Research Article


DOI :10.26650/TUDED2021-918536   IUP :10.26650/TUDED2021-918536    Full Text (PDF)

Woman in Qizilbash-Turkmen Society during Safavid Period (Tajlu Begum: an Example of Qizilbash Woman)

İlgar Baharlu

During the history of the Safavid State, an important phase of Alevism-Bektashism, periodic differences occurred in the view of women’s place and importance in society. Both in the Safavid State’s foundation stage and in Shah Tahmasb’s first rule, women filled important positions in policy, the economy, and the army. Chronicles of the period and travel literature recorded women’s active role in society. Later however, consequent to socio-cultural and, particularly, faith-related reasons, a woman’s area of activity was restricted, and she gradually and steadily lost her previous social position. Woman, earlier an important figure in society from battlefield to economy and policy to worship, came, over time to be perceived as an object and to be constricted into in harems. Tajlu Begum (Shah Bige Begum), a member of the Mawsillu tribe ruling Diyarbakir, emerges to symbolize women’s position in Qizilbash society during the years following the Safavid State’s foundation. But Tajlu Begum’s social position was not specific solely to her and the Safavid State. In Turkish history, many women have led the state and been proactive politically. Likewise, the nearby Alp (Warrior) woman is positioned similarly in the Turkish epic tradition and Turkish mythology. In fact, Qizilbash women and Tajlu Begum’s actions and attitudes are structured similarly according to the perception of women within the Turkish State tradition. 

DOI :10.26650/TUDED2021-918536   IUP :10.26650/TUDED2021-918536    Full Text (PDF)

Safevi Dönemi Kızılbaş Türkmen Toplumunda Kadın (Bir Kızılbaş Kadın Örneği Taçlı Begüm)

İlgar Baharlu

Alevi-Bektaşi inancının tarihî seyri içerisinde önemli bir evreyi oluşturan Safevi Devleti’nin, kadının yeri ve önemi hususunda dönemsel farklılıklara sahip olduğu görülmektedir. Safevi Devleti’nin hem kuruluş aşamasında hem de Şah Tahmasb döneminin ilk yarısında kadın, siyasette, ekonomide ve orduda önemli bir konumda yer alır. Dönemin kroniklerinde ve Safevi coğrafyasını ziyaret eden seyyahların eserlerinde kadının toplumda aktif bir rol üstlendiği görülmektedir. Ne var ki ilerleyen zamanda sosyo-kültürel ve özellikle itikadî sebepler neticesinde kadının toplumsal yaşamdaki faaliyet alanı kısıtlanmış ve giderek bahsi geçen konumunu kaybettiği tespit edilmiştir. Savaş meydanından ekonomiye; siyasetten ibadete kadar toplumunda önemli bir figür olan kadın zamanla haremlere sıkıştırılmış bir nesne olarak algılanmaya başlanmıştır. Diyarbakır’a hâkim olan Musullu oymağına mensup Taçlı Begüm (Şah Bige Hanım), devletin kuruluşunu takip eden yıllarda Kızılbaş toplumunda kadının konumunu gösteren bir simge olarak öne çıkar. Taçlı Begüm’ün konumu ve toplumu içerisindeki varlığı yalnız kendisi ve Safevi Devleti’ne has bir durum değildir. Türk tarihinde devleti yönlendiren siyasette irade sahibi olan birçok kadına rastlanır. Keza Türk destancılık geleneği ve Türk mitolojisinde de alpın yanında benzer özellikleri ile kadın da konumlandırılır. Nitekim Kızılbaş kadının ve Taçlı Begüm’ün duruş ve eylemlerinin Türk devlet geleneği içerisindeki kadın algısı ile benzer ve birbirini izleyen bir yapıyı ifade ettiği söylenebilir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


In the Turkish system of thought, man and woman are positioned together—managing life and all kinds of business, with counseling—to maintain the order in social life. Woman partners with her husband, her family, and the fate of the society to which she belongs. Moreover, this situation is reflected in the Turkish State tradition. Women direct state politics, mentor, manage the state when it comes to their roles, and fulfill positions in the management system. Overall, the belief system reflects women’s main position in all areas of public life. In the Alevi-Bektashi tradition, Fatma is the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, the wife of the Prophet Ali, and, on the other hand, the mother of imams. Thus, she converges on “kut” and keeps it going.

During the history of the Safavid State, an important phase of Alevism-Bektashism, periodic differences occurred in the view of women’s place and importance. Both in the Safavid State’s foundation stage and in Shah Tahmasb’s first ruling area, women filled important positions in policy, the economy, and the army. Chronicles of the period and travel literature recorded women’s active role in society. Later however, consequent to socio-cultural and, particularly, faith-related reasons, a woman’s area of activity was restricted, and she gradually and steadily lost her earlier social position. Woman, previously an important figure in society from battlefield to economy and policy to worship, came, over time to be perceived as an object and to be constricted into harems. Tajlu Begum (Shah Bige Begum), a member of the Mawsillu tribe ruling Diyarbakir, emerges to symbolize women’s position in Qizilbash society during the years following the Safavid State’s foundation.

After Shah Ismail’s death, the new worldview that emerged during Tahmasb’s reign led to the decline of women’s role in society, the economy, and politics. Influenced especially on theological and social issues by the new Shia sect scholars, Tahmasb’s edicts or approvals of these scholars’ orders can be considered beginning steps in pushing women to the background of social life. Even in the field of faith, this occurred in a way that did not conform the AleviBektashi belief system’s spirit as manifested in economics and politics. Consequently, woman, a complementary figure in Qizilbash society at every life stage—from worship to economic and social life—was over time compressed into harems, seen as a sexual object, and limited in her field of activity: so much so that in the period after Tahmasb, various methods of keeping women away from men were used, and, under Shah Abbas I, some areas were designated as “women-only” on a certain day of the week.

During Shah Ismail’s reign, Tajlu Begum (Shah Bige Khanum), who belonged to the Musullu tribe that dominated Diyarbakir on women’s place in society, is an important example. She was Shah Ismail’s “right-hand man,” wife, gun mate, and comrade during his lifetime. She had a stake in administration of the state, directed politics, and dismissed or disenfranchised high authorities such as viziers and emirs. Besides that, folk listened to her word in mediation of disputes. She negotiated for war or peace, having a say in the state’s foreign policy as well as in domestic politics. When the time came, she was present in battle with a sword, and when necessary, managed the state after the sultan’s death, preventing it from falling apart. In addition to being the Shah’s wife and performing all these actions, Tajlu Begum complemented Shah Ismail, the Murshid-i Kamil of the Qizilbash. Thus, she became exemplary in representing Turkish women in history and culture.

But Tajlu Begum’s social position was not specific solely to her and the Safavid State. In Turkish history, many women have led the state and been proactive politically. Likewise, the nearby Alp (Warrior) woman is positioned similarly in the Turkish epic tradition and Turkish mythology. In fact, Qizilbash women and Tajlu Begum’s actions and attitudes are structured similarly according to perception of women within the Turkish State tradition. During the conditions of the day, all members of society continually struggled together, and women’s mobility in the social status they deserve allowed them to overcome difficulties and maintain woman-centered religious roots in the Alevi-Bektashi belief system.


PDF View

References

  • Akın, B. (2020). Kızılbaş Oğuzlar ve Şah İsmail'in Anayurdu Diyarbakır. İstanbul: Kitabevi. google scholar
  • Ali-kulu Vale Dağıstânî. (t.y.) Riyazü'ş-Şuara. Tahran: Kitaphane-yi Milli Melek, Elyazma Eserler, No:4301. google scholar
  • Anonim. (1972). Âlem-âra-yı Safevî (Y. Şükrî, Haz.) Tahran: Bünyad-ı Ferheng-i İran. google scholar
  • Bahadır, İ. (2004). Alevi-Bektaşi Kadın Dervişler. Köln: Alevi-Bektaşi Kültür Enstitüsü Yayınları. google scholar
  • Baharlu, İ. (2020). Şah'ın Bahçesinde Şah İsmail Öncesi ve Sonrası Kızılbaşlık. İstanbul: Kitapevi Yayınları. google scholar
  • Baharlu, İ. (2021). Safeviler Döneminde Sema (Semah) (Kronikler, Seyahatnâmeler ve Minyatürlerde). Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi, (97), 11-28. google scholar
  • Balıkçı, Ş. (2016). Banu Çiçek ve Selcen Hatun’dan Canıl Mırza ve Kız Darıyka’ya. Türk Dünyasında Kadın Algısı. içinde Manisa: Manisa Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Rektörlük Matbaası. google scholar
  • Banarlı, N. S. (1957). Kız Evliyalar. Türk Folklor Araştırmaları, 4(95), 1505-1056. google scholar
  • Barbaro, J. (2016). Anadolu'ya ve İran'a Seyahat (T. Gündüz, Çev.). İstanbul: Yeditepe Yayınevi. google scholar
  • Budak Münşi Kazvinî. (2009). Cevahirü’l-Ahbar. (M. Behramnejad, Dü.). Tahran: Miras-i Mektub. google scholar
  • Dihganî, F., Dadver, E. ve Davudî, E. (2016). Seyr-i Tahavvul-ı Evzai İçtimai ve Ferhengi Zenan der Devre-yi Safevi ve Kacar. Konfrans-ı Beynülmileli-yi Mimari, Şehrsazi, Umran, Hüner ve Muhit-i Zist. Tahran: Debirhane-yi Daimi-yi Konfrans. google scholar
  • Ebu Bekir Tihranî. (1977). Kitab-i Diyarbekriyye. (N. Logan ve F. Sümer, Düz.). Tahran: Tahûrî. google scholar
  • Ecer, A. V. (2012). Tarihte Lider Kadınlar ve Fatma Bacı. İstanbul: Yesevi Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Ergün, P. (2010). Türk Gelininin Mitolojik Göçü. Balıkesir Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstütüsü Dergisi, 13(24), 275-290. google scholar
  • Ergin, M. (2004). Dede Korkut Kitabı. Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları. google scholar
  • Ersal, M. (2015). Veli Baba Sultan Ocağı. Köln: Alevi Bektaşi Kültür Enstitüsü Yayınları. google scholar
  • Ersal, M. (2019). Alevi Cem Zakirliği. Ankara: Barış Kitabevi. google scholar
  • Felsefî, N. (1954). Ceng-i Çaldıran. Neşriye-yi Danişkede-yi edebiyat ve Ulum-i İnsanî Danişgah-ı Tahran, (2), 50-127. google scholar
  • Felsefî, N. (1980). Zendiginame-yi Şah Abbas-ı Evvel. Tahran: İntişarat-ı İlmî. google scholar
  • Gündüz, T. (2009). Şah İsmail'in Eşi Taçlı Begüm. Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Velî Araştırma Dergisi, (51), 223-234. google scholar
  • Ülken, H. Z. (2006). Anadolu Kültürü ve Türk Kimliği Üzerine. İstanbul: Ülken Yayınları. google scholar
  • İnan, A. (1992). Manas Destanı. İstanbul: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Yayınları. google scholar
  • Kafesoğlu, İ. (1998). Türk Milli Kültürü. İstanbul: Ötüken. google scholar
  • Kadı Ahmed Münşî Kumî, K. A. (2005). Hülasatü’t-Tevarih (Cilt I). (İ. İşrâkî, Düz.) Tahran: İntişarat-ı Danişgah-i Tahran. google scholar
  • Kandemir, A. (2016). Geline Yöresel Kıyafet Biçme Töreni: Pırtı Biçme. Direnen ve Kaybolmaya Yüz Tutmuş Kültür. içinde İzmir: Ege Üniversitesi Yayınları. google scholar
  • Membre, M. (2015). SeSefernâme. (H. Cevâdî, & W. M. Floor, Düz.) Tahran: Bünyâd-ı Mevkufat-ı Afşar. google scholar
  • Mircaferî, H. (1975). Taclı Hanım Zen-i Setihende-yi Çaldıran. Neşriye-yi Danişkede-yi Edebiyat ve Ulum-i İnsani Danişgah Tebriz, (112), 468-481. google scholar
  • Özkan, İ. (1992). Nözügüm Destanı. IV. Milletlerarası Halk Kültürü Kongresi Bildirileri- Halk Edebiyatı. Ankara: Devran Matbaası. google scholar
  • Râvendî, M. (1979). Tarih-i İçtimai-yi İran. Tahran: Emir Kebir. google scholar
  • Sümer, F. (1976). Safevi Devletinin Kuruluşu ve Gelişmesinde Anadolu Türkmenlerinin Rolü. Ankara: Güven Matbaası. google scholar
  • Savory, R. M. (2003). Taclu Hanum: Çaldıran Savaşı'nda Osmanlılar Tarafından Esir Alındı Mı Alınmadı Mı (G. O Özgüdenli, Çev.). Marmara Türkiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi, (2), 221-235. google scholar
  • Sağlık Şahin, G. S. (2016). Geçmişten Günümüze Türkmenlerde (Oğuzlarda) Kadına Bakış. Türk Dünyasında Kadın Algısı içinde (s. 643-651). Manisa: Manisa Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Rektörlük Matbaası. google scholar
  • Sohrabiabad, H. (2018). Akkoyunluların Mezhepsel Eğilimleri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. Alevilik-Bektaşilik Araştırmaları Dergisi, (18), 203-223. google scholar
  • Şahin, H. İ. (2011). Türkmenistan Sahası Köroğlu Anlatmalarında Kadın Tipler. Prof. Dr. Mine Mengi Adına Türkoloji Sempozyumu (20-22 Ekim 2011). Ankara: Devran Matbaası. google scholar
  • Şeşen, R. (2010). İbn Fadlan Seyahatnamesi. İstanbul: Yeditepe Yayınları. google scholar
  • Takavî, Â. ve Musevî, S. M. (2014). Berresi-yi Huzur-ı İçtimai Zenan ve Seyri-i Tahavvul-ı Puşeş der Nigareha-yı Asr-ı Safevi. Faslname-yi İlmi-Pejuhişî-yi Zen ve Ferheng, 81-102. google scholar
  • Tekleli, M. ve Aliyeva, M. (2014). Taçlı Begüm'ün Hayatı Hakkında Yeni Olgular. Akademik Tarih ve Düşünce Dergisi, (4), 1-13. google scholar
  • Turan, O. (2009). Selçuklular Tarihi ve Türk-İslam Medeniyeti. İstanbul: Ötüken. google scholar
  • Turgut, V. (2016). Şah İsmail'in Hatunu. Osmanlı Tarihi Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi Dergisi (OTAM),27-35. google scholar
  • Umay, G. (1998). Manas Destanı’nda Kadın Adları İle İlgili Bir Deneme. G. Umay içinde, Folkloristik: Prof. Dr. Dursun Yıldırım Armağanı içinde (s. 49-61). Ankara: Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı. google scholar
  • Zarinehbaf-shahr, F. (1998). Economic Activities of Safavid Woman in the Shrine City of Ardabil. Iranian Studies, (31), 247-261. google scholar
  • Zeno, C. (1971). Sefernâmeha-yı Veniziyan der İran (Şeş Sefernâme). (M. Emirî, Çev.) Tahran: Hârezmî. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Baharlu, İ. (2021). Woman in Qizilbash-Turkmen Society during Safavid Period (Tajlu Begum: an Example of Qizilbash Woman). Journal of Turkish Language and Literature, 61(1), 339-355. https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-918536


AMA

Baharlu İ. Woman in Qizilbash-Turkmen Society during Safavid Period (Tajlu Begum: an Example of Qizilbash Woman). Journal of Turkish Language and Literature. 2021;61(1):339-355. https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-918536


ABNT

Baharlu, İ. Woman in Qizilbash-Turkmen Society during Safavid Period (Tajlu Begum: an Example of Qizilbash Woman). Journal of Turkish Language and Literature, [Publisher Location], v. 61, n. 1, p. 339-355, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Baharlu, İlgar,. 2021. “Woman in Qizilbash-Turkmen Society during Safavid Period (Tajlu Begum: an Example of Qizilbash Woman).” Journal of Turkish Language and Literature 61, no. 1: 339-355. https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-918536


Chicago: Humanities Style

Baharlu, İlgar,. Woman in Qizilbash-Turkmen Society during Safavid Period (Tajlu Begum: an Example of Qizilbash Woman).” Journal of Turkish Language and Literature 61, no. 1 (Dec. 2021): 339-355. https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-918536


Harvard: Australian Style

Baharlu, İ 2021, 'Woman in Qizilbash-Turkmen Society during Safavid Period (Tajlu Begum: an Example of Qizilbash Woman)', Journal of Turkish Language and Literature, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 339-355, viewed 9 Dec. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-918536


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Baharlu, İ. (2021) ‘Woman in Qizilbash-Turkmen Society during Safavid Period (Tajlu Begum: an Example of Qizilbash Woman)’, Journal of Turkish Language and Literature, 61(1), pp. 339-355. https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-918536 (9 Dec. 2021).


MLA

Baharlu, İlgar,. Woman in Qizilbash-Turkmen Society during Safavid Period (Tajlu Begum: an Example of Qizilbash Woman).” Journal of Turkish Language and Literature, vol. 61, no. 1, 2021, pp. 339-355. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-918536


Vancouver

Baharlu İ. Woman in Qizilbash-Turkmen Society during Safavid Period (Tajlu Begum: an Example of Qizilbash Woman). Journal of Turkish Language and Literature [Internet]. 9 Dec. 2021 [cited 9 Dec. 2021];61(1):339-355. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-918536 doi: 10.26650/TUDED2021-918536


ISNAD

Baharlu, İlgar. Woman in Qizilbash-Turkmen Society during Safavid Period (Tajlu Begum: an Example of Qizilbash Woman)”. Journal of Turkish Language and Literature 61/1 (Dec. 2021): 339-355. https://doi.org/10.26650/TUDED2021-918536



TIMELINE


Submitted17.04.2021
Accepted01.06.2021
Published Online29.06.2021

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.