Pun Usage in Wasīlat al-NajātBekir Belenkuyu
Süleyman Çelebi’s Wasîlat al-Najât is an important text in Turkish culture and life and has had a wide range of influence since the time it was written. The work draws attention in terms of style as well as the value of its content, which deals with important sections from the life of Hz. Muhammed. Many sources dealing with the style of Wasîlat al-Najât have stated one of the most distinctive elements regarding the style of this work to be the use of puns. Although the spelling and pronunciation are the same, the phrases were formed with various words frequently used in Turkish folk literature and classical Ottoman poetry. Puns are considered one of the rhetoric arts and are evaluated by considering the Arabic letters. Puns that take into account the four aspects of similarity are classified according to the exact harmony or conflict of the letters. This article will firstly draw a general framework regarding puns, with one being noted in order to determine the exact location of each type of pun. Afterward, the study will discuss the use of puns in Wasîlat al-Najât within the framework of their classifications in the sources. Each type of pun is briefly explained and its contribution to the text is mentioned. The examples in Wasîlat al-Najât are also written under their relevant headings, together with the couplets in which they are mentioned. In addition, the study will also mention the literary value of the identified pun usages, in this way attempting to reveal whether the puns used in Wasîlat al-Najât have the qualifications as indicated by the sources.
Vesîletü’n-Necât’ta Cinaslı KullanımlarBekir Belenkuyu
Türk kültür ve yaşayışındaki önemli metinlerden biri olan Vesîletü’n-necât yazıldığı tarihten itibaren geniş bir etki sahasına sahip olmuştur. Hz. Muhammed’in hayatından önemli kesitleri ele alan muhtevasının kıymetli oluşuyla birlikte üslup bakımından da dikkati çeker. Vesîletü’n-necât’ın üslubunu ele alan pek çok kaynak bu eserin üslubundaki en belirgin unsurlardan birinin cinaslar olduğunu belirtir. Esas olarak yazılış ve söylenişleri aynı olduğu halde anlamları farklı kelimelerle kurulan cinaslar Türk halk edebiyatında ve klasik Osmanlı şiirinde sıklıkla kullanılmıştır. Söz sanatlarından biri olarak ele alınan cinas Arap harfleri göz önünde bulundurularak değerlendirilir. Dört benzerlik yönünün nazara alındığı cinas, harflerin tam uyumu veya ihtilafına göre tasnif edilir. Bu yazıda öncelikle cinas hakkında genel bir çerçeve çizilmiş ve her bir cinasın yerini tam olarak tespit edebilmek için bir cinas şeması çıkarılmıştır. Bundan sonra kaynaklardaki tasnif çerçevesinde Vesîletü’n-necât’ın cinaslı kullanımları ele alınmıştır. Her bir cinas türü kısaca izah edilmiş ve metne olan katkısına değinilmiştir. Vesîletü’n-necât’taki örnekler de ilgili başlık altında, içinde geçtiği beyitlerle birlikte yazılmıştır. Ayrıca tespit edilen cinaslı kullanımların edebî açıdan değerine de değinilmiştir. Bu sayede Vesîletü’n-necât’taki cinaslı kullanımların kaynakların belirttiği gibi nitelikli olup olmadığı ortaya koyulmaya çalışılmıştır.
This study firstly discusses the subject of puns. Although different approaches exist regarding the classification of puns, this study has determined the classical classification to be more appropriate. The study attempts to reveal the characteristics of puns, their limits, and old and new approaches to making puns. The study has also prepared a chart showing the types of puns in order to better see the position types of puns have in the classical approach. After pro-viding general information, the study will examine the puns expressed in Süleyman Çelebi’s Wasîlat al-Najât.
Most of the sources that address the stylistic features of Wasîlat al-Najât have drawn attention to its usage of puns. Puns are said to have been used since ancient Turkish poetry, and Wasîlat al-Najât is one important example of Turkish poetry possessing this feature. This study has been prepared based on the question of whether the puns used in Wasîlat al-Najât are focused and what type of puns they qualify as. This question is an important starting point, as the sources that have addressed the puns in Wasîlat al-Najât were content only giving a few examples of puns. When scanning the studies that have been published regarding Wasîlat al-Najât as a text or that have examined this work, the subject of puns is seen to have been always handled superficially. Recent master’s theses and articles are also far from having adequately explained this issue. Therefore, this study has examined the full text of Wasîlat al-Najât from beginning to end and classified all the examples of puns in the couplets after iden-tifying them.
While processing the collected data, explaining the different types of puns became necessary. Therefore, after a general introduction to puns, the study will provide brief information about each type of pun based on what is found in the sources. The study will address the semantic contribution of these types of puns to the text, as well as the value of harmony. Then, the study will then provide copies of exemplary couplets in relation to the types of puns used in Wasîlat al-Najât. In order not to unnecessarily increase the length of the article, only the most qualified examples will be displayed, with the location of couplets for the remaining examples of type being shown in the footnotes.
Accordingly, a total of 288 puns were identified in Wasîlat al-Najât. Among the types of puns mentioned in accordance with the classical classification, no examples of darbî [striking] puns were found. 230 incomplete puns and 58 completed puns have been identified. Among the incomplete puns, 12 examples of mükerrer [reiterated] puns, four examples of muharref [corrupted] puns, and six examples of hattî [old era] puns were found. Among the nâkıs [incomplete] puns, 44 examples of mutarraf [partial] puns, 12 examples of müşevveş [disorganized] puns, and 19 examples of müzeyyel [add-on] puns have been identified. The most common type of pun in Wasîlat al-Najât is the mütekarib [recurring] pun with 31 examples of the muzâri [similar] pun as a subtype, as well as 102 examples of lâhık [linked] puns. The incomplete puns are seen to not directly shape the meaning but to contribute to greater harmony. The 58 examples of nâkıs [incomplete] puns in the text are also seen to affect the meaning. The study also found 16 examples of mürekkeb [mixed] puns, another type of nâkıs [incomplete] pun, which can be further broken down in terms of subsubtypes into four examples of müteşâbih [allegorical] puns, seven examples of mefrûk [separated] puns, and five examples of merfû [elevated] puns. In accordance with grammatical classifications, 10 examples of mümâsil [exemplified] puns and 32 examples of müstevfâ [perfect] puns have been identified. The types of puns mentioned in previous sources regarding Wasîlat al-Najât must have been complete puns because the precise puns are immediately noticeable in the text. Still, the examples complete puns also make a great contribution to the meanings of the couplets. Upon having revealed all the puns expressed within Wasîlat al-Najât, the study concludes this text to be rich and qualified in terms of puns.
Comparing the use of puns in Wasîlat al-Najât with other mawlid texts in Turkish literature would also be appropriate for revealing the influence Wasîlat al-Najât has had due to its important place in Turkish culture and life. In this way, future studies can reveal the area of influence area Süleyman Çelebi’s work has had using more concrete data.