Review Article


DOI :10.26650/SP2020-0034   IUP :10.26650/SP2020-0034    Full Text (PDF)

A Review of Ownership: The Developmental Course and Its Dimensions

Fatma Cansu Pala DedeoğluZeynep Şen HastaoğluBurak Akdeniz

Ownership is a relation of belonging between a person and an object that is accepted by other people. Knowing to whom an object belongs allows children to differentiate between what is theirs and what is not. This review aims to explore the development processes of ownership during early childhood, the basic dimensions of the concept of ownership, and the relationship of ownership development with language and culture. The multidimensional structure of ownership includes the kinds of objects that are owned, how ownership decisions are made, and how property rights and privileges are transferred. Most two-year-olds can recognize who owns an object and determine ownership, but only after the fifth birthday can children determine an owner not by desire but by transfer rules. In studies reporting developmental differences in ownership, the effect of age is strikingly inconsistent. However, ownership should be addressed in early childhood within the scope of rapidly changing social cognitive processes. A child needs to understand the abstract relationship between an object and an individual and represent that relationship in their mind. Therefore, this review study discusses whether self-development, mental representation, and other cognitive abilities are among the underlying factors of ownership. In addition, the possible effects of language and culture on ownership, both directly and cognitively, are also mentioned. Although ownership is exciting in social structure and in built-upon cognitive skills recognized in the literature, its development and constituent elements have yet to be examined sufficiently. Understanding ownership’s developmental pattern might illuminate meaning attributed to ownership and objects (extended-self hypothesis). Since no research has addressed this concept in a Turkish sample to date, this review aims to introduce the notion of ownership, its developmental characteristics, and its basic structures for researchers in the field.

DOI :10.26650/SP2020-0034   IUP :10.26650/SP2020-0034    Full Text (PDF)

Mülkiyet Kavramının Erken Çocuklukta Gelişim Süreci ve Farklı Boyutları

Fatma Cansu Pala DedeoğluZeynep Şen HastaoğluBurak Akdeniz

Mülkiyet, bir kişi ile nesne arasında kurulan ve diğer insanlarca kabul edilen bir aitlik ilişkisidir. Bir nesnenin kime ait olduğunun bilmek, erken çocukluk döneminde çocuğun ‘benim’ ve ‘benim olmayan’ı ayırt etmesini sağlar. Bu derleme çalışması, erken çocukluk döneminde mülkiyet kavramının gelişim süreçlerini, kavramın temel boyutlarını ve mülkiyet gelişiminin dil ve kültür ile olan ilişkisini ele almayı amaçlamaktadır. Mülkiyetin çok boyutlu yapısı hangi tür nesnelerin sahiplenildiğini, mülkiyet kararının nasıl verildiğini, mülkiyetle gelen hak ve ayrıcalıkların nasıl aktarıldığını içerir. İki yaşındaki çocukların çoğu, bir nesnenin kime ait olduğunu tanıyabilir ve mülkiyeti belirleyebilirken, ancak beşinci yaş günlerinden sonra çocuklar, bir nesnenin sahibini arzuya göre değil, transfer kurallarına göre belirleyebilir. Mülkiyetteki gelişimsel farklılıkları raporlayan çalışmalarda yaşın etkisinin tutarsız olduğu göze çarpmaktadır. Nesne ve birey arasında kurulan soyut bir ilişkinin çocuk tarafından anlaşılmasını ve bu ilişkinin zihinde temsil edilebilmesini gerektirdiği için mülkiyet kavramının, erken çocukluk döneminde hızla değişim gösteren sosyal bilişsel süreçler kapsamında ele alınması gerektiği öne sürülmüştür. Bu nedenle, bu derleme çalışmasında benlik gelişimi, zihinsel temsil ve diğer bilişsel becerilerin mülkiyetin altında yatan etmenlerden olup olmayacağı tartışılmıştır. Ayrıca, dil ve kültürün hem doğrudan hem bilişsel yapılar aracılığı ile, mülkiyet kavramına olan olası etkilerinden de bahsedilmiştir. Uluslararası alan yazında varlığı tanınsa da, gelişimi ve onu oluşturan öğeler yeterince incelenmeyen mülkiyet kavramı, hem sosyal bir yapı oluşu hem de bilişsel becerilerin üstüne inşa edildiği düşüncesi bakımından oldukça ilgi çekicidir. İnsanın sahiplik anlayışına yüklediği anlamın kavranmasının ve sahip olduğu nesneler üzerinden yaptığı anlam arayışının (genişletilmiş benlik hipotezi) incelenmesinin, mülkiyet kavramının nasıl bir gelişimsel örüntüyü takip ettiğinin anlaşılması sayesinde aydınlatılması ümit edilmektedir. Türkiye örnekleminde bu kavramı ele alan bir çalışmanın henüz bulunmuyor olması nedeniyle; bilinen gelişimsel özellikleri ve temel yapılarına değinilen mülkiyet kavramının bu derlemede alandaki araştırmacılara tanıtılması amaçlanmaktadır. 


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Ownership is an abstract connection between a person and an object that grants some rights (Blake & Harris, 2011). Toward the end of the first year of life, infants begin to react when another person takes toys away from them (Ross, 1996). This reaction can signal ownership; however, it could also be a response to an interruption of an enjoyable activity. Understanding ownership development requires an in-depth examination of certain constructs: the sense of self, mental representation, and the comprehension of objectperson relationships (Blake & Harris, 2011). The influence of the sense of self on ownership can be observed with 18–28-month-old infants who pass the self-recognition task (Fasig, 2000). Fasig also reported that knowledge of the extended self relates to comprehending possession. Moreover, children use their personal experiences with objects to understand ownership (Noles & Keil, 2011), and ownership development could be defined by an inherent bias toward possession, for instance, having a unique relationship with an object (Blake & Harris, 2011). Ownership is a multifaceted construct, with various unresolved issues surrounding it: whether an object is owned or not, what types of objects are owned, how ownership is established, how it is transferred, who can be an owner, and what the ownership rights are. 

Many things in daily life, such as objects, ideas, living beings (as pets), and lands, can be owned. The diversity of these assets elicits judgment about whether an object is owned. Compared to natural objects (e.g., a tree; Neary, Van de Vondervoort, & Friedman, 2012), children expected human-made objects (artifacts; e.g., a book) to have an owner, using physical and verbal cues to decide who the owner is. Verbal cues are more helpful than physical cues, which are inadequate to explain ownership associations, because verbalizing can clarify confusion (Blake et al., 2012; Gelman, 2009; Harris & Koenig, 2006). By age four, children prioritize verbal over physical cues, considering them more reliable information. Recent studies (e.g., Malcolm et al., 2014; Neary, Friedman, & Burnstein, 2009) have demonstrated that both children and adults use gender and age stereotypes in judging ownership (who owns an object). When a conflict arises between one’s desires and ownership rights, young children assume that one would behave according to desire and ignore ownership rights (e.g., Pesowski & Friedman, 2018; Pietraszewski & Shaw, 2015). Although ownership is usually gained through legitimate transfers from one person to another (e.g., a gift), illegitimate transfers do occur (e.g., stealing; Kanngiesser & Hood, 2014a). The comprehension of the discrepancy between these transfers might follow different developmental pathways and indicate diverse cognitive loads. The comprehension of ownership transfer for abstractions, such as ideas, is more complicated than for material objects. Five-year-olds make negative attributions to a person who copies others’ works of art, whereas younger children cannot make this distinction. Owner privilege is another issue; three-year-olds begin to understand normative rules, but two-year-olds also defend their ownership rights (Dunn & Munn, 1987; Rossano et al., 2011). Comprehending ownership is inseparable from prosocial behaviors because children who understand the transfer of ownership tend to share more. The critical role of culture and language in ownership development is another issue included in this review (Yang et al., 2014), particularly because it might interlink with underlying cognitive domains. Moreover, comparing Eastern and Western cultures might explain the different aspects of ownership development, such as labor or legal possession. The measurement of ownership relies heavily on linguistic ability, which might be a confounding variable. This review aims to introduce the multilayered nature of ownership development during early childhood along with its potential relationship to other social and cognitive abilities.

Discussion

Although few studies have been conducted on ownership development, interest in the topic is growing. In their seminal paper, Blake and Harris (2011, p. 40) proposed that “instead  of relying on permanent and concrete ownership indicators, ownership information must be coded through mental representations to accept, track, and update the relationship between owner and owned.” This quotation is critical for revealing the construct’s cognitive underpinnings. Over age three, children begin to identify the person who decides whether others can use an object as that object’s owner. In early childhood, rapid changes in social and cognitive abilities make it impossible to consider ownership without these abilities. 


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APA

Pala Dedeoğlu, F.C., Şen Hastaoğlu, Z., & Akdeniz, B. (2021). A Review of Ownership: The Developmental Course and Its Dimensions. Studies in Psychology, 41(2), 365-401. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2020-0034


AMA

Pala Dedeoğlu F C, Şen Hastaoğlu Z, Akdeniz B. A Review of Ownership: The Developmental Course and Its Dimensions. Studies in Psychology. 2021;41(2):365-401. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2020-0034


ABNT

Pala Dedeoğlu, F.C.; Şen Hastaoğlu, Z.; Akdeniz, B. A Review of Ownership: The Developmental Course and Its Dimensions. Studies in Psychology, [Publisher Location], v. 41, n. 2, p. 365-401, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Pala Dedeoğlu, Fatma Cansu, and Zeynep Şen Hastaoğlu and Burak Akdeniz. 2021. “A Review of Ownership: The Developmental Course and Its Dimensions.” Studies in Psychology 41, no. 2: 365-401. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2020-0034


Chicago: Humanities Style

Pala Dedeoğlu, Fatma Cansu, and Zeynep Şen Hastaoğlu and Burak Akdeniz. A Review of Ownership: The Developmental Course and Its Dimensions.” Studies in Psychology 41, no. 2 (Sep. 2021): 365-401. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2020-0034


Harvard: Australian Style

Pala Dedeoğlu, FC & Şen Hastaoğlu, Z & Akdeniz, B 2021, 'A Review of Ownership: The Developmental Course and Its Dimensions', Studies in Psychology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 365-401, viewed 24 Sep. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2020-0034


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Pala Dedeoğlu, F.C. and Şen Hastaoğlu, Z. and Akdeniz, B. (2021) ‘A Review of Ownership: The Developmental Course and Its Dimensions’, Studies in Psychology, 41(2), pp. 365-401. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2020-0034 (24 Sep. 2021).


MLA

Pala Dedeoğlu, Fatma Cansu, and Zeynep Şen Hastaoğlu and Burak Akdeniz. A Review of Ownership: The Developmental Course and Its Dimensions.” Studies in Psychology, vol. 41, no. 2, 2021, pp. 365-401. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2020-0034


Vancouver

Pala Dedeoğlu FC, Şen Hastaoğlu Z, Akdeniz B. A Review of Ownership: The Developmental Course and Its Dimensions. Studies in Psychology [Internet]. 24 Sep. 2021 [cited 24 Sep. 2021];41(2):365-401. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2020-0034 doi: 10.26650/SP2020-0034


ISNAD

Pala Dedeoğlu, FatmaCansu - Şen Hastaoğlu, Zeynep - Akdeniz, Burak. A Review of Ownership: The Developmental Course and Its Dimensions”. Studies in Psychology 41/2 (Sep. 2021): 365-401. https://doi.org/10.26650/SP2020-0034



TIMELINE


Submitted20.03.2020
Accepted31.12.2020
Published Online10.08.2021

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