Research Article


DOI :10.26650/iutd.20231384439   IUP :10.26650/iutd.20231384439    Full Text (PDF)

Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties

Murat Tural

This study comparatively deals with Christianity as a factor in the foreign policy of the Sassanid Dynasty as the last pre-Islamic Persian dynasty of the geography of Iran, and the Ilkhanid Dynasty that converted to Islam toward the end of its rule. The two elements that dominated Iran and its surroundings, one by revolution and the other by occupation, are seen to have been forced to pursue a Christian-centered foreign policy soon after their establishment. In this article does cross-examine the intersecting and diverging aspects of the Roman-Persian and Ilkhanid-European relationship. This study; analyzes the traces of continuity and change in Iran at the time of these two political entities mainly through issues such as the religious beliefs of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid rulers, the Christian wives of the shahenshahs and ilkhans, the Catholicos, the leader of the Eastern Church, and the Christian persecution.

DOI :10.26650/iutd.20231384439   IUP :10.26650/iutd.20231384439    Full Text (PDF)

Sâsânîlerin ve İlhanlıların Haricî Politikasında Hristiyanlık

Murat Tural

Bu çalışma İran coğrafyasının İslam öncesi son Pers hanedanı olan Sâsânîlerin ve geç dönemlerinde İslamlaşan İlhanlıların haricî politikasındaki Hristiyanlık faktörünü karşılaştırmalı olarak ele almaktadır. Biri ihtilal diğeri işgal ile İran ve çevresine hâkim olan iki unsurun, kuruluşları üzerinden çok geçmeden Hristiyanlık merkezli bir dış politika izlemek zorunda kaldıkları görülüyor. Makalede, Roma-Pers ve İlhanlı-Avrupa ilişkisinin kesişen ve ayrışan yönleri çapraz okumaya tâbi tutuluyor. Çalışmada temel olarak Sâsânî ve İlhanlı hükümdarlarının dinî inançları, şâhinşahların/ilhanların Hristiyan eşleri, Doğu Kilisesi’nin lideri katolikos ve Hristiyan takibatı gibi konular üzerinden mezkûr iki siyasi teşekkül zamanında İran’da sürekliliğin ve değişimin izleri inceleniyor.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


This study comparatively examines Christianity as a factor in the foreign policy of the Sassanid Dynasty (224-651), that ruled Iran and its surrounding territory for more than four centuries, and the Ilkhanid Dynasty (1256-1353), described by researchers as the Iranian Mongols. The study narrows down the framework of the cross-reading based on these two dynasties as much as possible in the context of Christianity. For instance, the article makes no mention of the geography of the Caucasus, which constantly confronted the Sassanid and Eastern Roman against each other, apart from a few exceptions. Similarly, the study excludes the Ilkhanids’ relations with the Cilician Armenians in particular, as well as the Ilkhanids’ commercial ties with the Venetians and Genoese. 

As a result of the comparative readings, issues are observed to come to the forefront such as the religious beliefs of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid rulers and their wives, the situation of the Eastern Church during these two periods, and the persecution of Christians, especially in the case of the Sassanids. Although some Sassanid and Ilkhanid rulers and their wives being mentioned as Christians and the struggle of the Eastern Church to survive under a government that does not coincide with its own creed appear to be closely related issues, no reference is found regarding a systematic persecution of Christians by the time of the Ilkhanids. On the other hand, while sources dealing with the Christianity of some Sassanid kings do actually exist, the fact that secular and religious administrators of this state are held responsible for the Christian persecution in the Persian Martyrs Narratives raises some questions. This strengthens the assumption that these narratives of martyrdom had been created to serve a specific purpose. During the preparation phase of this article, the ups and downs the Christians had experienced under the Sassanids greatly facilitated observing the members of the Eastern Church within the Ilkhanate, and even more importantly, raised further doubts. 

The foreign policy of the two dynasties in their foundation periods differed from each other in the context of Christianity. When the Sassanid dynasty was founded, the Roman Empire was far remowed from Christianity. For this reason, Christianity did not perform an important function in external politics during the reigns of the first Sassanid rulers Ardashir I and Shapur I. Christianity is seen to have emerged as an important element regarding both domestic and foreign policy during the reign of Constantine I. Although this has been reflected to the present an incomplete form, the Christians living among the Sassanids in particular were mentioned in the negotiations between Constantine I and Shapur II. The adventure of Christianity, which thus began in the relations of the two sides, continued almost uninterruptedly until the fall of the Sassanids. 

The tendency of the Roman Empire to use the Christians within the Sassanids had already emerged during the reign of Constantine I, and this intention was maintained in the following period with some interventions in the organization of the Eastern Church in the Iranian geography. The most obvious instance regarding this topic involved Theodosius II sending Bishop Marutha to the Sassanids during the reign of Yazdegerd I. In 410, Marutha, who had contributed to convening the Council of Isaac, tried to shape the Eastern Church within the framework of the Nicene Creed. Unlike Yazdegerd I, Yazdegerd II is depicted with a negative image in the Christian sources. The positive image drawn for Yazdegerd I in the Christian historiography was also valid for Khosrow I. The wars against Eastern Roman during the reign of Khosrow II allowed different Christian sects to occur among the Sassanids.

While warfare was the main factor in the positioning of Christians within the Mongol Empire during the reign of Ögedei Khan, diplomacy replaced it in the following period. This situation arose from the difference between the religious identities of the neighboring states of the Near East during the Sassanid and Ilkhanid periods. The Ilkhanids reigned in the Near East in a region surrounded by Muslims. Therefore, they endeavored to find Christian allies, even if they were far away. Unlike the Sassanids, the Ilkhanids came into contact with the Christian world in their early years; thus, the Islamic factor became decisive in religio-political matters during Ilkhanid Dynasty. Noteworthily, the Ilkhanids did not compromise on their Christianitybased foreign policy despite the presence of Muslim Il Khans such as Ahmad Tekuder and Ghazan Khan.  

On the other hand, the factors of women and the catholicos were observed to have had a significant impact on the relations the Sassanids and Ilkhanids had with the Christian world. The Christian women among the Sassanids and Ilkhanids, (e.g., Shirin, Doquz Khatun), seem to be a suitable topic for comparison. The adventure of the Eastern Church from the Sassanid Dynasty to the time of the Ilkhanids was quite colorful. After the fall of the Sassanids, the Eastern Church had to live under the rule of the caliphate states (i.e., Umayyads and Abbasids), and especially the Turkish dynasties. During this period, the Eastern missions became the main target for the members of the Eastern church, with a substantial percentage of Christian communities being formed this way in Central Asia and China. By the time of the Ilkhanids, the Eastern Church that had been established under the Sassanids was experiencing a very different process, because this time corresponds to when the presence of the Muslims in the Near East who had ended the Sassanids; began to be questioned. The Sassanid past prior to the Muslim rule must undoubtedly have been considered to be a legacy that positively nourished the Eastern Church during the time of the Il Khans, who had not yet embraced Islam. The Eastern Church did not have a faultless internal structure during the Ilkhanid dynasty, nor did it have a harmonious relationship with the secular administrators. The fact that the Ilkhanid government had to begin with an anti-Islamic attitude inevitably brought a Mongol-Christian alliance to the agenda. However, the divisions within Christianity that emerged during the reign of the Sassanids had not disappeared by the time of the Ilkhanids. 

When viewed from the outside, an Eastern Church and Ilkhanate alliance should be regarded as usual in an region encircled by Muslim states. If the reports, exchanged letters and rumors in the sources are all reflections of the truth, then they indicate that the Christians had had astonishing efficiency during the time of these two dynasties. Due to the authors’ focus on the deeds of the leading political figures, the extent to which ordinary Christians were aware of and satisfied with the ongoing politics of these two states is impossible to determine. This is precisely the reason why the sceptical approach adopted by contemporary scholars toward the reports of the Christian persecution in Late Antiquity should also be taken into consideration in relation to success stories.


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APA

Tural, M. (2024). Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties. Turkish Journal of History, 0(82), 27-74. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.20231384439


AMA

Tural M. Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties. Turkish Journal of History. 2024;0(82):27-74. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.20231384439


ABNT

Tural, M. Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties. Turkish Journal of History, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 82, p. 27-74, 2024.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Tural, Murat,. 2024. “Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties.” Turkish Journal of History 0, no. 82: 27-74. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.20231384439


Chicago: Humanities Style

Tural, Murat,. Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties.” Turkish Journal of History 0, no. 82 (Apr. 2024): 27-74. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.20231384439


Harvard: Australian Style

Tural, M 2024, 'Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties', Turkish Journal of History, vol. 0, no. 82, pp. 27-74, viewed 23 Apr. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.20231384439


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Tural, M. (2024) ‘Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties’, Turkish Journal of History, 0(82), pp. 27-74. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.20231384439 (23 Apr. 2024).


MLA

Tural, Murat,. Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties.” Turkish Journal of History, vol. 0, no. 82, 2024, pp. 27-74. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.20231384439


Vancouver

Tural M. Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties. Turkish Journal of History [Internet]. 23 Apr. 2024 [cited 23 Apr. 2024];0(82):27-74. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.20231384439 doi: 10.26650/iutd.20231384439


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Tural, Murat. Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties”. Turkish Journal of History 0/82 (Apr. 2024): 27-74. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.20231384439



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Submitted01.11.2023
Accepted28.01.2024
Published Online15.03.2024

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