The Effect of Wasilat al-Najat on Other Non-Mawlid Works: The Case of Hac Davetiyesi by IndîSeydi Kiraz
The mawlid work Wasilat al-Najat by Süleyman Çelebi has an important place in the formation and evolution of mawlid works in the Turkish literature and its transformation into a solid tradition that has survived to the present day. Many mawlids have been written since Wasilat al-Najat [Occasions of the Salvation], and although they show some differences in terms of narration, form, language, and style, the effects of Wasilat al-Najat are seen in all of these works, sometimes in terms of the text, sometimes in the form of imitation, sometimes in nazirah [a poem modeled after another poem], and other times in the similarity of motif and content. This study does not provide detailed information about the effect of Wasilat al-Najat on other mawlids but only briefly discusses this issue. The study then goes on to investigate the effect of Wasilat al-Najat on the Hac Davetiyesi [The Hajj Invitation], as well as on other non-mawlid species, examining the rate and reflection of these influences. Thus, the study attempts to reveal Süleyman Çelebi’s influence on other non-mawlid poets. The content of the research is limited to the genre known as the manasik [rites and ceremonies to be performed during and around the Hajj], which explains the methods and principles of the Hajj, the orders and prohibitions, sunnah, and mustahab [recommended things]. In this context, the study discusses the mathnawi [poem written in couplets] titled Hac Davetiyesi written by Indî in the 19th century. The work currently has only one known copy, which is registered at the Çorum Hasanpaşa Manuscripts Library under 19 Hk 1421. The study attempts to identify the poet of the Hac Davetiyesi, provides information about the poet by benefitting from information in it, and introduces it in terms of its form and content.
Vesîletü’n-Necât’ın Mevlid Dışındaki Eserlere Etkisi: İndî’nin Hac Davetiyesi ÖrneğiSeydi Kiraz
Vesîletü’n-Necât (Mevlid), Türk edebiyatında mevlid türünün teşekkülü, tekâmülü ve günümüze kadar ulaşan sağlam bir geleneğe dönüşmesinde mühim bir yere sahiptir. Bu eserden sonra pek çok mevlid yazılmıştır. Yazılan bu mevlidler, muhtevanın ayrıntılı ya da muhtasar olması, şekil, dil ve üslup bakımından bazı farklılıklar gösterse de bu mevlidlerin tamamında az çok Vesîletü’n-Necât’ın etkileri görülmüştür. Etkilenme; metinler arasında bazen önemli oranda taklit, bazen nazire bazen de motif ve muhtevanın benzerliği olarak yansımıştır. Bu çalışmada Mevlid’in kendi türü üzerindeki etkisi hakkında ayrıntılı bilgi verilmemiş, bu hususa kısaca değinilmiştir. Ardından Mevlid’in özellikle Hac Davetiyesi’ne ve yanı sıra farklı türler üzerindeki tesiri araştırılmış, bu tesirin oranı ve yansıma şekli incelenmiştir. Böylece Süleyman Çelebi’nin mevlid şairleri dışında başka şairler üzerindeki nüfuzu ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırma, muhtevası haccın usul ve esaslarının, emir ve yasaklarının, sünnet ve müstehaplarının anlatıldığı ve menâsik-i hac olarak adlandırılan bir türle sınırlandırılmıştır. Bu bağlamda İndî mahlaslı bir şairin 19. yüzyılda yazdığı Hac Davetiyesi adlı mesnevi ele alınmıştır. Şimdilik tek nüshası tespit edilen eser, Çorum Hasanpaşa Yazma Eserler Kütüphanesinde 19 Hk 1421 numarada kayıtlıdır. Eserin şairi tespit edilmeye çalışılmış, eserden faydalanılarak şair hakkında bilgi verilmiş, eser, şekil ve muhteva bakımından tanıtılmıştır.
Mawlid means birth, birth time, and place of birth and is used as a term in Turkish literature to express the works that describe important periods of the Prophet Muhammad’s life, such as his birth, prophecy, miracles, and death. Before mawlid works were printed, written texts had occurred that are reminiscent of this genre. Among these, Ahmed Fâkih’s (d. 650/1252) Çarh-nâme and the relevant section in Mustafa Darir’s Tercüme-i Siyer-i Nebî [Translation of the Prophet of Prophets] come to the fore. The mawlid written by Taj al-Din Ibrahim ibn Khidr Ahmadi (d. 815/1412) in 810/1407 has been identified as the first Turkish mawlid text; it is not a standalone work but a 625-couplet section in his Iskandarnamah [Book of Alexander].
A founding and pioneering work regarding the formation of the mawlid genre is Wasilat al-Najat, which was compiled two years after Ahmadi’s mawlid and written by Süleyman Çelebi (d. 825/1422) in 812/1409. Wasilat al-Najat has an important place in the formation and evolution of the mawlid genre in Turkish literature and its transformation into a solid tradition that has survived to the present day. Hundreds of mawlids have been written since this work, and although these show some differences in terms of narration, form, language, and style, all of these show they had been influenced by Wasilat al-Najat.
These works that had been influenced by Wasilat al-Najat were sometimes seen as significant imitations, sometimes as nazirah [a poem modeled after another], and other times as similar in motif and content. This study will not elaborate too much regarding the effect of Wasilat al-Najat on its own genre, and having briefly addressed this topic, it will now investigate the influence of Wasilat al-Najat regarding other genres, examining the rate of this effect, and the forms of its reflections. Thus, the study will attempt to reveal Süleyman Çelebi’s influence on other non-mawlid poets.
The content of the research is limited to the genre known as manasik al-hajj [rites and ceremonies of the hajj], which explains the methods and principles of the hajj, its requirements and prohibitions, sunnah, and mustahab [recommended things]. The study will discuss in this context the mathnawi [poem written in couplets] titled Hac Davetiyesi [The Hajj Invitation] written by an Indî pseudonymous poet in the 19th century. The work, of which only one copy is currently known, is registered at the Çorum Hasanpaşa Manuscripts Library under 19 Hk 1421.
While many studies have been done on the effect of Wasilat al-Najat, not many studies have examined its effectiveness on other genres. This study investigates the effect of Wasilat al-Najat on printed works in different genres. One of the two works in which this effect is seen is Niyazü’l-Müznibin by Ali Zelilî of Manavgat, which has religious content, and the other is mathnawi titled Hac Davetiyesi. Due to this second work being the main subject here, the study will discuss Hac Davetiyesi in detail and only give Niyazü’l-Müznibin a partial mention.
As can be understood from the name Hac Davetiyesi, the influence is not in terms of content, but in terms of form, meter, wording, and expression. The first reference to Wasilat al-Najat in the Hac Davetiyesi is found in the reason for printing it. Another effect from Wasilat al-Najat is seen in the parts where the driving couplets and the introduction to each of the mawlid’s sections are repeated at regular intervals. Since the word Labbayk [Here I am time and again] is frequently repeated in the prayers made during the hajj and the takbir is one of the principles of this worship, these expressions stand out in all the couplets that have been determined as the driving couplets. The poet drew attention to these phrases in one half of some couplets and evoked how it had been used in Wasilat al-Najat with the other half. However, in other couplets where the terms related to pilgrimage are taken into consideration, the meter is not taken into account.
In Hac Davetiyesi, Wasilat al-Najat is mentioned twice by name, and the aruz [Ottoman poetic rules for prosody] pattern is said to have been preferred in the work because it was also used in Wasilat al-Najat. The remarkable point in Hac Davetiyesi is that the wish to be read is expressed by associating it with Wasilat al-Najat. That Hac Davetiyesi is mentioned alongside Wasilat al-Najat instead of any other book is no coincidence but a conscious choice, and this preference is thought to lie in the fact that Wasilat al-Najat has become a classic by being read in every century. By imitating an unforgettable work, the anonymous poet wished that his own work would be counted among the unforgettable ones. In fact, Indî’s imitation of Süleyman Çelebi lies in the desire to capture immortality. Undoubtedly, the influence of Wasilat al-Najat is not limited to the non-mawlid works identified in this study. New studies and research to be done are expected to be able to access newfound works that were printed in other non-mawlid genres.