Some Findings of the Structural Features of the Quotations in Kissa-i Musa at the Syntactic and Text-linguistic LevelsKübra Malta
Turkish literature has a rich text corpus in the genre of the Parables of the Prophets (Qisas Al-Anbiya). Among this corpus, Kissa-i Musa is distinguished from the other texts as the only separate prose tale known today of the Prophet Moses. In this work, verses from the Quran were used for reasons such as grounding the word on solid foundations and keeping the interest of the reader and listener alive. In the analysis section, the rate of the use of these verses together with Turkish sentences was determined according to syntactic and text-linguistic levels. After that, the structural features of the Quran verses associated with “quotations” were investigated. Unlike the previous studies that were primarily based on poetry examples, the appearance of quotations in a prose sample was evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods in this study. According to the findings, the percentage of the intersentential and intrasentential quotations was 27% and 73%, respectively. The structural features of the quotations were grouped under four headings different from the classical classification: incomplete quotations (60%), complete quotations (20%), combined quotations (13%), and mixed quotations (7%). Among these categories, the titles “combined quotations” and “mixed quotations” were offered for the first time in this research. Finally, it has been understood that the usage of “quotations” in prose differs from that in poetry, and the types of quotations have expanded in prose.
Kıssa-i Musa’da Sözdizimsel ve Metin Dilbilimsel Düzeydeki Alıntıların Yapısal Özelliklerine İlişkin Bazı TespitlerKübra Malta
Türk edebiyatı, peygamber kıssaları (Kısas-ı Enbiyâ) türünde zengin bir külliyata sahiptir. Bu külliyat içerisinde, Musa peygamberi konu edinen Kıssa-i Musa, bugün için bilinen tek mensur müstakil metin olması bakımından diğerlerinden ayrılmaktadır. Bu eserde, sözü sağlam temellere dayandırmak, okuyucunun ve dinleyicinin ilgisini canlı tutabilmek gibi amaçlarla Kur’an’dan ayetlere yer verildiği görülmektedir. İncelememizde genelden özele bir sırayla, öncelikle metne alınan ayetlerin Türkçe cümlelerle bir arada kullanılmasının sözdizimsel ve metin dilbilimsel düzeydeki ağırlık noktaları belirlenmiş; ardından “iktibas” ile ilişkilendirilen alıntıların kendi içerisindeki yapısal özellikleri araştırılmıştır. Böylece, bugüne kadar çoğunlukla şiir örnekleri üzerinden ilerletilen araştırmalardan farklı olarak burada, alıntıların bir düzyazı örneğindeki görünümü nitel ve nicel yöntemlerle değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre, 16. yüzyıl Eski Anadolu Türkçesi dil özellikleri gösteren Kıssa-i Musa’da cümle içi alıntılar %27, cümleler arası alıntılar ise %73 oranında belirlenmiştir. Alıntıların yapısal özellikleri, klasik sınıflandırmadan farklı olarak burada eksik yapılı alıntılar (%60), tam yapılı alıntılar (%20), birleşik yapılı alıntılar (%13) ve karma yapılı alıntılar (%7) olmak üzere birer kavram olarak da kabul edilebilecek dört başlık altında toplanmıştır. Bunlar arasında “Birleşik yapılı alıntılar” ve “Karma yapılı alıntılar” araştırmalarımıza göre ilk kez bu makalede teklif edilmiştir. Son olarak düzyazı örneklerinde “iktibas”ın kullanım alanının şiir türüne göre farklılık gösterdiği ve düzyazı örneklerinde genişlediği anlaşılmıştır.
Ḳıṣṣa-i Mūsā ʿaleyhi’ṣ-ṣalāt ü ve’s-selām [i.e., Kissa-i Musa (KM)] deals with the struggle of the Prophet Moses with the Israelites from his birth to the death of Pharaoh. The work has a special place in the historical Turkish text corpus in terms of being the only known separate “prose” tale of the Prophet Moses in the Western Turkish field. The work reflects the 16thcentury Old Anatolian Turkish language features and shows a deep-rooted tradition dating back to the first records of the Islamic literature period. As you can see in the “Introduction” chapter and the example below, various quotations from Quranic verses were highlighted using red ink between the Turkish lines throughout the text. These quotations are called iqtibas in classical resources. This study deals with the structural characteristics of these quotations.
According to Qazwini’s definition, iqtibas means that the verses are quoted from the text without any reference to the relevant suras. To increase the power of the narrative and keep the readers’ interest alive, these quotations are used in literary works dating back to historical periods. Since these quotations are replaced in poetry rather than prose in Turkish literature, ongoing studies mainly focus on examining the verses and hadiths hidden between the couplets. Therefore, the features of the quotations, taken from the Quran to a “prose” text, represent a new subject waiting to be studied. This study aims to evaluate the theory of “iqtibas” (in a Turkish text) at the syntactic and text-linguistic levels. To achieve the purpose of the study, 91 different quotations were listed from Kissa-i Musa in relevant contexts. The verses written in red ink in the original text were directly transferred to the transcription of the Turkish text, and their Turkish meanings were reflected in the translations in a way that can be distinguished by italic fonts, for example:
Ḥaḳ Teʿālā, Mūsā’ya evvel gösterdi tā ki Firʿavn öŋinde bir aġaççıḳ ḳorḳmaya, gözi aŋa ögrene. Çünki Mūsā’ya anda Ḥaḳ Teʿālā eyitdi: 1 َا ِذ َا ٰ َ يها ف ْق َل َا َ ُ ا م ٰوسى ف ِ َها ي ْق َل ال ا َ َ ق َ ْس ٰعى ٌ ت َّة حي َ ي َه” ِBıraḳ elüŋdeki!” Bıraḳdı, ejdehā oldı. (KM/4a/2-5) “God previously showed Moses (what would happen) in advance so that he would not be afraid of a piece of wood in front of Pharaoh, and his eyes would get used to it. God said to Moses there: “He said, ‘Cast it down, O Moses.’ So he cast it down, and behold! It was a serpent running.” “Let go of what you hold!” (Moses) let go of (his scepter) and it became a dragon.”
According to their characteristic features, the quotations were classified into two types: intersentential quotations (27%) and intrasentential quotations (73%), at syntactic and text-linguistic levels.
The second chapter of the study, dealing with “the structural features of the quotations,” includes four categories of the “iqtibas” in Kissa-i Musa, which are “incomplete, complete, combined, and mixed,” respectively. An “incomplete quotation” means that a part of the verse is taken into the text rather than the whole verse. A “complete quotation” means that the verses are placed in the text without any changes. A “combined quotation” is created by combining a verse with the verse that follows it. In a “mixed quotation,” a new and complete expression is made by bringing together the different parts of the verses from different suras. The number of verses (97) and quotations (92) is not equal in Kisa-i Musa. The reason for this quantitative difference between verses and quotations is that some verses are fused between compound and mixed quotations. The quantity of the quotations shows that the incomplete quotations are 60%, complete quotations are 20%, combined quotations are 13%, and, finally, mixed quotations are 7% of the total quotations in Kissa-i Musa.
The presence of the various quotations in a Turkish text reflects the author’s skill and mastery over the Quranic verses. However, the diversity of the quotation types in a prose sample indicates that the usage of quotations expanded in the 16th-century Anatolian Turko-Islamic tradition. The purpose of using the verses and their functions in the text were excluded in this study. It is possible to examine the structural features of the quotations identified in Kıssa-i Musa in a larger text corpus (e.g., in Rabgūzī’s Ḳiṣaṣ al-Anbiyāʾ). Moreover, the frequency of the quotations in other historical texts can be examined. In this way, the methodology proposed here can be tested and improved with new research works.