Research Article


DOI :10.26650/SP2019-0023   IUP :10.26650/SP2019-0023    Full Text (PDF)

Effects of Second Language Acquisition on Narrative Structure and Linguistic Processes in Preschool and SchoolAged Children

Aslı Aktan Erciyes

This research examines the effects of second language acquisition in early childhood on the structural and linguistic properties of narrative skills in the child’s native language. To investigate these questions, narrative and vocabulary skills in monolingual and bilingual children (Frog story) were evaluated. One hundred and twelve five- and seven-year-old monolingual (Language 1 [L1]: Mother tongue, Turkish) (N = 61) and bilingual (L1, Turkish; Language 2 [L2]: Second language, English) (N = 51) children participated in the study. Narrative skills were evaluated only for Turkish for monolingual children, whereas bilingual children were tested in English as well, the latter test taking place on a separate day. For the structural evaluation of narrative discourse, a schema is used to evaluate the narrative skills of bilingual children. The elements in the schema are: Frog story elements, sequence, perspective / emotion and affect, and finally engagement. In order to evaluate the linguistic complexity simple and complex clauses were coded. The percentage of complex clauses with respect to total clauses was used as an indication of linguistic complexity. There were two age groups in the monolingual and bilingual groups. The findings revealed that in L1: Turkish, bilingual and monolingual children differed for narrative structure components regardless of age group. Monolinguals outperformed their bilingual peers for frog story elements, sequence, perspective affect, and engagement. Age differences indicated that for five-yearolds there were no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals for perspective affect and engagement which were difficult skills to display at that age. Monolingual children were better at incorporating more complex structures into their narratives compared to bilinguals. It was found that bilingual and monolingual children did not differ in L1 vocabulary skills. The results showed that early exposure to L2 might result in negative outcomes for L1 narrative development.
DOI :10.26650/SP2019-0023   IUP :10.26650/SP2019-0023    Full Text (PDF)

İkinci Dil Ediniminin Okul Öncesi ve Okul Çağı Çocuklarında Anlatı Becerilerinin Kurgusal ve Dilbilgisel Süreçlerine Olan Etkisi

Aslı Aktan Erciyes

Bu araştırma erken çocuklukta ikinci dil öğrenmenin anadildeki anlatı becerilerinin kurgusal ve dil bilgisel yapılarının üzerindeki etkilerini incelemektedir. Bu soruları araştırmak için tek dilli ve iki dilli çocuklara anlatı becerileri görevi (kurbağa hikayesi), sözcük dağarcığı testleri uygulanmıştır. Beş ve yedi yaşındaki 112 tek dilli (Dil 1 [D1]: Anadil, Türkçe) (N = 61) ve iki dilli (D1, Türkçe, Dil 2 [D2]: İkinci dil, İngilizce) (N = 51) çocuk araştırmaya katılmıştır. Anlatı becerileri tek dilli çocuklar için sadece Türkçe oturumla değerlendirilmiş, iki dilli çocuklar Türkçe dışında farklı bir oturum gününde ve farklı bir araştırmacıyla İngilizce olarak da değerlendirilmiştir. Anlatı söylemlerinin kurgusal açıdan değerlendirilmesi için alan yazında iki dilli çocukların anlatı becerilerini değerlendirmek için kullanılan ve dört temel alanı kapsayan bir şema kullanılmıştır. Buna göre hikayeler kurbağa hikayesi unsurları, akış, perspektif/duygu ve son olarak anlatımda canlılık alanlarında değerlendirilmiştir. Dil bilgisel karmaşıklık değerlendirilmesi için basit ve karmaşık cümlecikler kodlanmıştır. Karmaşık cümleciklerin yüzdesel oranı dil bilgisel karmaşıklık düzeyinin göstergesi olarak alınmıştır. Bulgular, anadilde anlatı becerilerinin iki dilli çocuklarda tek dilli çocuklara göre farklılık gösterdiğini, anlatı kurgusu unsurlarında (kurbağa hikayesi unsurları, akış, perspektif/duygu ve canlılık) ve dil bilgisel karmaşıklık alanlarında tek dilli çocukların iki dilli çocuklardan daha iyi performans gösterdiğini ortaya koymuştur. Yaşla ilgili farklılıklar beş yaşta perspektif/duygu ve canlılık unsurlarında tek ve iki dilli çocuklar arasında fark olmadığını, bu becerilerin bu yaş grubu için zor olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. İki dilli çocukların D1 sözcük dağarcığı becerilerinde tek dili çocuklardan farkı olmadığı bulunmuştur. Sonuçlar erken dönemde başlayan yoğun ikinci dil pratiklerinin anadildeki anlatı becerileri açısından olumsuz etkiler ortaya koyabileceğini göstermiştir.

EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Narrative competence plays a crucial role in the development of children’s linguistic and cognitive skills in many respects. Therefore, investigating children’s narrative skills provides enriched information in both domains. Narrative competence involves an integration of multiple systems of language as it requires the simultaneous planning of a meaningful content in terms of a coherent structure, a cohesive language use and a concern for the listeners’ informational needs (Johnston, 2008). 

Producing narratives requires a coherent organization of the events making up the story around a goal in a way that renders them meaningful in terms of the intentional states of the characters and to express them by use of complex syntactic structures and appropriate lexical items. (Berman & Slobin, 1994; Johnston, 2008). Research on bilingual children’s narrative development is often limited to specific language-pairings (i.e. Spanish/English) and minority contexts where low-socioeconomic status (SES) is another variable playing a key role (Miller et al., 2006). 

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of L2 (L2: Second language, English) on L1 (L1: Mother tongue, Turkish) and language competence reflected in narratives, both in structural and linguistic aspects. To investigate these questions, narrative skills task was performed with monolingual and bilingual children utilizing the wordless Frog, Where are you? (Mayer, 1969). 

Method

One hundred and twelve five- and seven-year-old monolingual (N = 61) and bilingual (N = 51) children participated in the study. Narrative skills were evaluated only for Turkish for monolingual children, whereas bilingual children were tested in English as well, the latter test taking place on a separate day. In order to assess vocabulary competence for L1 and L2 Türkçe İfade Edici ve Alıcı Dil Testi (TIFALDI, Kazak-Berument & Güven, 2013) and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (PPVT-4, Dunn & Dunn, 2012) were administered. In order to assess executive functioning – working memory, the backward digit span task of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children- R (WISC-R, Wechsler, 1974) was used.

Results

Narratives were transcribed and narrative quality was evaluated using Pearson (2002) coding scheme. Narratives were coded on four dimensions: Frog story elements, which refers to the episodic components of the story, sequence, which refers to overall plotline of the story, perspective-and-affect, which refers to referencing and internal states, and engagement, which corresponds to effort for listener engagement (Pearson, 2002). For each dimension 2 (Age: 5-and 7-year-olds) x 2 (Language group: monolingual and bilingual) factorial ANOVAs were conducted. For frog story elements, monolinguals (M = 6.13, SD = 2.81) performed better than bilinguals (M = 4.25, SD = 2.91) for both age groups, F(1, 107) = 12.18, p < .001, η p 2 = .10. For sequence, monolinguals (M = 7.73, SD = 2.59) again performed better than bilinguals (M = 5.35, SD = 2.36), F(1, 107) = 27.39, p < .001, η p 2 = .20. For perspective and affect, monolinguals was a main effect of language group (F(1, 107) = 23.87, p < .001, η p 2 = .18) as well as language and age interaction (F(1, 107) = 30.08, p < .001, η p 2 = .02). Post-hoc t-test showed that five-year-old monolinguals and bilinguals did not differ in their performance, (t(51) = 0.36, p = .72), whereas seven-year-old monolinguals (M = 7.36, SD = 1.45) were better than bilinguals (M = 2.60, SD = 2.63), t(56) = 8.79, p < .001. Finally, for engagement, monolinguals was a main effect of language group (F(1, 107) = 40.48, p < .001, η p 2 = .27) as well as language and age interaction (F(1, 107) = 15.04, p < .001, η p 2 = .12). Post-hoc t-tests indicate that there was no difference between five-year-old bilingals and monolinguals, t(51) = 1.78, p = .08. Seven-year-old monolinguals (M = 5.85, SD = 0.91) were better than bilinguals (M = 3.00, SD = 2.04), t(56) = 7.16, p < .001. Monolingual children (M = .50, SD = .15) were better at incorporating more complex linguistic structures into their narratives compared to bilinguals (M = .36, SD = .19), F(1, 107) = 16.99, p < .001 η p 2 = .14.  

Discussion

Overall, the present study made it possible to see the effects of early and intense L2 exposure on L1 by utilizing narratives elicited in both L1 and L2. Narratives of bilingual children have been studied more often in societies where L1 is not the dominant language (e.g., Akinci, Jisa, & Kern, 2001; Kaufman, 2001; Kupersmitt & Berman, 2001; Viberg, 2001), with a focus on the development of L2 and often with no data for L1 monolinguals that match the minority’s L1, with some exceptions (e.g., Verhoeven & Boeschoten, 1986). In this respect the results of the current study are important as they provide information on bilingual narrative development in an L1 dominant, high-SES context. Findings raise questions regarding how early immersion schooling should start and how it should be designed to enhance both L1 and L2.


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APA

Aktan Erciyes, A. (2019). Effects of Second Language Acquisition on Narrative Structure and Linguistic Processes in Preschool and SchoolAged Children. Studies in Psychology, 39(2), 369-399. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0023


AMA

Aktan Erciyes A. Effects of Second Language Acquisition on Narrative Structure and Linguistic Processes in Preschool and SchoolAged Children. Studies in Psychology. 2019;39(2):369-399. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0023


ABNT

Aktan Erciyes, A. Effects of Second Language Acquisition on Narrative Structure and Linguistic Processes in Preschool and SchoolAged Children. Studies in Psychology, [Publisher Location], v. 39, n. 2, p. 369-399, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Aktan Erciyes, Aslı,. 2019. “Effects of Second Language Acquisition on Narrative Structure and Linguistic Processes in Preschool and SchoolAged Children.” Studies in Psychology 39, no. 2: 369-399. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0023


Chicago: Humanities Style

Aktan Erciyes, Aslı,. Effects of Second Language Acquisition on Narrative Structure and Linguistic Processes in Preschool and SchoolAged Children.” Studies in Psychology 39, no. 2 (Sep. 2021): 369-399. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0023


Harvard: Australian Style

Aktan Erciyes, A 2019, 'Effects of Second Language Acquisition on Narrative Structure and Linguistic Processes in Preschool and SchoolAged Children', Studies in Psychology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 369-399, viewed 24 Sep. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0023


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Aktan Erciyes, A. (2019) ‘Effects of Second Language Acquisition on Narrative Structure and Linguistic Processes in Preschool and SchoolAged Children’, Studies in Psychology, 39(2), pp. 369-399. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0023 (24 Sep. 2021).


MLA

Aktan Erciyes, Aslı,. Effects of Second Language Acquisition on Narrative Structure and Linguistic Processes in Preschool and SchoolAged Children.” Studies in Psychology, vol. 39, no. 2, 2019, pp. 369-399. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0023


Vancouver

Aktan Erciyes A. Effects of Second Language Acquisition on Narrative Structure and Linguistic Processes in Preschool and SchoolAged Children. Studies in Psychology [Internet]. 24 Sep. 2021 [cited 24 Sep. 2021];39(2):369-399. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0023 doi: 10.26650/SP2019-0023


ISNAD

Aktan Erciyes, Aslı. Effects of Second Language Acquisition on Narrative Structure and Linguistic Processes in Preschool and SchoolAged Children”. Studies in Psychology 39/2 (Sep. 2021): 369-399. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2019-0023



TIMELINE


Submitted14.03.2019
First Revision20.05.2019
Last Revision02.08.2019
Accepted06.08.2019
Published Online08.11.2019

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This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


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Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.