Turkish Translation of Ibnu'l Hâjib's Al-Kâfiye (Manzûm Kâfiye Mefhûmu)Eren Ertürkoğlu
Since the beginning of the educational activities in madrasahs, the teaching of linguistic sciences and religious sciences has been of great importance. This is because in order to learn religious sciences, it is necessary to understand Arabic. this regard, linguistic sciences, such as sarf (morphology), nahiv (syntax) and lugat (lexicography) have always been taught. Among them, syntax has been given significant importance. In particular, Al-Kâfiya, a work frequently taught in Ottoman madrasahs, has made the syntax topics more concise and simple. Among the translations of this work are the verse and prose ones. A verse translation of a scientific work can have many reasons both for the translator him/herself and for the target audience. However, the general trend on this subject is that verse works are easier to learn, easier to repeat, and they have a higher memorization potential. Thus, this study examines and transcribes Ibn al-Hâjib’s al-Kâfiya and his verse translation by Şâkir (one of the 18th century poets), and focuses on the reasons for translating this syntax work.
İbnü’l Hâcib’in El-Kâfiye’sinin Manzûm Kâfiye Mefhûmu İsimli Türkçe TercümesiEren Ertürkoğlu
Medreselerin kuruluşundan itibaren dinî ilimlerin tahsili kadar dil ilimlerinin tahsiline de önem verilmiştir. Çünkü dinî ilimleri tahsil edebilmek için kaynak dil olan Arapçaya vakıf olmak gerekmektedir. Bu nedenle sarf, nahiv, lugat gibi dil ilimleri medreselerde daima okutulan ilimlerden olagelmiştir. Bunların arasında da özellikle nahiv ilmine -anlamlardaki asıl maksatları bildirdiği için- daha çok önem verilmiştir. Osmanlı medreselerinde sıklıkla okutulan bir nahiv eseri olan el-Kâfiye, nahve dair konuları daha öz ve yalın bir muhtasar haline getirmiştir. Osmanlı medreselerinde kimi zaman bizzat eserin kendisi üzerinden kimi zaman da hakkında yazılmış olan şerh ve tercümelerden talim ettirilen bu eserin tercümeleri arasında mensur ve manzum olanları bulunmaktadır. İlmî bir eseri manzum olarak tercüme etmenin hem mütercimin kendisine dönük hem de hedef kitleye yönelik pek çok gerekçesi olabilir. Ancak bu konudaki genel eğilim, manzum eserlerin daha kolay akılda kaldığı, daha kolay tekrar edildiği ve ezberlenme potansiyelinin daha yüksek olduğu yolundadır. Bu çalışmada İbnü’l-Hâcib ve el-Kâfiye isimli eseri ile bu esere 18. yüzyıl şairlerinden Şâkir’in yaptığı manzum tercüme tanıtılacak; nahiv ilmine dair bir eseri manzum olarak tercüme etmenin gerekçeleri ortaya konmaya çalışılacak ve tercüme metni çeviriyazı alfabesiyle verilecektir.
When the first madrasah was built in Baghdad by the vizier of the Great Seljuk State, Nizam al-mulk (one of the most successful statesmen of the medieval Islamic world), scientific activities began and educational activities gained an official and institutional identity in the history of Islam. Nizamiyye madrasahs (named after Nizam al-mulk) were built in various cities, especially in Baghdad. Their architecture and curricula greatly influenced the madrasahs that were eventually established in various parts of the Islamic world. In the curriculum of the Nizamiyye madrasahs, there are courses such as the Qur’an, hadith, fiqh, kalam, Arabic language and literature, mathematics, and the science of Islamic inheritance. A similar education curriculum occurred in the madrasahs during the Ottoman Empire. Information regarding the education curriculum of the Ottoman Period can be obtained from the works by various scholars. These works related to the curriculum indicate that the information regarding the Qur’an, kıraah, calligraphy, doctrines, morals, lexicon, morphology, syntax, tajweed, fiqh, logic, customs, rhetoric, Islamic philosophy, kalam, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, hadith, tafsir, and the science of Islamic inheritance were taught in Ottoman madrasahs.
In the madrasas, besides religious sciences, linguistic sciences were of great significance. For example, Ibn al-Hâjib’s al-Kâfiya is one of the most frequently taught works on syntax in Ottoman madrasahs. Although this work was created as a summary of the syntax books written earlier, various annotations and translations have been made in order to better understand this concise but dense work. Many translations, some in prose and some in verse, were made during the Ottoman Period, with more than one hundred annotations in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish.
In this study, the issue of writing scientific works as verse was first examined, and then it was revealed that the issue of translating verse was performed for similar purposes. The reasons why scientific works, especially works related to linguistics, such as morphology and syntax, were written in the form of verse are as follows:
1. It offers ease of learning because the Arabic grammar is shorter and more concise.
2. The unique features of the verse text make the repetition and memorization methods used in the madrasahs more functional.
3. The authors show that they are talented in the field of literature as well as in the scientific field.
Manzûm Kâfiye Mefhûmu and İrşâd-ı Ezkiyâ are translations made as verse to al-Kâfiya during the Ottoman Period. Based on an examination of these two translations of al-Kâfiya, both translators stated that they provided “short and concise” translations for easy “memorization.” From this perspective, it is possible to conclude that the verse writings related to syntax and the verse translations were made for the same reasons.
In this study, a translation of Ibn al-Hâjib’s al-Kâfiya, called Manzûm Kâfiye Mefhûmu, by Şâkir was also presented. However, there is no such work by Şâkir in the collection of biographies. For this reason, we attempted to prove that this work actually belongs to Şâkir. For instance, when we compare the criteria, such as “pseudonym,” “history,” “profession,” and “praise of Damat İbrahim Paşa,” with both Şâkir’s life and his Dîvân, it is possible to state that Manzûm Kâfiye Mefhûmu belongs to Şâkir.
As for Manzûm Kâfiye Mefhûmu, it is a translation in which the Arabic is intense in terms of language. Şâkir also preserved the frame in the source text while translating the work. However, some sections were not included in the translation, with others including short explanations about some sections that are only mentioned by their names. Moreover, the majority of the examples in the source text were not included in the translation. This is because the translation is only a concept translation. For this reason, the original Arabic terms in the source text are given without translation in order to ensure that the language was predominantly Arabic.
Finally, in this study, an unknown work of Şâkir was examined and the idea was posited that there might be other works by him. It was also determined that translating a syntax work as a verse can make dense works shorter and more concise, fostering the ease of repetition and memorization. Furthermore, we found that the translations, which focus on the “concepts” of the source text, do not use methods such as explanation, detailing, and sampling. Overall, it is hoped that the translation Manzûm Kâfiye Mefhûmu will contribute to the work of researchers in the fields of syntax, literature, and translation.