Research Article


DOI :10.26650/iutd.1096605   IUP :10.26650/iutd.1096605    Full Text (PDF)

Oracle of Apollo in Kalkhedon

Selin Önder

Ancient literary sources, inscriptions, and numismatic evidence, although few, attest to the existence and activities of an oracular center of Apollo in Kalkhedon, starting from the Hellenistic period until the beginning of the 3rd century AD. This oracle, exhibiting characteristics pertaining to a supraregional domain, was the subject of discussion instigated by the asylia decrees written on two different occasions. Kalkhedon was declared “sacred and inviolable” on behalf of Apollo, who was named with different epithets on each occasion, namely Pythaios and Khresterios. The possibility of there having been two separate Apollo sanctuaries and proposals about the location of the oracle are examined in this article by evaluating the related material, in addition to the supraregional characteristics of the oracle of Apollo in Kalkhedon.

DOI :10.26650/iutd.1096605   IUP :10.26650/iutd.1096605    Full Text (PDF)

Kalkhedon’daki Apollon Bilicilik Merkezi

Selin Önder

Antik edebi kaynaklar, yazıtlar ve numismatik buluntular az sayıda olsalar da Eskiçağ’da Kalkhedon’da bir Apollon bilicilik merkezinin varlığını ve faaliyetlerini Hellenistik dönemden başlayarak MS 3. yüzyılın başına kadar doğrulamaktadır. Bölgelerüstü bir etki alanı olduğuna dair özellikler gösteren Apollon kutsal alanı, Kalkhedon’un Apollon adına Pythaios ve Khresterios epithetonlarıyla iki kez asylia imtiyazı alarak “kutsal ve dokunulmaz” kabul edildiği yazıtlar vasıtasıyla anlaşılmasının ardından tartışmalara konu olmuştur. Makalede Apollon Khresterios bilicilik merkezine dair var olan bulgular değerlendirilerek, Kalkhedon sınırları içerisinde iki farklı Apollon kutsal alanı olması olasılığı ve lokalizasyon önerileri incelenmiş ve Apollon Khresterios bilicilik merkezinin bölgelerüstü etkisine işaret eden nitelikleri değerlendirilmiştir.


PDF View

References

  • Aulock, Hans-Gerhard Kleiner, Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum Deutschland, Sammlung V. Aulock, Mann, Berlin 1957, Reprint Sunrise Publications, 1987. google scholar
  • Camassa, Giorgio, “Calcante, La Cecita‘ Dei Calcedoni E Il Destino Dell‘eroe Del Bronzo Miceneo”, Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. Classe di Lettere e Filosofia, Serie III, Vol. 10, No. 1, 25-69, 1980. google scholar
  • Cagnat Rene et al., Inscriptiones graecae ad res romanas pertinentes, 3 vols. Paris 1901-1927, Vol. 4, fasc. 1-9, with Georges Lafaye. Paris 1908-1927. Reprint: Chicago, Ares 1975 (IGR IV). google scholar
  • Chaniotis, A.- T. Corsten - N. Papazarkadas - E. Stavrianopoulou, Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 01 Jan. 1982 (SEG). google scholar
  • Dethier, Philipp Anton, Boğaziçi ve İstanbul (19. Yüzyılın Sonu), trans. Ümit Öztürk, Istanbul 1993. google scholar
  • Eyice, Semavi, “Haydarpaşa”, DİA, XVII, 36-41. google scholar
  • Fowler, Robert L. Early Greek Mythography. Volume 2: Commentary, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2013. google scholar
  • Gow, Andrew Sydenham Farrar - Denys Lionel Page, The Greek Anthology: Garland of Philip and some Contemporary Epigrams, 2 vols., 1968. google scholar
  • Gyllius, Petrus, de Bosporo Thracio: Lib. III, Lyon 1632. google scholar
  • Hammer, Joseph von, Constantinopolis und der Bosporos II, Hartlebens Verlag, Pest 1822. google scholar
  • Hanell, Krister, Megarische Studien, Lund 1934. google scholar
  • Herda, Alexander, “Megara and Miletos: Colonising with Apollo, A Structural Comparison of Religious and Political Institutions in Two Archaic Greek Polis States”, Megarika, Nouvelles recherches surMegare et les cites de la Propontide et du Pont-Euxin. Archeologie, epigraphie, histoire. Textes reunis et edites par Adrian Robu et Iulian Bîrzescu, Paris 2016, 15-127. google scholar
  • Jacquemin, Anne- Dominique Mulliez - Georges Rougemont, Choix d’Inscription de Delphes, traduites et commentees, Boccard 2012. google scholar
  • Janin, Raymond, Les eglises et les monasteres des grands centres byzantins: Bithynie, Hellespont, Latros, Galesios, Trebizonde, Athenes, Thessalonique Geographie ecclesiastique de l’Empire byzantin, Institut Français d’Etudes Byzantines Publications, Paris 1975. google scholar
  • Johnston, Sarah Iles, Ancient Greek Divination, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford 2008. google scholar
  • Lhöte, Eric, Les lamelles oraculaires de Dodone, Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes, 3, Geneve 2006. google scholar
  • Klaffenbach, Günther, “IV. Inschrift aus Kalchedon (SEG IV 720)”, Varia Epigraphica, Berlin 1958, 10-14. google scholar
  • Latte, Kurt, “Orakel”, Real-Encyclopadie d. klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, 18, 1939. google scholar
  • Laurent, Vitalien, “Une nouvelle inscription grecque de Chalcedoine”, Echos d’Orient, tome 27, n° 149, 1928, 24-44. google scholar
  • Marinescu, Constantin A., “The Posthumous Lysimachi Coinage and the Dual Monetary System at Byzantium and Chalcedon in the Third Century BC”, XII. Internationaler Numismatischer Kongrefi (Berlin 1997), Berlin 2000, 333-337. google scholar
  • Merkelbach, Reinhold- Friedrich Karl Dörner- Sencer Şahin, Die Inschriften von Kalchedon, IK 20, Bonn 1980. google scholar
  • Parke, Herbert William, “The Attribution of the Oracle in Zosimus, New History 2. 37”, The Classical Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1982, 441-444. google scholar
  • ________, Oracles of Apollo in Asia Minor, London 1985. google scholar
  • Piccinini, Jessica, “Beyond Prophecy, The Oracular Tablets of Dodona as Memories of Consultation”, Incidenza dell’Antico 11, 2013, 63-76. google scholar
  • Pippidi, Dionisie M., Inscriptiones Daciae et Scythiae Minoris antiquae. Series altera: Inscriptiones Scythiae Minoris graecae et latinae. Vol. 1. Inscriptiones Histriae et vicinia. Bucharest 1983. google scholar
  • ________, Scythica Minora: Recherches sur les Colonies Grecques du Littoral Roumain de la Mer Noire, Bucharest 1975. google scholar
  • Pouilloux, Jean, Les inscriptions de la terrasse du temple et de la region nord du sanctuaire (nos 351-516), Fouilles de Delphes, III; Epigraphie, 4, Paris 1976. google scholar
  • Radet, Georges Albert, “Inscriptions de la region du Meandre”, BCH, Volume 14, 1890, 224-239. google scholar
  • Rigsby Kent, Asylia. Territorial Inviolability in the Hellenistic World, University of California Press, 1997. google scholar
  • Robert, Louis, “Hellenica”, RPh 13, 1939. google scholar
  • , “Des Textes Inutilises sur Perge et sur Side”, Hellenica V, 1948, 64-76. google scholar
  • , A travers l’AsieMineure, Athenes - Paris 1980. google scholar
  • Robu, Adrian, “Reflexions sur le culte d’Apollon a Chalcedoine”, Les etudes classiques, 75, 2007, 137-155. google scholar
  • , Megare et les etablissements megariens de Sicile, de la Propontide et du Pont-Euxin, Peter Lang, 2014. google scholar
  • Roman Provincial Coinage, Online 2019, https://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/. google scholar
  • Sayar, Mustafa H., Perinthos-Herakleia (Marmara Ereglisi) und Umgebung. Geschichte, Testimonien, griechische und lateinische Inschriften, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 1998. google scholar
  • Russel, Thomas J., Byzantium and the Bosporus: A Historical Study, from the Seventh Century BC., Oxford University Press, 2016. google scholar
  • Talbert, Richard J. A-Roger S. Bagnall, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton University Press, Princeton 2000. google scholar
  • Waddington, W.H.- E. Babelon - T. Reinach, Recueil general des monnaies grecques d’Asie Mineure, I, 2, Paris 1904. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Önder, S. (2022). Oracle of Apollo in Kalkhedon. Turkish Journal of History, 0(77), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.1096605


AMA

Önder S. Oracle of Apollo in Kalkhedon. Turkish Journal of History. 2022;0(77):1-14. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.1096605


ABNT

Önder, S. Oracle of Apollo in Kalkhedon. Turkish Journal of History, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 77, p. 1-14, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Önder, Selin,. 2022. “Oracle of Apollo in Kalkhedon.” Turkish Journal of History 0, no. 77: 1-14. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.1096605


Chicago: Humanities Style

Önder, Selin,. Oracle of Apollo in Kalkhedon.” Turkish Journal of History 0, no. 77 (Dec. 2022): 1-14. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.1096605


Harvard: Australian Style

Önder, S 2022, 'Oracle of Apollo in Kalkhedon', Turkish Journal of History, vol. 0, no. 77, pp. 1-14, viewed 7 Dec. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.1096605


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Önder, S. (2022) ‘Oracle of Apollo in Kalkhedon’, Turkish Journal of History, 0(77), pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.1096605 (7 Dec. 2022).


MLA

Önder, Selin,. Oracle of Apollo in Kalkhedon.” Turkish Journal of History, vol. 0, no. 77, 2022, pp. 1-14. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.1096605


Vancouver

Önder S. Oracle of Apollo in Kalkhedon. Turkish Journal of History [Internet]. 7 Dec. 2022 [cited 7 Dec. 2022];0(77):1-14. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.1096605 doi: 10.26650/iutd.1096605


ISNAD

Önder, Selin. Oracle of Apollo in Kalkhedon”. Turkish Journal of History 0/77 (Dec. 2022): 1-14. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.1096605



TIMELINE


Submitted31.03.2022
Accepted29.04.2022
Published Online20.07.2022

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.