Review Article


DOI :10.26650/SP2018-0041   IUP :10.26650/SP2018-0041    Full Text (PDF)

Forgiveness Interventions for Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review

Esra Asıcı

Along with the increasing popularity of positive mental health understanding, the concept of forgiveness has attracted the attention of many researchers working within the field of psychology and mental health. Studies aiming to identify variables related to forgiveness have also increased. After determining that forgiveness is associated with psychological health, studies for enhancing positive attitudes toward forgiveness has gained importance. In the current study, the aim was to systematically review the studies examining the effectiveness of forgiveness group interventions for children and adolescents. In line with this aim, the keywords of “forgiveness intervention”, “forgiveness group”, “forgiveness therapy”, “forgiveness education” and “forgiveness program” were searched in the databases of the Wiley Online Library, Taylor and Francis, Springer Link, Scopus, Science Direct, Sage Journals, EBSCOhost and TR Index in Turkish and English for 2010-2019. The resulting 529 articles from the literature search were evaluated according to the PRISMA guide and the selection criteria determined for this research. Among all the articles, the six that met the required criteria have been included in the research. The selected articles have been examined in terms of research method, research group, features of applied program, instrument used, and effectiveness of the applied program. According to results, all investigated interventions have been found effective to produce forgiveness. Besides this, the selected studies contributed to decreasing of anger, depression and anxiety; increasing of empathy, hope and life satisfaction. It was determined that the group interventions based on the forgiveness process model produced positive results. Consequently, the selected studies showed that forgiveness intervention for children and adolescents enhanced forgiveness and positively affected psychological health. In the light of the obtained results, it is suggested that, forgiveness group interventions for children and adolescents should be used in schools as a part of preventive and interventional psychological counseling services. 
DOI :10.26650/SP2018-0041   IUP :10.26650/SP2018-0041    Full Text (PDF)

Çocuk ve Ergenlere Yönelik Affetme Müdahaleleri: Sistematik Gözden Geçirme

Esra Asıcı

Pozitif ruh sağlığı anlayışının popülerlik kazanmasıyla birlikte; affetme kavramı, psikoloji ve ruh sağlığı alanında çalışan pek çok araştırmacının dikkatini çekmiş ve affetmeyle ilişkisi olan değişkenleri belirlemek amacıyla gerçekleştirilen çalışmalar oldukça artış göstermiştir. Affetmenin psikolojik sağlığın göstergesi olan değişkenlerle ilişkisinin ortaya konulmasıyla birlikte, bireylerin affetme konusundaki bilgi, beceri ve olumlu tutumlarını arttırmaya yönelik çalışmalar da önem kazanmıştır. Bu araştırmada, affetmeyi temel alan grup müdahalelerinin etkililiğinin sistematik olarak incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda; Wiley Online Library, Taylor and Francis, Springer Link, Scopus, Science Direct, Sage Journals, EBSCOhost ve TR Dizin veri tabanlarında, “affetme müdahalesi”, “affetme grubu”, “affetme terapisi”, “affetme eğitimi” ve “affetme programı” terimleri aracılığıyla, 2010-2019 yılları arasında yayımlanan Türkçe ve İngilizce araştırma makaleleri taranmıştır. Yapılan tarama sonucunda ulaşılan 529 makale PRISMA rehberi ve bu araştırma için belirlenen seçim kriterleri doğrultusunda değerlendirilerek, kriterleri karşılayan 6 makale araştırma kapsamına alınmıştır. Seçilen makaleler araştırma grubu, araştırmanın deseni, uygulanan grup müdahalesinin özellikleri, kullanılan ölçme araçları ve müdahalenin etkililiği açısından incelenmiştir. Bulgulara göre, incelenen tüm affetme müdahaleleri katılımcıların affetme konusunda bilgi ve becerilerinin artmasında ve affetmeye ilişkin olumlu bir tutum geliştirmelerinde etkili olmuştur. Ayrıca, seçilen çalışmalarda uygulanan affetme müdahalelerinin öfke, depresyon ve anksiyetenin azalmasına; empati, umut ve yaşam doyumunun da artmasına katkı sağladığı görülmüştür. Özellikle de affetmenin süreç modelini temel alan grup müdahalelerinin olumlu sonuçlar ürettiği belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, çocuk ve ergenlere yönelik olarak gerçekleştirilen affetme müdahalelerinin, affetmeyi arttırdığı ve psikolojik sağlığı olumlu yönde etkilediği söylenebilir. Elde edilen sonuçlar ışığında, önleyici ve müdahale edici psikolojik danışma hizmetlerinin bir bölümü olarak çocuk ve ergenlere yönelik affetme müdahalelerinin okullarda kullanılması önerilmektedir. 

EXTENDED ABSTRACT


In current study, it was aimed to systematically review studies examining the effectiveness of forgiveness interventions for children and adolescents.

Method

This study was a systematic review. The literature review was conducted for 2010-2019 years, in the databases of Wiley Online Library, Taylor and Francis, Springer Link, Scopus, Science Direct, Sage Journals, EBSCOhost and TR Index, between November 2018 and March 2019. The terms of “forgiveness intervention”, “forgiveness group”, “forgiveness therapy”, “forgiveness education” and “forgiveness program” were used for the search. The following selection criteria were identified: (a) studies involving forgiveness group intervention for children and adolescents, (b) studies involving information about the content of intervention programs, (c) studies showing the effects of applied programs by using statistical data. The exclusion criteria were as follows: (a) studies not writing in Turkish or English, (b) studies with only an abstract, (c) studies not using group intervention, (d) review studies, and (e) descriptive studies. A total of 529 research articles were reached and 6 articles have been selected for inclusion within the scope of the study.

Results

In terms of research group and study design, obtained results are following: Park, et al. (2013) conducted the study with female adolescents (N = 48, Mage = 15.79). This study was based on 3 (pre-test, post-test, follow up test) x 3 (experimental, control, and placebo group) mixed design. Enright, et al. (2014) conducted the study with 8th grade students (N = 132, Mage = 13.48). This study was based on 3 (experimental group) x 2 (pre-test, post-test) mixed design. Taysi and Vural (2016) carried out their study with 4th grade students (N = 122, Mage = 10.00). Their study was based on 3 (pre-test, post-test, follow up test) x 2 (experimental and control group) mixed design. In the study of Vassilopoulos, et.al (2018), the participants were 6th grade students (N = 42, Mage = 11.14). This study was based on mixed design including qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative dimension was based on 2 (pre-test and post-test) x 2 (experimental and control group) mixed design. Freedman (2018) conducted the study with high school students (N = 21, Mage = 17.3). Research design was mixed design including qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative dimension was based on 2 (pre- and post-test) x 2 (experimental and control group) mixed design. Finally, Rahman, et al. (2018) conducted the study with female early adolescents (N = 8, age range: 11-12). Research design was 3 (pre-test, post-test, follow up test) x 2 (experimental and control group) mixed design. 

When the studies examined in terms of features of applied programs, following results were obtained. Park et al. (2013) applied “Forgiveness Program for Aggressive Victims”. Enright et al. (2014) applied a class guidance program based on process model. Program focuses importance of forgiveness, aims to gain forgiveness understanding and decrease anger. Taysi and Vural (2016) applied a class guidance program based on process model. Program is “Joyful Forgiveness” for 9-11 age children. Vassilopoulos et al. (2018) applied a class guidance program. Program includes recognition and expression of emotions, relations among emotions, thoughts and behaviors, value of love, forgiveness, developing an act plan for applying forgiveness. Freedman (2018) applied a small group guidance program based on process model. Program includes offence, anger, commitment to forgive, reframing, empathy, compassion and absorption of pain. Rahman et al. (2018) applied forgiveness therapy based on process model. The first 16 sessions were applied as individual therapy; the latter 16 sessions were applied as group therapy. 

When the studies examined in terms of results, following results were obtained. In the study of Park et al. (2013), after intervention forgiveness, empathy and grades increased, anger, hostile attribution, aggression and delinquency decreased in experimental group. In the study of Enright et al. (2014); after intervention, forgiveness, and willingness to forgive increased, and prejudice decreased in all groups. In the study of Taysi and Vural (2016), forgiveness and hope scores of experimental group increased at post-test. Anger scores of experimental group increased at follow up test. In the study of Vassilopoulos et al. (2018), at post-test, forgiveness and life satisfaction increased, anger decreased in favor of experimental group. In the study of Freedman (2018), a significant difference in favor of experimental group was found in terms of forgiveness, anxiety, depression and hope; however, there wasn’t significant difference between groups in terms of self-esteem. In the study of Rahman et al. (2018), after intervention, forgiveness increased and anger decreased in experimental group. 

Discussion

According to obtained results, forgiveness group interventions for children and adolescents are effective on enhancing of information and skills about forgiveness and development of positive attitudes towards forgiveness. Besides, forgiveness interventions help children and adolescents to cope anger, to decrease depression and to increase hope, and so positively affect mental health.


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APA

Asıcı, E. (2019). Forgiveness Interventions for Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review. Studies in Psychology, 39(2), 429-457. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2018-0041


AMA

Asıcı E. Forgiveness Interventions for Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review. Studies in Psychology. 2019;39(2):429-457. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2018-0041


ABNT

Asıcı, E. Forgiveness Interventions for Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review. Studies in Psychology, [Publisher Location], v. 39, n. 2, p. 429-457, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Asıcı, Esra,. 2019. “Forgiveness Interventions for Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review.” Studies in Psychology 39, no. 2: 429-457. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2018-0041


Chicago: Humanities Style

Asıcı, Esra,. Forgiveness Interventions for Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review.” Studies in Psychology 39, no. 2 (Sep. 2021): 429-457. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2018-0041


Harvard: Australian Style

Asıcı, E 2019, 'Forgiveness Interventions for Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review', Studies in Psychology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 429-457, viewed 24 Sep. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2018-0041


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Asıcı, E. (2019) ‘Forgiveness Interventions for Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review’, Studies in Psychology, 39(2), pp. 429-457. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2018-0041 (24 Sep. 2021).


MLA

Asıcı, Esra,. Forgiveness Interventions for Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review.” Studies in Psychology, vol. 39, no. 2, 2019, pp. 429-457. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2018-0041


Vancouver

Asıcı E. Forgiveness Interventions for Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review. Studies in Psychology [Internet]. 24 Sep. 2021 [cited 24 Sep. 2021];39(2):429-457. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2018-0041 doi: 10.26650/SP2018-0041


ISNAD

Asıcı, Esra. Forgiveness Interventions for Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review”. Studies in Psychology 39/2 (Sep. 2021): 429-457. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2018-0041



TIMELINE


Submitted10.12.2018
First Revision27.03.2019
Last Revision20.07.2019
Accepted24.07.2019
Published Online10.10.2019

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