Research Article

DOI :10.26650/iutd.20231384439   IUP :10.26650/iutd.20231384439    Full Text (PDF)

Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties

Murat Tural

This study comparatively deals with Christianity as a factor in the foreign policy of the Sassanid Dynasty as the last pre-Islamic Persian dynasty of the geography of Iran, and the Ilkhanid Dynasty that converted to Islam toward the end of its rule. The two elements that dominated Iran and its surroundings, one by revolution and the other by occupation, are seen to have been forced to pursue a Christian-centered foreign policy soon after their establishment. In this article does cross-examine the intersecting and diverging aspects of the Roman-Persian and Ilkhanid-European relationship. This study; analyzes the traces of continuity and change in Iran at the time of these two political entities mainly through issues such as the religious beliefs of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid rulers, the Christian wives of the shahenshahs and ilkhans, the Catholicos, the leader of the Eastern Church, and the Christian persecution.

DOI :10.26650/iutd.20231384439   IUP :10.26650/iutd.20231384439    Full Text (PDF)

Sâsânîlerin ve İlhanlıların Haricî Politikasında Hristiyanlık

Murat Tural

Bu çalışma İran coğrafyasının İslam öncesi son Pers hanedanı olan Sâsânîlerin ve geç dönemlerinde İslamlaşan İlhanlıların haricî politikasındaki Hristiyanlık faktörünü karşılaştırmalı olarak ele almaktadır. Biri ihtilal diğeri işgal ile İran ve çevresine hâkim olan iki unsurun, kuruluşları üzerinden çok geçmeden Hristiyanlık merkezli bir dış politika izlemek zorunda kaldıkları görülüyor. Makalede, Roma-Pers ve İlhanlı-Avrupa ilişkisinin kesişen ve ayrışan yönleri çapraz okumaya tâbi tutuluyor. Çalışmada temel olarak Sâsânî ve İlhanlı hükümdarlarının dinî inançları, şâhinşahların/ilhanların Hristiyan eşleri, Doğu Kilisesi’nin lideri katolikos ve Hristiyan takibatı gibi konular üzerinden mezkûr iki siyasi teşekkül zamanında İran’da sürekliliğin ve değişimin izleri inceleniyor.


This study comparatively examines Christianity as a factor in the foreign policy of the Sassanid Dynasty (224-651), that ruled Iran and its surrounding territory for more than four centuries, and the Ilkhanid Dynasty (1256-1353), described by researchers as the Iranian Mongols. The study narrows down the framework of the cross-reading based on these two dynasties as much as possible in the context of Christianity. For instance, the article makes no mention of the geography of the Caucasus, which constantly confronted the Sassanid and Eastern Roman against each other, apart from a few exceptions. Similarly, the study excludes the Ilkhanids’ relations with the Cilician Armenians in particular, as well as the Ilkhanids’ commercial ties with the Venetians and Genoese. 

As a result of the comparative readings, issues are observed to come to the forefront such as the religious beliefs of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid rulers and their wives, the situation of the Eastern Church during these two periods, and the persecution of Christians, especially in the case of the Sassanids. Although some Sassanid and Ilkhanid rulers and their wives being mentioned as Christians and the struggle of the Eastern Church to survive under a government that does not coincide with its own creed appear to be closely related issues, no reference is found regarding a systematic persecution of Christians by the time of the Ilkhanids. On the other hand, while sources dealing with the Christianity of some Sassanid kings do actually exist, the fact that secular and religious administrators of this state are held responsible for the Christian persecution in the Persian Martyrs Narratives raises some questions. This strengthens the assumption that these narratives of martyrdom had been created to serve a specific purpose. During the preparation phase of this article, the ups and downs the Christians had experienced under the Sassanids greatly facilitated observing the members of the Eastern Church within the Ilkhanate, and even more importantly, raised further doubts. 

The foreign policy of the two dynasties in their foundation periods differed from each other in the context of Christianity. When the Sassanid dynasty was founded, the Roman Empire was far remowed from Christianity. For this reason, Christianity did not perform an important function in external politics during the reigns of the first Sassanid rulers Ardashir I and Shapur I. Christianity is seen to have emerged as an important element regarding both domestic and foreign policy during the reign of Constantine I. Although this has been reflected to the present an incomplete form, the Christians living among the Sassanids in particular were mentioned in the negotiations between Constantine I and Shapur II. The adventure of Christianity, which thus began in the relations of the two sides, continued almost uninterruptedly until the fall of the Sassanids. 

The tendency of the Roman Empire to use the Christians within the Sassanids had already emerged during the reign of Constantine I, and this intention was maintained in the following period with some interventions in the organization of the Eastern Church in the Iranian geography. The most obvious instance regarding this topic involved Theodosius II sending Bishop Marutha to the Sassanids during the reign of Yazdegerd I. In 410, Marutha, who had contributed to convening the Council of Isaac, tried to shape the Eastern Church within the framework of the Nicene Creed. Unlike Yazdegerd I, Yazdegerd II is depicted with a negative image in the Christian sources. The positive image drawn for Yazdegerd I in the Christian historiography was also valid for Khosrow I. The wars against Eastern Roman during the reign of Khosrow II allowed different Christian sects to occur among the Sassanids.

While warfare was the main factor in the positioning of Christians within the Mongol Empire during the reign of Ögedei Khan, diplomacy replaced it in the following period. This situation arose from the difference between the religious identities of the neighboring states of the Near East during the Sassanid and Ilkhanid periods. The Ilkhanids reigned in the Near East in a region surrounded by Muslims. Therefore, they endeavored to find Christian allies, even if they were far away. Unlike the Sassanids, the Ilkhanids came into contact with the Christian world in their early years; thus, the Islamic factor became decisive in religio-political matters during Ilkhanid Dynasty. Noteworthily, the Ilkhanids did not compromise on their Christianitybased foreign policy despite the presence of Muslim Il Khans such as Ahmad Tekuder and Ghazan Khan.  

On the other hand, the factors of women and the catholicos were observed to have had a significant impact on the relations the Sassanids and Ilkhanids had with the Christian world. The Christian women among the Sassanids and Ilkhanids, (e.g., Shirin, Doquz Khatun), seem to be a suitable topic for comparison. The adventure of the Eastern Church from the Sassanid Dynasty to the time of the Ilkhanids was quite colorful. After the fall of the Sassanids, the Eastern Church had to live under the rule of the caliphate states (i.e., Umayyads and Abbasids), and especially the Turkish dynasties. During this period, the Eastern missions became the main target for the members of the Eastern church, with a substantial percentage of Christian communities being formed this way in Central Asia and China. By the time of the Ilkhanids, the Eastern Church that had been established under the Sassanids was experiencing a very different process, because this time corresponds to when the presence of the Muslims in the Near East who had ended the Sassanids; began to be questioned. The Sassanid past prior to the Muslim rule must undoubtedly have been considered to be a legacy that positively nourished the Eastern Church during the time of the Il Khans, who had not yet embraced Islam. The Eastern Church did not have a faultless internal structure during the Ilkhanid dynasty, nor did it have a harmonious relationship with the secular administrators. The fact that the Ilkhanid government had to begin with an anti-Islamic attitude inevitably brought a Mongol-Christian alliance to the agenda. However, the divisions within Christianity that emerged during the reign of the Sassanids had not disappeared by the time of the Ilkhanids. 

When viewed from the outside, an Eastern Church and Ilkhanate alliance should be regarded as usual in an region encircled by Muslim states. If the reports, exchanged letters and rumors in the sources are all reflections of the truth, then they indicate that the Christians had had astonishing efficiency during the time of these two dynasties. Due to the authors’ focus on the deeds of the leading political figures, the extent to which ordinary Christians were aware of and satisfied with the ongoing politics of these two states is impossible to determine. This is precisely the reason why the sceptical approach adopted by contemporary scholars toward the reports of the Christian persecution in Late Antiquity should also be taken into consideration in relation to success stories.

PDF View


  • “Annales Londonienses”, Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I and Edward II, ed. William Stubbs, Longman & Co., London 1882. google scholar
  • “Chronicle 724”, The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars AD 363-630, ed. Geoffrey Greatrex-Samuel N. C. Lieu, Routledge, London 2005, s. 31-32. google scholar
  • Abû’l-Farac (Bar Hebraeus), Abû’l-Farac Tarihi, c. I-II, çev. Ömer Rıza Doğrul, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara 1999. google scholar
  • ________, The Ecclesiastical Chronicle, çev. David Wilmshurst, Gorgias Press, Piscataway 2016. google scholar
  • Abû’l-Farac (Ebu’l-Ferec), Târîhu Muhtasari’d-Düvel, nşr. Halil el-Mansûr, Darü’l-Kütübi’l-İlmiyye, Beyrut 1418. google scholar
  • Agathias, The Histories, çev. Joseph D. Frendo, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1975. google scholar
  • Ammianus Marcellinus, Roman History, vol. I, çev. John C. Rolfe, Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1935. google scholar
  • A Short Chronicle on the End of the Sasanian Empire and Early Islam 590-660 A.D. (Huzistan/Guidi Kroniği), çev. Nasir al-Ka‘bi, Gorgias Press, Piscataway 2016. google scholar
  • Bel‘amî, Ebu Ali Muhammed b. Muhammed, Tarih-i Bel‘amî, c. II, tsh. Muhammed Taki Bahar, Çaphane-i Tabeş, Tahran 1353. google scholar
  • Benâketî, Taceddin Ebu Fazl Muhammed b. Muhammed Davud, Ravzat ûlî’l-elkâb fi ma’rifeti’t-tevârih ve’l-ensab (Târih-i Benâketî), tsh. Ca‘fer Şi‘âr, İntişarat-ı Encümen-i Asar-ı Milli, Tahran 1348. google scholar
  • Cassius Dio, Roman History (IX), çev. Earnest Cary, Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1955. google scholar
  • Crusade and Christendom: Annotated Documents in Translation from Innocent III to Acre, 1187-1291, ed. google scholar
  • Jessalynn Bird-Edward Peters-James M. Powell, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 2013. google scholar
  • Cûzcânî, Minhâcüddin Ebû Ömer Osman b. Sirâceddin, Tabakât-ı Nâsırî, c. II, nşr. W. Nassau Lees, College Press, Calcutta 1864. google scholar
  • Cüveynî, Alâeddin Ata Melik, Târih-i Cihângüşâ, (tek ciltte), tsh. Muhammed Kazvînî, Müessese-yi İntişarat-ı Nigah, Tahran 1391. google scholar
  • ________, Târih-i Cihângüşâ, c. I-III, nşr. Muhammed Kazvînî, İntişarat-ı Firdevs, Tahran 1385. google scholar
  • Dîneverî, Ebû Hanîfe Ahmed b. Davud, el-Ahbârû’t-Tıvâl, tahk. Abdülmünim Amir-Cemaleddin eş-Şeyyal, Vezâretü’s-Sekâfe, Kahire 1368. google scholar
  • Elishe, History of Vardan and the Armenian War, çev. Robert W. Thomson, Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1982. google scholar
  • Eusebius, Life of Constantine, çev. Averil Cameron-Stuart G. Hall, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1999. google scholar
  • Evagrius Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, çev. Michael Whitby, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 2000. google scholar
  • Firdevsi, Ebu’l-Kasım, Şahname, c. VIII, nşr. Celal Halıki Mutlak, Merkez-i Dairetü’l-Maarif-i Bozorg-i İslami, Tahran 1386. google scholar
  • Hândmîr, Gıyâseddin b. Hümâmeddin, Tarih-i Habîbü’s-Siyer fi Ahbâr-i Efrâd-i Beşer, c. III, nşr. Muhammed Debirsiyaki, İntişarat-ı Hayyam, Tahran 1380. google scholar
  • Herodian, History of Empire (VI), çev. C. R. Whittaker, Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1970. google scholar
  • İbn Teymiyye, Ahmed b. Abdûlhalim, Mecmûu Fetâvâ, c. XXVIII, haz. Abdurrahman b. Muhammed b. Kasım, Mecmau’l-Melik Fahd li-Tabâati’l-Mushafi’ş-Şerîf, Medine 1425. google scholar
  • İbnu’l-Balkhi, Farsnama, ed. G. Le. Strange-R. A. Nicholson, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1921. google scholar
  • İbnü’l-Esîr, el-Kâmil fi’t-Târih, c. X, tahk. Ömer Abdüsselâm Tedmürî, Dârü’l-Kitabi’l-Arabî, Beyrut 2012. google scholar
  • İsfahânî, Hamza b. Hasen, Târîh-i Peyâmberân ve Şâhân, çev. Cafer Şiâr, İntişarat-ı Bünyad-ı Ferheng-i İran, Tahran 1336. google scholar
  • Jean De Joinville, Bir Haçlının Hatıraları, çev. Cüneyt Kanat, Vadi Yayınları, Ankara 2002. google scholar
  • John Mandeville, The Travels of Sir John Mandeville; the Version of the Cotton Manuscript in Modern Spelling, Macmillian Company, New York 1905. google scholar
  • John of Ephesus, Ecclesiastical History, çev. Robert Payne Smith, Gorgias Press, Piscataway 2010. google scholar
  • Kâşânî, Ebü’l-Kâsım Abdullâh b. Muhammed, Târih-i Olcaytu, nşr. Mehîn Hamblî, Bengâh-i Tercüme ve Neşr-i Kitab, Tahran 1348. google scholar
  • Kiragos, “Ermeni Müverrihlerine Nazaran Moğollar”, çev. M. Ed. Dulaurier, Türkiyat Mecmuası, c. II (1928), s. 139-217. google scholar
  • Korykoslu Hayton, Doğu Ülkeleri Tarihinin Altın Çağı, çev. Altay Tayfun Özcan, Selenge Yayınları, İstanbul 2015. google scholar
  • Letters from the East: Crusaders, Pilgrims and Settlers in the 12th-13th Centuries, ed. Malcolm Barber-Keith Bate, Ashgate, Burlington 2010. google scholar
  • Mari b. Süleyman, Ahbâru Fetâriketi Kürsiyyi’l-Meşrik min Kitabi’l-Mecdel, nşr. Henricus Gismondi, Excudebat C. de Luigi, Roma 1899. google scholar
  • Mîrhând, Muhammed b. Seyyid Burhâneddin Hândşâh, Ravzatü’s Safâ fi Sîreti’l Enbiyâ ve’l Mülûk ve’l Hulefâ, c. VIII, tsh. Çemşîd Giyânfer, İntişarat-ı Esatir, Tahran 1385. google scholar
  • Moğolların Gizli Tarihi, çev. Ahmet Temir, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, Ankara 2010. google scholar
  • Mostaert, Antoine-F. W. Cleaves, Les lettres de 1289 et 1305 des ilkhan Aryun et Öljeitü a Philippe le Bel, Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1962. google scholar
  • Mşiha Zha, Erbil Vakayinamesi, çev. Erol Sever, Yaba Yayınları, İstanbul 2002. google scholar
  • Mukaddesî (Makdisî), Şemsüddîn Muhammed b. Ahmed b. Ebû Bekr, Ahsenü’t-tekâsîm, tahk. Muhammed Emîn ed-Dannâvî, Dârü’l-Kütübi’l-İlmiyye, Beyrut 2003. google scholar
  • Mücmelü’t-tevarih ve’l-Kısas, nşr. Muhammed Ramazani, Çaphane-i Haver, Tahran 1318. google scholar
  • Nikephoros, Patriarch of Constantinople Short History, çev. Cyril Mango, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington 1990. google scholar
  • Otto Bishop of Freising, The Two Cities, A Chronicle of Universal History to the Year 1146 A. D., çev. Charles Christopher Mierow, Columbia University Press, New York 2002. google scholar
  • Plano Carpinili Johannes, Tatarlar Olarak Andığımız Moğolların Tarihi, çev. ve notl. Altay Tayfun Özcan, Ötüken Neşriyat, İstanbul 2022. google scholar
  • Procopius, History of the Wars I-II, çev. Dewing H. B, The Macmillan Co., New York 1914. google scholar
  • Reşîdüddin Fazlullah, Câmiu’t-Tevârih, c. I-II, nşr. Muhammed Ruşen-Mustafa Musevi, Neşr-i Elburz, Tahran 1373. google scholar
  • Ricoldus De Monte Crucis, Doğu Seyahatnamesi: Bir Dominikan Keşişin Anadolu ve Ortadoğu Yolculuğu 1289-1291, çev. Ahmet Deniz Altunbaş, Kronik Kitap, İstanbul 2018. google scholar
  • Rubruk (Ruysbroeckli Willem), Mengü Han’ın Sarayına Yolculuk 1253-1255, ed. Peter Jackson-David Morgan, çev. Zülal Kılıç, Kitap Yayınevi, İstanbul 2010. google scholar
  • Sahrestaniha-i Eranshahr (A Middle Persian text on late antique geography, epic, and history: with parallel English and Persian translation), çev. Touraj Daryaee, Mazda Publishers, California 2002. google scholar
  • Sebeos, The Armenian History, çev. R. W. Thomson, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 1999. google scholar
  • Siirt Vakayinamesi, nşr. Adday Şer, çev. Celal Kabadayı, Yaba Yayınları, İstanbul 2002. google scholar
  • Socrates, Ecclesiastical History, George Bell&Sons, London 1892. google scholar
  • Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, çev. Edward Walford, Henry G. Bohn, London 1855. google scholar
  • Step’annos Orbelean, History of the State of Sisakan, çev. Robert Bedrosian, Long Branch, New Jersey 2015. google scholar
  • Şebânkâreî, Muhammed bin Ali bin Muhammed, Mecma'u’l-ensab fi’t-tevârîh, tsh. Mir Haşim Muhaddis, İntişarat-ı Emir-i Kebir, Tahran 1363. google scholar
  • Taberî, Ebû Ca‘fer Muhammed b. Cerîr, Târîhu’l-Ümem ve’l-Mülûk, c. II, tahk. Muhammed Ebü’l-Fazl İbrâhim, Dârü’l-Me‘ârif bi Mısr, Kahire 1119. google scholar
  • The Acts ofMar Mari the Apostle, ed. Amir Harrak, Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta 2005. google scholar
  • The Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu, ed. R. H. Charles, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1916. google scholar
  • The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor: Byzantine and Near Easter History, AD 284-813, çev. Cyril Mango-Roger Scott, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1997. google scholar
  • The History ofMenander the Guardsman, çev. R. C. Blockley, Francis Cairns, Liverpool 1985. google scholar
  • The History of Yaballaha III, Nestorian Patriarch and His Vicar Bar Sauma, çev. James A. Montgomery, Columbia University Press, New York 1927. google scholar
  • Theodoretus, Ecclesiactical History, Samuel Bagster and Sons, London 1843. google scholar
  • Theophylact Simocatta, The History of Theophylact Simocatta, çev. Michael-Mary Whitby, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1986. google scholar
  • The Seventh Crusade, 1244-1254: Sources and Documents, ed. Peter Jackson, Ashgate, Burlington 2007. google scholar
  • Thomas of Marga, The Book of Governors, vol. II, çev. E. A. Wallis Budge, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., London 1893. google scholar
  • Vartan, “Ermeni Müverrihine Göre Moğollar”, çev. M. Ed. Dulaurier, Türkiyat Mecmuası, c. V (1936), s. 27-48. google scholar
  • Adshead, S. A. M., Central Asia in World History, Palgrave, New York 1993. google scholar
  • Aigle, Denise, “The Mongol Invasions of Bilad al-Sham by Ghazan Khan and Ibn Taymıyah’s Three ‘Anti-Mongol’ Fatwas”, Mamlük Studies Review, 11/2 (2007), s. 89-120. google scholar
  • ________, “The Letters of Eljigidei, Hülegü, and Abaqa: Mongol Overtures or Christian Ventriloquism?”, Inner Asia, 7/2 (2005), s. 143-162. google scholar
  • Alıcı, Mehmet, “Sasani İmparatorluğu’nun Erken Döneminde Hıristiyanların Konumu ve İlk Sinodlar”, Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 56/1 (2015), s. 33-75. google scholar
  • Altungök, Ahmet, “Ön Asya Tarihi Araştırmaları Kapsamında Geç Antikçağın Mekânsal ve Zamansal Sınırları ve Önemli Parametreleri”, History Studies, 15/1 (2023), s. 95-112. google scholar
  • Amanatidis-Saade, George, Yazdgird I, He Who Maintains Peace in His Dominion: Re-examining the Rise and Fall of Romano Iranian Relations in the Early Fifth Century, University of Ottawa, Department of Classics and Religious Studies, Faculty of Arts, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ottawa 2019. google scholar
  • Angelov, Alexander Borislavov, Conversion and Empire: Byzantine Missionaries, Foreign Rulers, and Christian Narratives (ca. 300-900), The University of Michigan, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Michigan 2011. google scholar
  • Asmussen, J. P., “Christians in Iran”, Cambridge History of Iran: The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods, 3/2, ed. Ehsan Yarshater, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1983, s. 924-949. google scholar
  • Aştiyânî, Abbas İkbal, Târîh-i Mogûl ez-hamle-yi Çingîz tâ teşkîl-i devlet-i Tîmûr, Emir-i Kebir, Tahran 1388. google scholar
  • Attwood, Christopher P., Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, Facts On File, New York 2004. google scholar
  • Ay, Resul, “Moğollar ve Katolik Misyonerlik: Fransisken ve Dominiken Rahiplerinin Asya ve Yakındoğu’da Misyonerlik Faaliyetleri (13-14. Yüzyıllar)”, Avrupa Tarihinde Türk Eli Gümeç Karamuk Armağanı, ed. Ramazan Acun-Serhat Küçük, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Yayınları, Ankara 2017, s. 39-59. google scholar
  • Barfield, Thomas J., The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China, Blackwell, Cambridge 1992. google scholar
  • Baumer, Christoph, The Church of the East, An Illustrated History of Assyrian Christianity, I. B. Tauris, London 2016. google scholar
  • ________, The History of Central Asia-III, The Age of Islam and the Mongols, I. B. Tauris, London 2016. google scholar
  • Becker, Adam H., “Political Theology and Religious Diversity in the Sasanian Empire”, Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians: Religious Dynamics in a Sasanian Context, ed. Geoffrey Herman, Gorgias Press, Piscataway 2014, s. 7-25. google scholar
  • Biran, Michal, “The Islamisation of Hülegü: Imaginary Conversion in the Ilkhanate”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 26/1-2 (2016), s. 79-88. google scholar
  • Boyce, Mary, Zoroastrians, Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Routledge&Kegan Paul, London 1979. google scholar
  • Boyle, John Andrew, “Rashid al-Din and the Franks”, The Mongol World Empire 1206-1370, Variorum Reprints, London 1977, s. 62-67. google scholar
  • Brock, Sebastian P., “Nesturi Kilisesi: Esefle Karşılanacak Bir İsimlendirme”, çev. Kutlu Akalın-Zafer Duygu, The Journal of Mesopotamian Studies, 2/2 (2017), s. 197-208. google scholar
  • ________, “A Syriac Life of John of Dailam”, Parole de l’Orient, 10 (1981-82), s. 123-190. google scholar
  • ________, “The ‘Nestorian’ Church: A Lamentable Misnomer”, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 78/3 (1996), s. 23-35. google scholar
  • ________, The Syriac Fathers on Prayer and Spiritual Life, Cistercian Publications, Michigan 1987. google scholar
  • Buck, Christopher, “The Universality of the Church of the East: How Persian was Persian Christianity?”, The Journal of the Assyrian Academic Society, 10/1 (1996), s. 54-95. google scholar
  • Budge, E. A. Wallis, The Monks of Kublai Khan Emperor of China, The Religious Tract Society, London 1928. google scholar
  • Cameron, Averil, “Agathias on the Sassanians”, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 23/24 (1969/1970), s. 67-183. google scholar
  • Chadwick, Henry, East and West: The Making of a Rift in the Church, From Apostalic Times until the Council of Florence, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2003. google scholar
  • Chesnut, Glenn F., The First Christian Histories (Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret, and Evagrius), Editions Beauchesne, Paris 1976. google scholar
  • Chester Jordan, William, Louis IX and the Challenge of the Crusade, A Study in Rulership, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1979. google scholar
  • Cinemre, İlhami Tekin, Geç Antik Çağda Romalılar ve Sâsânîler Arasında Armenia (224-451), İstanbul Medeniyet Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Tarih Anabilim Dalı, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, İstanbul 2018. google scholar
  • Corke-Webster, James, Eusebius and Empire: Constructing Church and Rome in the Ecclesiastical History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2019. google scholar
  • Daryaee, Touraj, “History, Epic, and Numismatics: On the Title of Yazdgerd I (Ramsahr)”, American Journal of Numismatics, 14 (2002), s. 89-95. google scholar
  • ________, “The Sasanian Empire”, The Syriac World, ed. Daniel King, Routledge, London 2019, s. 33-43. google scholar
  • Davaran, Fereshteh, Continuity in Iranian Identity: Resilience of a Cultural Heritage, Routledge, London 2010. google scholar
  • De Nicola, Bruno, Woman in Mongol Iran: The Khatuns, 1206-1335, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2017. google scholar
  • De Rachewiltz, Igor, Papal Envoys to the Great Khans, Stanford University Press, Stanford 1971. google scholar
  • Duchesne-Guillemin, J., “Zoroastrian Religion”, Cambridge History of Iran: The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods, vol. 3 (2), ed. Ehsan Yarshater, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1983, s. 866908. google scholar
  • Foltz, Richard, “Ecumenical Mischief Under the Mongols”, Central Asiatic Journal, 43/1 (1999), s. 42-69. google scholar
  • Fortescue, Adrian, The Lesser Eastern Churches, Catholic Truth Society, London 1913. google scholar
  • Fowden, Elizabeth Key, The Barbarian Plain: Saint Sergius between Roma and Iran, University of California Press, Berkeley 1999. google scholar
  • Fowden, Garth, “The Last Days of Constantine: Oppositional Versions and Their Influence”, The Journal of Roman Studies, 84 (1994), s. 146-170. google scholar
  • ________, “Varieties of Religious Community”, Interpreting Late Antiquity: Essays on the Postclassical World, ed. G. W. Bowersock-Peter Brown-Oleg Grabar, The Belknap Press, Cambridge 2001, s. 82-106. google scholar
  • ________, Before and After Muhammad: The First Millennium Refocused, Princeton University Press, Princeton 2014. google scholar
  • Frankopan, Peter, The Silk Roads: A New History of the World, Vintage Books, New York 2017. google scholar
  • Frendo, David, “Constantine’s Letter to Shapur II, Its Authenticity, Occasion, and Attendant Circumstances”, Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 15 (2001), s. 57-69. google scholar
  • Garsoian, Nina, “Frontier-Frontiers? Transcaucasia and Eastern Anatolia in the Pre-Islamic Period”, Studies on the Formation of Christian Armenia, Ashgate Publishing, Burlington 2010, s. 327-352. google scholar
  • ________, “The Arsakuni Dynasty (A.D. 12-[180?]-428)”, The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, vol. I, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian, St. Martin’s Press, New York 1997, s. 63-94. google scholar
  • Garthwaite, Gene R., The Persians, Blackwell, Oxford 2005. google scholar
  • Gilman, Ian-Hans Joachim Klimkeit, Christians in Asia before 1500, Routledge, London 1999. google scholar
  • Golden, Peter B., Central Asia in World History, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2011. google scholar
  • Gömeç, Saadettin Yağmur, “Çingiz-nâmeler Üzerine Bir İnceleme: Çingiz Han’ın Soyu ve Mogol Tarihinin İlk Devirleri”, Belleten, 82/294 (2018), s. 407-481. google scholar
  • Greatrex, Geoffrey, Rome and Persia at War, 502-532, Francis Cairns, Leeds 1998. google scholar
  • ________, “Khusro II and the Christian of His Empire”, Journal of the Canadian Society for Syriac Studies, 3 (2003), s. 78-88. google scholar
  • Golzâr, Seyyid Said, “Ruyaruyi-i Diyanet-i Zerdüştî ba-Ekalliyethâ-yi Dinî der Devrân-ı Sâsâniyân”, Pejûheşnâme-yi Edyân, 1/2 (1386), s. 167-197. google scholar
  • Halbertsma, Tjalling H. F., Early Christian Remains of Inner Mongolia: Discovery, Reconstruction and Appropriation, Brill, Leiden 2008. google scholar
  • Hameen-Anttila, Jaakko, “The Letters of Shahrbarâz and Middle Persian Historiography on the Last Great War of Late Antiquity”, Journal of Late Antique, Islamic and Byzantine Studies, 1.1-2 (2022), s. 65-93. google scholar
  • Headley, John M., “Conversion in Retrospect”, Conversion to Christianity from Late Antiquity to the Modern Age Considering the Process in Europe, Asia, and the Americas, ed. Calvin B. Kendall-Oliver Nicholson-William D. Phillips-Marguerite Ragnow, Center for Early Modern History, Minneapolis 2009, s. 361380. google scholar
  • Herman, Geoffrey, A Prince without a Kingdom, The Exilarch in the Sasanian Era, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2012. google scholar
  • ________, “The Last Years of Yazdgird I and the Christians”, Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians: Religious Dynamics in a Sasanian Context, ed. Geoffrey Herman, Gorgias Press, Piscataway 2014, s. 67-90. google scholar
  • ________, “The Syriac World in the Persian Empire”, The Syriac World, ed. Daniel King, Routledge, London 2019, s. 134-145. google scholar
  • Hezai, Sahmeddin-Hüseyin Mohammadi, “Mesihiyyet ez-Vürud be-İran ta-İntikal be-Çin”, Pejûheşnâme-yi Temeddün-i İranî, 1/3 (1398), s. 59-89. google scholar
  • Honarchiansaky, Ani, Connected Histories in Late Antiquity: Study of a Peace between the Roman and Sasanian Empires and Its Diverging Impacts on Christianity in Greater Armenia and Iran, University of California, Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Los Angeles 2018. google scholar
  • İmanpur, Mohammad Taki-Perviz Hüseyin Talâyî-Mustafa Cerfi, “Sâsâniyân ve Siyaset-i Zerdüştikerden-i Ermenistan”, Tahkikât-ı Tarih-i İctimaî, Pejûheşgâh-i Ulum-i İnsanî ve Mütâlaât-ı Ferhengî, 3/2 (1392), s. 99-120. google scholar
  • Jackson Bonner, Michael Richard, “The Rebellion of Anös Âzâd”, Historia I Swiat, 5 (2016), s. 159-165. google scholar
  • ________, Three Neglected Sources of Sasanian History in the Reign of Khusraw Anushirvan, Association Pour L’avancement Des Etudes Iraniennes, Paris 2011. google scholar
  • Jenkins, Philip, The Next Christendom: The Coming of Global Christianity, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2002. google scholar
  • Kaçar, Turhan, “‘Dünyaya İki Işık’: Geç Antikçağ’da İran ve Roma”, Doğu Batı Düşünce Dergisi, 61 (2012), s. 153-180. google scholar
  • Kahramani, Cemşid, Mesihiyân der Rüzgâr-ı Hüsrev-i Perviz, İntişarat-ı Feruher, Tahran 1400. google scholar
  • ________, “Nakş-ı Siyasî-Mezhebî-yi Mesihiyân-ı Nesturî der Zaman-ı Hüsrev-i Perviz; Mütâlaâ-yi Mevridi: Nakş-ı Patriyarh Sabrişo”, Edyân ve İrfân, 53/2 (1399), s. 381-400. google scholar
  • Kerimi, Alirıza-Ali Asgar Çahian, “Câygâh-ı Bizans der Siyaset-i Haricî-yi İlhanân (656-736/1258-1335)”, Pejûheşhâ-yi Tarihî (İlmî-Pejûheşî), 2 (1392), s. 53-76. google scholar
  • Kirişoğlu, Alican, İlhanlı-Avrupa İlişkileri, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Tarih Anabilim Dalı, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Isparta 2018. google scholar
  • Kouymjian, Dickran, “Lazar Parpetsi”, Studies in Classical Armenian Literature, ed. John A. C. Greppin, Caravan Books, New York 1994, s. 152-192. google scholar
  • Lane, George, Early Mongol Rule in Thirteenth-Century Iran: A Persian Renaissance, Routledge, London 2003. google scholar
  • Leppin, H., “The Church Historians (I): Socrates, Sozomenus, and Theodoretus”, Greek and Roman Historiography in Late Antiquity: Fourth to Sixth Century A.D., ed. Gabriele Marasco, Brill, Leiden 2003, s. 219-254. google scholar
  • Lomuto, Sierra, Exotic Allies: Mongol Alterity and Racial Formation in the Global Middle Ages, 1220-1400, University of Pennsylvania, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Philadelphia 2018. google scholar
  • Lupprian, Karl-Ernst, Die Beziehungen der Papste zu Islamischen und Mongolischen Herrschern im 13. Jahrhundert anhand ihres briefwechsels, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City 1981. google scholar
  • MacEvitt, Christopher, The Crusades and the Christian World of the East, Rough Tolerance, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 2008. google scholar
  • Maleki, Mohammad, “Mesihiyân-ı Nesturî ve Tesir-i Anhâ ber-Vekâyi-i Dovre-yi Hüsrev-i Dovvom”, Fasılnâme-yi İlmî Tahassüsi Mülâlaât-ı İran-ı Kohen, 1/1 (1400), s. 167-187. google scholar
  • Masumi, Mohsen-Azam Fouladi Penâh, “Der-Amedi ber-Muvâcehe-yi Mesihiyân-ı İran ba Fatihân-ı Müslüman der-Side-i Nehost-i Hicri”, Pejûheşnâme-yi Tarih-i Temeddün-i İslamî, 50/2 (1396), s. 257272. google scholar
  • McDonough, Scott John, Power By Negotiation: Institutional Reform in the Fifth Century Sasanian Empire, University of California, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Los Angeles 2005. google scholar
  • ________, “A Second Constantine?: The Sasanian King Yazdgard in Christian History and Historiography”, Journal of Late Antiquity, 1/1 (2008), s. 127-140. google scholar
  • ________, “Bishops or Bureaucrats: Christian Clergy and the State in the Middle Sasanian Period”, Current Research in Sasanian Archaeology, Art and History, ed. Derek Kennet ve Paul Luft, Archaeopress, Oxford 2008, s. 87-92. google scholar
  • Meyvaert, Paul, “An unknown letter of Hulagu, Il-Khan of Persia, to king Louis IX of France”, Viator, 2 (1980), s. 245-259 google scholar
  • Millar, Fergus, A Greek Roman Empire: Power and Belief under Theodosius II, University of California Press, Berkeley 2006. google scholar
  • Miller, V. M., Tarih-i Kilisa-yi Kadim der-İmparatori-yi Rum ve İran, çev. Ali Nehostin-Abbas Arinpur, İntişarat-ı Esatir, Tahran 1382. google scholar
  • Morgan, David O., “The Mongols in Iran, 1219-1256”, The Coming of the Mongols, ed. David O. Morgan-Sarah Stewart, I. B. Tauris, London 2018, s. 45-53. google scholar
  • Morony, Michael G, “Should Sasanian Iran be Included in Late Antiquity?”, e-Sasanika, 1 (2008), s. 1-13. google scholar
  • Mostaert, Antoine-F. W. Cleaves, “Trois documents mongols des Archives secretes vaticanes”, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, XV/3-4 (1952), s. 419-506. google scholar
  • Moule, A. C., Christians in China Before the Year 1550, The Macmillan Co., New York 1930. google scholar
  • Munt, Harry, “Ibn al-Azraq, Saint Marûthâ, and the Foundation of Mayyâfâriqîn (Martyropolis)”, Writing ‘True Stories’: Historians and Hagiographers in the Late Antique and Medieval Near East, ed. Arietta Papaconstantinou, Brepols, Turnhout 2010, s. 149-174. google scholar
  • Murre-van Den Berg, Heleen, “Paul Bedjan, Missionary for Life (1838-1920)”, Homilies of Mar Jacob of Sarug, ed. P. Bedjan-S. P. Brock, Gorgias Press, Piscataway 2006, s. 339-369. google scholar
  • ________, “The Church of the East in Mesopotamia in the Mongol Period”, Jingjiao: The Church of the East in China and Central Asia, ed. R. Malek, Institut Monumenta Serica, Sankt Augustin 2006, s. 377-394. google scholar
  • Neusner, Jacob, “Babylonian Jewry and Shapur II’s Persecution of Christianity from 339 to 379 A.D.”, Hebrew Union College Annual, 43 (1972), s. 77-102. google scholar
  • Nicolini-Zani, Matteo, The Luminous Way to the East, Texts and History of the First Encounter of Christianity with China, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2022. google scholar
  • Nöldeke, Teodor, Îrâniyân ve Arabhâ der Zamân-ı Sâsâniyân, çev. Abbâs Zeryâb, Encümen-i Âsâr-ı Millî, Tahran 1358. google scholar
  • Özcan, Altay Tayfun, “Hülegü’nün Ortadoğu Seferinde Kudüs ve Kentin Moğol-Haçlı İlişkilerinin Dönüşümündeki Yeri”, Filistin Araştırmaları Dergisi, 9 (2021), s. 1-19. google scholar
  • Özgüdenli, Osman G., “İlhanlılar’da Hükümranlık Telâkkisi ve Hükümdar Algısı”, MUTAD, V-I (2018), s. 73-91. google scholar
  • ________-Fırat Umanç, “Bir İlhanlı Hükümdarının İbadet Dünyası: Sultan Olcâytû Muhammed (13041306)”, TAD, 42/73 (2023), s. 73-104. google scholar
  • Parry, Ken, “Eastern Christianity and Late Ancient Philosophy: A Conspectus”, Eastern Christianity and Late Antique Philosophy, ed. Eva Anagnostou-Laoutides-Ken Parry, Brill, Leiden 2020, s. 13-52. google scholar
  • Patterson, Lee E., “Minority Religions in the Sasanian Empire: Suppression, Integration and Relations with Rome”, Sasanian Persia Between Rome and the Steppes of Eurasia, ed. Eberhard W. Sauer, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2017, s. 181-198. google scholar
  • Payne, Richard E., “Iranian Cosmopolitanism: World Religions at the Sasanian Court”, Cosmopolitanism and Empire: Universal Rulers, Local Elites, and Cultural Integration in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean, ed. Myles Lavan-Richard E. Payne-John Weisweiler, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2016, s. 209-230. google scholar
  • ________ , A State of Mixture: Christians, Zoroastrians, and Iranian Political Culture in Late Antiquity, University of California Press, Berkeley 2015. google scholar
  • Pirniya, Hasan, Tarih-i İran ez-Madha ta-İnkıraz-i Sasaniyan, İntişarat-ı Debir, Tahran 1392. google scholar
  • Platt, Andrew Thomas, The Church of the East at Three Critical Points in its History, Catholic University of America, The Faculty of the Department of Semitic and Egyptian Languages and Literature School of Arts and Sciences, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Washington 2017. google scholar
  • ________, “Changing Mission at Home and Abroad: Catholicos Timothy I and the Church of the East”, Winds of Jingjiao: Studies on Syriac Christianity in China and Central Asia, ed. Li Tang-Dietmar W. Winkler, LIT Verlag, Wien 2016, s. 161-182. google scholar
  • Recebniya, Mesud, “Namehâ-yi Farsî-i Giyuk Han be Pap”, Hüner u Merdüm, 136-137 (1352), s. 32-39. google scholar
  • Ringel-Ensley, Meredith, Errant Latin: The Transformation of Language in Medieval Missions to the Mongol Empire, University of North Carolina, Department of English and Comparative Literature, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Chapel Hill 2019. google scholar
  • Rubin, Ze’ev, “The Sasanid Monarchy”, The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. XIV, ed. Averil Cameron-Bryan Ward-Perkins-Michael Whitby, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2007, s. 638-661. google scholar
  • Ryan, James D., “Christian Wives of Mongol Khans: Tartar Queens and Missionary Expectations in Asia”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 8/3 (1998), s. 411-421. google scholar
  • Schöffler, Heinz Herbert, Gundi-Şapur Akademisi, çev. Sedat Umran-Vedii İlmen, Yaba Yayınları, İstanbul 2008. google scholar
  • Seleznyov, Nikolai N., “Nestorius of Constantinople Condemnation, Suppression, Veneration with Special Reference to the Role of His Name in East-Syriac Christianity”, Journal of Eastern Christian Studies, 62/3-4 (2010), s. 165-190. google scholar
  • Setton, Kenneth M., The Papacy and the Levant (1204-1571): The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, The American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia 1976. google scholar
  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas, “Deylam, John of”, Encyclopaedica of Iran, VII/3-4 (1994), s. 336-337. (20.05.2023), google scholar
  • Smith, John Masson, “Hülegü Moves West: High Living and Heartbreak on the Road to Baghdad”, Beyond the Legacy of Genghis Khan, ed. Linda Komaroff, Brill, Leiden 2006, s. 111-134. google scholar
  • Smith, Kyle Richard, The Persian Persecution: Martyrdom, Politics, and Religious Identity in Late Ancient Syriac Christianity, Duke University, Graduate Program in Religion, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Durham 2011. google scholar
  • Smith, Kyle, Constantine and the Captive Christians of Persia: Martyrdom and Religious Identity in Late Antiquity, University of California Press, Berkeley 2016. google scholar
  • ________, The Martyrdom and History of Blessed Simeon bar Sabba’e, Gorgias Press, Piscataway 2014. google scholar
  • Soranzo, Giovanni, Il papato, l’Europa cristiana e i Tartari: un secolo di penetrazione occidentale in Asia, Societa Editrice “Vita e Pensiero”, Milan 1930. google scholar
  • Spuler, Bertold, History of Mongols, Based on Eastern and Western Accounts of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, Dorset Press, New York 1988. google scholar
  • Stewart, Angus, “Hülegü: the New Constantine?”, Syria in Crusader Times Conflict and Coexistence, ed. Carole Hillenbrand, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2020, s. 321-335. google scholar
  • Syvanne, Ilkka-Katarzyna Maksymiuk, The Military History of the Third Century Iran, Scientific Publishing House of Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce 2018. google scholar
  • Şer, Adday, Nusaybin Akademisi, çev. Nesim Doru, Yaba Yayınları, İstanbul 2006. google scholar
  • Talâyî, Perviz Hüseyin, “Coğrafyâ-yi Tarih-i Şehr Âmed ve Câygâh-ı ân der Münasebât-ı İran ve Rûm der Rûzgâr-ı Sâsâniyân”, Mecelle-yi Pejûheşhâ-yi Tarih-i İran ve İslam, 21 (1396), s. 89-116. google scholar
  • Thomson, Robert W., “Mission, Conversion, and Christianization: The Armenian Example”, Harvard Ukrainian Studies, 12/13 (1988/1989), s. 28-45. google scholar
  • Thomson, W., “Armenia in the fifth and sixth century”, The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. XIV, ed. Averil Cameron-Bryan Ward-Perkins-Michael Whitby, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2007, s. 662677. google scholar
  • Tural, Murat, Asya’ya Yolculuklar: Hristiyan Dünyası ve Moğollar (Dinî İdealler ve Politik Kaygılar), Timaş Akademi Yayınları, İstanbul 2021. google scholar
  • Vacca, Alison, Non-Muslim Provinces under Early Islam: Islamic Rule and Iranian Legitimacy in Armenia and Caucasian Albania, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2017. google scholar
  • Valavi, Ali Mohammad-Safura Boroumand, “Derbar-ı Sâsânî ve Mesihîyân: Müdârâ ya Taassub”, Tarih-i İran, 5/62 (1388), s. 131-152. google scholar
  • Walker, Joel, “From Nisibis to Xi’an: The Church of the East in Late Antique Eurasia”, The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity, ed. Scott Fitzgerald Johnson, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2012, s. 994-1052. google scholar
  • Weitz, Lev E., Between Christ and Caliph: Law, Marriage, and Christian Community in Early Islam, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 2018. google scholar
  • Wiesehöfer, Josef, Antik Pers Tarihi, çev. Mehmet Ali İnci, Telos Yayıncılık, İstanbul 2003. google scholar
  • Wilhite, David E., Ancient African Christianity: An Introduction to a Unique Context and Tradition, Routledge, London 2017. google scholar
  • Young, William G., Patriarch, Shah and Caliph: A Study Study of the Relationships of the Church of the East with the Sassanid Empire and the Early Caliphates up to 820 A.D., University of Glasgow, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Glasgow 1972. google scholar
  • Yücel, Muhammet, Doğu ve Güneydoğu Anadolu’da Pers Varlığı (M.S. 224-651), İstanbul Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Tarih Anabilim Dalı, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, İstanbul 2018. google scholar
  • Zerrinkub, Ruzbeh-Cemşid Kahramani, “Vaziyet ve Nakş-ı Siyasî-i Yahudiyân der Rüzgâr-ı Hüsrev-i Perviz”, Edyân ve İrfân, 51/1 (1397), s. 65-87. google scholar
  • Zito, George V., “Toward a Sociology of Heresy”, Sociological Analysis, 44/2 (1983), s. 123-130. google scholar
  • Zouberi, Joan, “The Role of Religion in the Foreign Affairs of Sasanian Iran and the Later Roman Empire (330-630 A.D.)”,HistoriaISwiat, 6 (2017), s. 121-132. google scholar


Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format



Tural, M. (2024). Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties. Turkish Journal of History, 0(82), 27-74.


Tural M. Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties. Turkish Journal of History. 2024;0(82):27-74.


Tural, M. Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties. Turkish Journal of History, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 82, p. 27-74, 2024.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Tural, Murat,. 2024. “Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties.” Turkish Journal of History 0, no. 82: 27-74.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Tural, Murat,. Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties.” Turkish Journal of History 0, no. 82 (Apr. 2024): 27-74.

Harvard: Australian Style

Tural, M 2024, 'Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties', Turkish Journal of History, vol. 0, no. 82, pp. 27-74, viewed 23 Apr. 2024,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Tural, M. (2024) ‘Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties’, Turkish Journal of History, 0(82), pp. 27-74. (23 Apr. 2024).


Tural, Murat,. Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties.” Turkish Journal of History, vol. 0, no. 82, 2024, pp. 27-74. [Database Container],


Tural M. Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties. Turkish Journal of History [Internet]. 23 Apr. 2024 [cited 23 Apr. 2024];0(82):27-74. Available from: doi: 10.26650/iutd.20231384439


Tural, Murat. Christianity in the Foreign Policy of the Sassanid and Ilkhanid Dynasties”. Turkish Journal of History 0/82 (Apr. 2024): 27-74.


Published Online15.03.2024


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.