Adapting the Evolved Developmental Niche History to Turkish and Investigating Its Psychometric PropertiesEsin Şener, Gülpembe Yüceol Akşit, Arife Berna Aytaç, Ayşe Vildan Acar Bayraktar, Zeynep Çakmak, Suzan Çen Yağız
Having studies that emphasize the mutual relations between individuals and contexts in lifespan development evaluate the concept of developmental niche and its associations with different constructs is important. The scales that evaluate the family environment in the Turkish literature were examined, and a need has been observed for a scale that assesses the characteristics of the family context and developmental niche. For this aim, this study intends to adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Evolved Developmental Niche History (EDNH), a measure developed by Narvaez et al. (2016b). The study has been conducted in two parts to assess the EDNH’s psychometric properties. The first part of the study conducts exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and validity analyses. The sample includes a total of 314 university students, 224 (71.3%) of whom are female and 90 (28.7%) who are male. The participants’ mean age is 20.63 years (SD = 1.99). The second part of the study conducts a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) over a sample consisting of 327 participants, of whom 271 (82.9%) are female and 56 (17.1%) are male. The participants’ mean age is 20.86 years (SD = 2.65). The scale originally consisted of 20 items with one factor. The findings reveal the scale to have 19 items and four factors in the Turkish sample. The relationships the EDNH has with the Family Climate Scale (Gönül et al., 2018); the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (Aytaç et al., 2018); and the Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale (Methany et al., 1982) were examined to test the construct validity. The correlations between these scales and the EDNH were mainly moderate. These results support the construct validity. In addition, Cronbach’s alpha for the overall EDNH is .90 and ranges from .67 to .83 for each of the factors. As a result, the findings from the present study provide evidence that this scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool. The adaptation of this scale is thought to be able to contribute to the Turkish literature for studying the concept of developmental niche.
Gelişimsel Niş Ölçeği’nin Türkçeye Uyarlanması ve Psikometrik Özelliklerinin İncelenmesiEsin Şener, Gülpembe Yüceol Akşit, Arife Berna Aytaç, Ayşe Vildan Acar Bayraktar, Zeynep Çakmak, Suzan Çen Yağız
Yaşam boyu gelişim sürecini birey-bağlam etkileşimine odaklanarak incelemeyi amaçlayan güncel psikolojik çalışmalar için gelişimsel niş kavramı ve bu kavramın farklı psikolojik değişkenlerle ilişkisini değerlendirmek önemlidir. Ulusal alanyazında aile ortamını ve ilişkilerini değerlendirmek için kullanılan ölçüm araçları incelendiğinde, bireyin içinde yaşadığı aile bağlamının özelliklerini ve gelişimsel niş yapısını değerlendiren bir ölçüm aracına ihtiyaç olduğu görülmüştür. Bu doğrultuda mevcut araştırmanın amacı, Narvaez ve arkadaşları (2016b) tarafından geliştirilen, bireyin 18 yaşına kadar içinde yaşadığı aile bağlamını değerlendiren Gelişimsel Niş Ölçeği’ni (GNÖ) Türkçeye uyarlamak ve psikometrik özelliklerini incelemektir. Ölçeğin Türkçeye uyarlaması iki farklı çalışma temelinde yürütülmüştür. Açımlayıcı faktör analizi ve geçerlik analizlerinin yürütüldüğü ilk çalışmada örneklem, 224’ü kadın (%71.3), 90’ı erkek (%28.7) 314 katılımcıdan oluşmaktadır. Katılımcıların yaş ortalaması 20.63’tir (SS = 1.99). Doğrulayıcı faktör analizleri ise ikinci çalışma kapsamında yürütülmüştür. İkinci çalışmanın örneklemi, 271’i kadın (%82.9), 56’sı erkek (%17.1) 327 katılımcıdan oluşmaktadır. Katılımcıların yaş ortalaması 20.86’dır (SS = 2.65). Ölçek orijinalinde 20 maddeden oluşmaktadır ve tek faktörlü bir yapıya sahiptir. Bulgular, ölçeğin Türkçe formunun 19 madde ve dört faktörlü bir yapıya sahip olduğunu göstermiştir. Ayrıca, GNÖ’nün yapı geçerliğini sınamak için, Aile İklimi Ölçeği, Ebeveyn-Çocuk İlişkisi ve Aile Çevresi Kaos Ölçeği kullanılarak farklı yapılarla ilişkileri incelenmiştir. GNÖ ile bu yapılar arasındaki korelasyonların ağırlıklı olarak orta düzeyde olması ölçeğin yapı geçerliğine yönelik kanıt sağlamaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra, GNÖ’nün iç tutarlık katsayıları tüm ölçek için .90, faktörler için .67 ile .83 arasında değişmektedir. Sonuç olarak, mevcut çalışmanın bulguları bu ölçeğin geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı olduğu yönünde kanıtlar sunmuştur. Bu doğrultuda mevcut araştırmanın gelişimsel niş kavramının çalışılabilmesi için işlevsel bir ölçme aracının uyarlanmasıyla ulusal alanyazına katkı sağlayabileceği düşünülmektedir.
The concept of niche is widely used in conjunction with the concept of habitat in natural sciences and is used to describe the interaction processes of species within their natural environment. In this respect, the concept of niche contradicts the traditional evolutionary view of the concept of passive organisms and brings a very dynamic perspective to the field (Flynn et al., 2013; Stotz, 2010). With this perspective, the concept of niche becomes involved in psychological approaches that examine the developing individual contextually (Lerner, 2006; Super & Harkness, 1986). In line with all this knowledge, Narvaez et al. (2016b) introduced the concept of evolved developmental niche and developed the Evolved Developmental Niche History (EDNH) as a retrospective measure of early life experiences that includes questions about affectionate touch, corporal punishment, play, family togetherness, and positive and negative home climate. The scale evaluates the familial factors that can contextually affect development. In this respect, the scale corresponds to the current theoretical frameworks at the level of interaction between the individual and contexts. To the best of our knowledge, however, no adapted and/or developed instrument that specifically measures developmental niche by retrospectively evaluating family mechanisms is found in Turkey. The primary aim of the current study is to adapt the EDNH into to Turkish and to evaluate its psychometric properties.
The first part of the study conducts an exploratory factor analysis as well as validity analyses. The sample for this part of the study consists of university students continuing their undergraduate education in Ankara or Eskişehir. The sample includes a total of 314 university students, of whom 224 (71.3%) are female and 90 (28.7%) are male. The participants’ mean age is 20.63 years (SD = 1.99). The relationships the EDNH has with the Family Climate Scale (Gönül et al., 2018), the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (Aytaç et al., 2018), and the Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale (Methany et al., 1982) has been examined to test the construct validity. The data from this part of the study have been analyzed using the program SPSS 23.
The second part of the study conducts a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) over a sample consisting of 327 participants, of whom 271 (82.9%) are female and 56 (17.1%) are male. The participants’ mean age is 20.86 (SD = 2.65). The data from this part of the study have been analyzed using the program AMOS.
According to the item-total correlation analysis, correlations for the scale’s items were calculated between .34 and .75. Cronbach’s alpha of internal consistency as obtained for the overall scale is .90, with alphas obtained for the individual factors as follows: .83 for supportive family, .67 for participation in activities, .81 for negative home climate, and .78 for positive home climate. The total score from the EDNH has been negatively correlated with the Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale (r = -0.61) and the Parent-Child Relationship Scale’s subscale of negative relationship (r = -0.28) while being positively correlated to the Family Climate Scale’s subscale of emotional adjustment (r = .66) and the Parent-Child Relationship Scale’s subscale of positive relationship (r = .64). A similar pattern was observed for the EDNH’s four subscales. As a result, these findings provide satisfactory evidence for the construct validity of the EDNH.
A CFA model was formed in order to test the structure that was obtained from the EFA analysis. Correlated errors were added after examining the modifications. The findings show the model with four factors to fit the data well (χ2(327) = 290.136; df = 127, CFI = .91, RMSEA = .06, GFI = .91.). Factor loadings in terms of the standardized regression weights range from .36 to .89. The model was tested with Item 4, which confirmed Item 4 to not be significantly loaded on the relevant factor. Thus, Item 4 has been removed from the final model.
The findings indicate the Turkish version of the EDNH to have a different factor structure than the original scale. The Turkish EDNH has four factors and 19 items instead of one factor and 20 items. Family relations are represented with a broader and more integrative perspective within the EDNH. For this reason, the construct validity of the EDNH was tested by examining its relationships with other scales that evaluate different aspects of the concept of family. The physical characteristics of the individual’s home environment and family routines have been evaluated using the Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale; the nature of the relationship between mother and child (e.g., warmth, conflict) has been evaluated using the Parent-Child Relationship Scale; and emotional harmony among all individuals in the family has been evaluated using the Family Climate Scale. The results were in the theoretically expected direction. Specifically, the EDNH has been positively correlated to the scales evaluating positive and supportive family relationships and negatively correlated to a chaotic family environment and adverse parent-child relationships. This finding indicates the adapted scale to be usable for assessing different aspects of the family environment in which the individual has grown up in Turkish culture.