DOI :10.26650/B/SS19.2024.001.02   IUP :10.26650/B/SS19.2024.001.02    Tam Metin (PDF)

Human-Environment-Climate Interaction in the Eastern Mediterranean as a “Hot Spot” of The Anthropocene and Evaluation from Today’s Perspective

Barbaros Gönençgil

The transition of mankind from hunter-gatherer to settled agriculture can be seen as a milestone in terms of the systematic use of the Earth. Moreover, by discovering agriculture, humankind also took the first step toward settled life. The factors shaping the development of agriculture and revealing different development levels in the world has geographical features. The industrialization process, which started with the Industrial Revolution, was not only the beginning of a period in which natural resources began to be consumed rapidly and the resulting wastes caused environmental problems but also the beginning of a period in which there was a rapid increase in the world population. While it takes thousands or even millions of years to experience the cycle of processes with natural changes in climate characteristics and their effect on topography, different processes have begun to act more effectively and more quickly with anthropogenic factors. Although the history of the negative pressures created by humans on the climate does not go far back, the point reached is very important. In addition to natural processes, the effects of climate changes increased by human influence have also become a subject of interest in Anthropocene studies.


  • Acar Deniz, Z., & Gönençgil, B. 2015, Trends of summer daily maximum temperature extremes in Turkey, Physical Geography, 36:4, 268-281, DOI: 10.1080/02723646.2015.1045285. google scholar
  • Acar, Z., Gönençgil, B., Korucu Gümüşoğlu, N. 2018. Long-term changes in hot and cold extremes in Turkey. Cografya Dergisi, 37, 57-67. https://doi.org/10.26650/JGEOG2018-0002 google scholar
  • Aziz, R., Yücel, İ. 2021. Assessing nonstationarity impacts for historical and projected extreme precipitation in Turkey. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 143, 1213-1226. google scholar
  • CRED and UNDRR 2020: The human cost of disasters: an overview of the last 20 years (2000-2019): Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) and UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) https://www.preventionweb.net/files/74124_humancostofdisasters20002019reportu.pdf google scholar
  • Dabanlı, İ., Mishra, A.K., & Şen, Z. 2017. Long-term spatio-temporal drought variability in Turkey. Journal of Hydrology, 552, 779-792. google scholar
  • Diamont J 1997. Guns, Germs, And Steel: The Fates Of Human Societies. NORTON & CO., New York google scholar
  • Ducrocq V., Drobınskı P., Gualdı S., Raımbault P. (2016) The Water Cycle in The Mediterranean. The Medi-terranean Region Under Climate Change A Scientific Update IRD Edıtıons Instıtut De Recherche Pour Le Developpement Marseille, ISBN: 978-2-7099-2219-7 google scholar
  • Evans JP 2009: 21st century climate change in the Middle East. Climatic Change, 92:417-432 DOI 10.1007/ s10584-008-9438-5 google scholar
  • Fleitmann, D., Burns, S.J., Mangini, A., Mudelsee, M., Kramers, J., Villa, I., Neff, U., Al- Subbary, A.A., Buett-ner, A., Hippler, D., Matter, A., 2007. Holocene ITCZ and Indian monsoon dynamics recorded in stalagmites from Oman and Yemen (Socotra). Quat. Sci. Rev. 26, 170e188. google scholar
  • Gönençgil B., 2008. Climate Change in Terms of Natural Processes and Human. Çantay Publisher, İstanbul, ISBN: 978-975-9060-50-3. google scholar
  • Gönençgil, B. & Acar, Z.2021. Turkey: Climate Variability, Extreme Temperature, and Precipitation. Geograp-hies of Mediterranean Europe pp 167-180. google scholar
  • Hadi, S.J., Tombul, M. (2018). Long-term spatiotemporal trend analysis of precipitation and temperature over-Turkey. Meteorol. Appl. 25: 445-455. google scholar
  • Hochman A, Marra F, Messori, Joaquim GP, Rubin SR, Yosef Y, Zittis G 2021: ESD Reviews: Extreme Weather and Societal Impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean. EGU https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-2021-55https://esd. copernicus.org/preprints/esd-2021-55/ google scholar
  • Hunt, B.G., Elliott, T.I. 2004. Interaction of climatic variability with climatic change, Atmosphere-Ocean, 42:3, 145-172, DOI: 10.3137/ao.420301. google scholar
  • IPCC Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assess-ment Report ofthe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. google scholar
  • Jansen, E., J. Overpeck, K.R. Briffa, J.-C. Duplessy, F. Joos, V. Masson-Delmotte, D. Olago, B. Otto-Bliesner, W.R. Peltier, S. Rahmstorf, R. Ramesh, D. Raynaud, D. Rind, O. Solomina, R. Villalba and D. Zhang, 2007: Palaeoclimate. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. google scholar
  • Kelley, C. P., Mohtadi, S., Cane, M. A., Seager, R. and Kushnir, Y. 2015, ‘Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought’. In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pp. 3241-3269. Washington: United States National Academy of Sciences. google scholar
  • Lelieveld J & Hadjinicolaou P & Kostopoulou E & Chenoweth J & Maayar El M & Giannakopoulos C & Han-nides C & Lange M A & Tanarhte M & Tyrlis E & Xoplaki E, 2012, Climate change and impacts in the Eas-tern Mediterranean and the Middle East. Climatic Change 114:667-687 DOI 10.1007/s10584-012-0418-4 google scholar
  • Rahimzadeh F, Asgari A, Fattahi E 2009. Variability of extreme temperature and precipitation in Iran during recent decades. Internatıonal Journal Of Clımatology, Int. J. Climatol. 29: 329-343 google scholar
  • Raja, N.B., Aydin, O., Türkoğlu, N. Cicek, İ. (2017). Space-time kriging of precipitation variability in Turkey for the period 1976-2010. Theor Appl Climatol 129, 293-304. google scholar
  • Sellwood E 2018, A Tougher Clımate In The Eastern Medıterranean: Policy directions in the context of climate change and regional crisis. ISBN 978-82-7288-879-3 (online) Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung and Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO). google scholar
  • Soltani M, Laux P, Kunstmann H, Stan K, Sohrabi M M,Molanejad M, Sabziparvar A A, Abadi A R S, RanjbarF, Rousta I, Zawar-Reza P, Khoshakhlagh F, Soltanzadeh I, Babu C A, Azizi G H, Martin M V 2015, Assess-ment of climate variations in temperature and precipitation extreme events over Iran. Theor Appl Climatol. DOI 10.1007/s00704-015-1609-5 google scholar
  • Thornton, P., Ericksen, P.J., Herrero, M., Challinor, A.J., 2014. Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review, Global Change Biology, 20: 3313-3328. google scholar
  • Toros, H., Mokari, M. & Abbasnia, M. 2019, Regional variability of temperature extremes in the maritime climate of Turkey: a case study to develop agricultural adaptation strategies under climate change. Model. Earth Syst. Environ. 5, 857-865. google scholar
  • Türkeş, M. & Erlat, E. 2018. Variability and trends in record air temperature events of Turkey and their associa-tions with atmospheric oscillations and anomalous circulation patterns, Int J Climatol. 2018;38:5182-5204. google scholar


İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.