Some Notes on Words Görürce and TutarcaGamzegül Kılıç
This article examines the grammatical structure and meaning of the words görürce and tutarca. The use of these words was notably mentioned as organ names in my master’s thesis titled “Firûz-i Cihângîr Story Language Analysis-Text-Dictionary (Folios 71r-140r).” This prose story of Fîrûz-i Cihângîr is an original Persian work on bravery and adventure. It was translated into Turkish in by Celalzâde Salih Çelebi upon the behest of Suleiman the Magnificent. The words examined in this article, occur in the 3rd volume of the work which is found in the Pertevniyal Section of the Süleymaniye Manuscript Library. Upon encountering the two Turkish words mentioned above in the transcription of the text, various texts with the term dictionaries were scanned within the scope of this article. As a result of the research, these words appear to have occurred in Turkish between the 14th -21st centuries in Turkey, but they were not used for organ names. This article discusses the structure of the words görürce and tutarca that are formed with a common morpheme (-ArcA/-(I)rcA), by taking into account morphemes with similar functions (-DIkCA, -IncA/-sIncA, -mAcA, -lIcA). The article has identified words derived from this suffix and has attempted to evaluate its functions and meanings.
Görürce ve Tutarca Kelimeleri ÜzerineGamzegül Kılıç
Bu çalışmada görürce ve tutarca kelimelerinin yapı ve anlamları üzerinde durulmuştur. Tarafımca hazırlanan “Fîrûz-i Cihângîr Hikâyesi Dil İncelemesi-MetinSözlük (Vr.71a-140a)” adlı yüksek lisans tezinde söz konusu kelimelerin organ adı karşılığında kullanılması dikkat çekmiştir. Fîrûz-i Cihângîr Hikâyesi aslı Farsça olan mensur hikâye türünde yiğitlik ve macera konulu bir eserdir. 16. yüzyılda Kanuni Sultan Süleyman’ın isteği üzerine Celâlzâde Salih Çelebi tarafından Türkçeye tercümesi yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmaya konu olan kelimeler eserin Süleymaniye Yazma Eser Kütüphanesi Pertevniyal bölümündeki 3. cildinde geçmektedir. Metnin transkripsiyonunda yukarıda bahsi geçen iki Türkçe kelime ile karşılaşılması üzerine bu makale kapsamında dönem sözlükleri ile çeşitli metinler taranmıştır. Araştırma neticesinde Türkiye Türkçesinin 14-21. yüzyılları arası tarihsel sürecinde görürce ve tutarca kelimelerinin organ adı yerine kullanılmadığı görülmüştür. Makalede ortak bir biçimbirimle (-ArcA/-(I)rcA) türetilmiş olan görürce ve tutarca kelimelerinin yapısı, benzer işlevli biçimbirimler (-DIkCA, -IncA/-sIncA, -mAcA, -lIcA) de dikkate alınarak ele alınmış ve bu ekle türetilen kelimeler tespit edilerek ekin işlev ve anlamları değerlendirilmeye çalışılmıştır.
The story of Fîrûz is the Turkish translation of the 45 volume work of Muhammed Tahirî-i Bîgamî, known as “Fîrûzşâh-nâme” or “Dârâb-nâme” in Persian literature. In the sources, it is mentioned with various names such as Fîrûz-nâme, Tercüme-i Fîrûz-nâme, Kıssa-i Fîrûz Şâh, Menâkıb-i Fîrûz Şâh, Hikâye-i Fîrûz Şâh, Hikâye-i Fîrûzşâh, Kıssa-i Bahmen Şâh bin Fîrûz Şâh. It was translated into Turkish in eight volumes by Celalzâde Salih Çelebi (b. 910/1504-1505 d. 973/1565) upon the behest of Suleiman the Magnificent. Many copies under various names can be found in libraries in Turkey and abroad. In the current article, I study the third volume of the manuscript titled Fîrûz-i Cihângîr Hikâyesi [Story of Firuz-i Cihangir] in the Suleymaniye Library’s Pertevniyal Collection no. 862. This volume consists of 354 folios in prose with some verse sections. The volume concerns the heroism and adventures of the Iranian ruler Melik Darab’s son, Firuz Shah, and his warrior wrestlers. The characters face a moral and physical test, and this volume of the story has two main groups: the God of Zarathustra and the fire-worshipper. The heroes of these two groups fight in a large square. In the fights, one hero from each of the two groups face off to one another, and the fight between the two heroes ends with the death or injury of one or the other. The victorious hero starts a new fight with another brave man from the opposite group. The work generally uses a simple, understandable language. While the work has an extensive vocabulary, it was enriched by using the features of spoken language, and the characters are often the ones narrating the story. Sometimes the work is seen to use exaggerated forms of language such as reduplications when telling the story, and the fight scenes are additionally narrated using vivid descriptions.
This article concerns the words görürce and tutarca as seen in the text titled Fîrûz-i Cihângîr Hikâyesi, which was likely written in 16th century. My master’s thesis titled “Firuz-i Cihângîr Story Language Analysis-Text-Dictionary (Folios 71r-140r)” described the use of the words görürce and tutarca as denoting organ names, with görürce being seen to mean “the organ that enables sight; the eye” and tutarca meaning “the organs that enable movement, such as the hands, feet, and legs.” (Kılıç, 2022, s. 158) Thereupon, within the scope of the article, Tarama Sözlüğü, Derleme Sözlüğü and various texts were scanned, and it was determined that these words in Western Turkish were not used instead of organ names.
As a result of the research, these words appear to have occurred in Turkish during the 14th-21st centuries in Turkey, but they weren’t used for organ names. This article discusses the structure of the words görürce and tutarca as derived from a common suffix (-ArcA/-(I)rcA). The study has identified words derived from this suffix and attempted to evaluate the functions and meanings of the suffix. The words derived from the suffix –ArcA/-(I)rcA are seen to have been used as nouns or adjectives, with sample sentences used for the words being present in the sources. 29 example words have been identified for the use of this suffix as a noun and six example words for its use as an adjective. The following variations were observed in the use of the nouns classified according to their meanings: disease, animal, plant, tool, object, drug, organ, geography, and essence. Among these categories, 10 examples were used for disease names, four for abstract names, four for animal names, two for geographical names, two for object names, and one example each for a drug, a plant, and an action name.