsky, 2010). Therefore, examining mother–child value similarity in middle childhood is an interesting topic to research because it is important to understand the effect of increased cognitive skills and reveal this developmental pattern. Starting from this point of view, this study aims to evaluate the similarity between mother–child dyads in terms of the 10 value types of Schwartz and the associations between this similarity and socioeconomic factors in middle childhood.
A total of 172 mothers (M = 37.31, SD = 4.75) and their children between ages 6–11 years (M = 8.5, SD =1.23) attending 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade in primary schools in Ankara participated in the study. The Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001) was used to assess mothers’ values, and the Picture-Based Value Survey (Döring et al., 2010) was used to assess children’s values.
The results showed that the mothers gave priority to the values of achievement, security, and self-direction and high-order values of self-enhancement and conservation. Moreover, it was found that the children gave priority to values of tradition, benevolence, and universalism and higher-order values of self-transcendence and conservation. The findings showed that there were significant mean differences in value types between the mothers and the children. It was seen that when the mothers had higher scores of power, hedonism, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, and conformity, the children had higher scores of tradition. Furthermore, it was found that the values of the mother–child dyads had lower similarities, and the order of the priority of the value types differed from each other. The results revealed that there were significant relations among the mother’s education, total monthly income, and mother–child value similarity. These relations varied according to the age and gender of the child. The mothers’ education and total monthly income were negatively associated with both mother–older child value similarity and mother–daughter value similarity.
In this study, it was found that while the highest order value types for mothers were achievement, security, and self-direction, the highest order value types for children were tradition, benevolence, and universalism. It was revealed that the mothers’ and the children’s value priorities differed from each other, and the values of the mother–child dyads had lower similarities. This result may be explained by the fact that while young and middle adults give more importance to self-oriented values consistent with their developmental goals, children give more importance to other-oriented values as a result of their socio-cognitional development in middle childhood. Furthermore, it was seen that the mothers’ education and total monthly income were significantly related to mother–child value similarity. These were also negatively related to mother–older child value similarity and mother–daughter value similarity. Mothers of a lower socioeconomic level can be more authoritarian and harsher about the socialization of values for older children. Moreover, they expect girls to adapt to and obey their values by adopting a socialization process according to traditional gender norms. The findings obtained from this research should be evaluated within the limitations of the study. Future longitudinal studies can examine the value development of children and the pattern of parent–child value similarities over time. In future studies, it will be important to address the role of peers and teachers in the value socialization process in middle childhood. Furthermore, the study was conducted with mother–child dyads. Studies with father–child dyads may reveal insightful information in terms of value similarity, and future studies can be conducted with the participation of both parents. Finally, it is thought that repeating the study with a more representative sample in terms of education and income level will increase the generalizability of the findings. The present research is the first study to examine the value similarities of mother–child dyads in middle childhood in Turkey. In conclusion, it is thought that the results of this study can guide professionals in studying value education. Consequently, these findings can provide information about the intergenerational transfer of values.