DOI :10.26650/B/SS52.2021.011.08   IUP :10.26650/B/SS52.2021.011.08    Tam Metin (PDF)

Russia’s Policy of Proxy War in Syria: Will It Be a Game Changer or Will Naval Power Stay in Mediterranean Waters

Mesut Hakkı Caşın

The development of the Syrian Crisis and seeking for the most suitable solution for it have become complicated and generated different solution problems. The consolidation of political issues in the framework of Iranian, Turkish and Russian cooperation for its Astana process shows just one side of that solution seeking. At the same time, the situation in this region stimulates the participants to reevaluate their policy in Mediterranean Waters as an aim of strategical presence in this sense, Russia decided to cooperate with Turkey, a NATO member since 1952, in its Middle Eastern policy against the United States that controls most of armed opposition troops within Syrian Democratic Forces. Concurrently, the Kurdish People’s Protection Units were also supported by the USA, and that is the reason for the new political challenges in Turkish-American cooperation, both in the framework of NATO and in interstate relations as well. This paper discusses modern Russian-Turkish cooperation regarding the Middle Eastern agenda of the parties, including issues related to the field of study.


  • Albayrak, G. (2016). Rus SU-24 Uçağının Türkiye Tarafından Düşürülmesi Olayının Uluslararası Hukuk Açısından İncelenmesi. In Suriye: Çatışma ve Uluslararası Hukuk, (Fatma Taşdemir eds.) , Ankara, Turkey: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık, p. 97-115. google scholar
  • Allen-Ebrahimian, Bethany. China: We Might Help Assad With the War in Syria. The Daily Beast, August 10, 2018, https://www.thedailybeast.com/china-we-might-help-assad-with-the-war-in-syria. google scholar
  • Alexeev, D. (2014). Russian Politics in Times of Change: Internal and External Factors of Transformation. Connections, 14(1), 105-120. google scholar
  • Caşın, M. H. (2015). Novgorod Knezliği’nden XXI. Yüzyıla Rus İmparatorluk Stratejisi. Ankara: Atlas Kitap. google scholar
  • Caşın, M. H. and Derman, G. S. (2016). Rus Dış Politikasındaki Değişim ve Kremlin Penceresinden Yeni Ufuklar. Ankara: SRT Yayınları. google scholar
  • Caşın, M. H. and Kısacık, S. (2018). Avrupa Birliği Enerji Hukuku ve Güvenlik Algılamaları. Istanbul, Turkey: Çağlayan Eğitim & Kitap & Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Charap, S. (2013). Russia, Syria and the Doctrine of Intervention. Survival, 55(1), 35-41. google scholar
  • Crosston, M. D. (2014). Cold War and Ayatollah Residues: Syria as a Chessboard for Russia, Iran, and the United States. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 8(4), 94-111. google scholar
  • Dannreuther, Roland. (2015). Russia and the Arab Spring: Supporting the Counter-Revolution. Journal of European Integration, 37(1), 77-94. google scholar
  • Erameh, N. I. (2017). Humanitarian Intervention, Syria and the Politics of Human Rights Protection. The International Journal of Human Rights, 21(5), 517-530. google scholar
  • Gerasimov, V. (2016). The RF Defense Organization in the Conditions of the Enemy Application of the Traditional and “Hybrid” Methods of the War Fighting. Vestnik Akademii Voennikh Nauk 2, No. 55. google scholar
  • Hansen, Flemming Splidsboel. (2017). Jihad in Russian. Connections, 16(1), 77-86. google scholar
  • Helsinki Summit: What Did Trump and Putin Agree? The Guardian, July 17, 2018, https://www.theguardian. com/world/2018/jul/17/helsinki-summit-what-did-trump-and-putin-agree. google scholar
  • Interview with Sergey Lavrov, Rossisykaya Gazeta, October 24, 2012, http://www.rg.ru/2012/ 10/23/lavrov-poln.html Kabalan, Marwan. Russia’s New Game in Syria. Aljazeera, October 29, 2018. https://www.aljazeera.com/ indepth/opinion/istanbul-summit-failed-181029102112796.html. google scholar
  • Karaganov, Sergei A., Kristina I. Cherniavskaia and Dmitry P. Novikov. (2016). Russian Foreign Policy: Risky Successes. Harvard International Review, 37(3), 74-79. google scholar
  • Kısacık, Sina and Furkan Kaya (May 2016). An Assessment on The Future of Ongoing Turkish-Russian Relations: Clash of Interests or Convergence of Interests. International Multilingual Academic Journal, 3(2) 166-202. google scholar
  • Kısacık, S. (2017). The Ukrainian Policy of The Russian Federation and The Paradigms in European Energy Security. (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation), University of Yeditepe. google scholar
  • Korolev, A. (2018). Beyond the Nominal and the Ad Hoc: The Substance and Drivers of China-Russia Military Cooperation. Insight Turkey 20, No.1 (Winter), https://www.insightturkey.com/author/alexander-korolev/ beyond-the-nominal-and-the-ad-hoc-the-substance-and-drivers-of-china-russia-military-cooperation. google scholar
  • Melchionni, M. G. (2015). Mediterranean Trend in the Russia’s Foreign Policy, Rivista di Studi Politici Internazionali, Nuova Serie 82, No. 4, 328 (Ottobre -Dicembre), p. 521-530. google scholar
  • Meyer, H. Putin Says He Agreed with Trump to Secure Syria Border with Israel. Bloomberg, July 16, 2018. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-07-16/putin-says-agreed-with-trump-to-secure-syria-border-with-israel. google scholar
  • News conference following the meeting of the leaders of Russia, Turkey, Germany and France: Following the talks, Vladimir Putin, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Angela Merkel and Emmanuel Macron held a joint news conference. President of Russia, October 27, 2018. http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/58935. google scholar
  • Nikitina, Y. (2014). The “Color Revolutions” and “Arab Spring” in Russian Official Discourse. Connections, 14(1), 87-104. google scholar
  • O’Conno, Tom. China Looks for New Ways to Help Russia in Syria as U.S. Backs Israel against Iran. Newsweek, May 14, 2018. https://www.newsweek.com/china-looks-new-ways-help-russia-syria-us-backs-israel-iran-924712. google scholar
  • Oliker, O., Keith C., Lowell H. S. and Yusupov, C. (2009). Sources and Implications- Russian Foreign Policy. RAND Corporation, p. 83-134. google scholar
  • Örmeci, O. and Kısacık, S. (2018). Rusya Siyaseti ve Rus Dış Politikası: Teorik Çerçeve-Tarihsel Arka Plan-Örnek Olaylar. Ankara, Turkey: Seçkin Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Putin, V. (2007). Speech at the Munich Conference on Security Policy, Munich, February 10. google scholar
  • Pynnöniemi, K. (2017). Russia’s National Security Strategy: Analysis of Conceptual Evolution. The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 31(2), 240-256. google scholar
  • Russia says Israeli role in Syria plane downing was premeditated. Al Jazeera, September 24, 2018. https://www. aljazeera.com/news/2018/09/russia-israeli-role-syria-plane-downing-premeditated-180924112220025.html. google scholar
  • Scott, D. Russia-China Naval Cooperation in an Era of Great Power Competition. Center for International Maritime Security, June 12, 2018. http://cimsec.org/russia-china-naval-cooperation-in-an-era-of-great-power-competition/36773. google scholar
  • Greenstock, S. J. (2017). Is This Russia’s Moment in the Middle East?. Asian Affairs 48, No. 3, p. 419-427. google scholar
  • Stern, M. and Ross, D. (2013). The Role of Syria in Israeli-Turkish Relations. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 14(2), 115-128. google scholar
  • The reason why the Syrian conflict has turned into a global problem is because the international community has not responded to the matter adequately. The Presidency of Republic of Turkey, October 27, 2018. https:// www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/99419/-the-reason-why-the-syrian-conflict-has-turned-into-a-global-problem-is-because-the-international-community-has-not-responded-to-the-matter-adequately-. google scholar
  • Trump, Putin Vow to Cooperate on Syria, Ensure Israel’s Security. Haaretz, July 16, 2018. https://www.haaretz. com/us-news/trump-and-putin-hold-joint-press-conference-in-helsinki-1.6273846. google scholar
  • Vyotsky, A. (2014). Russia and the Arab Spring. Connections, 14(1), 41-64. google scholar


İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.