Araştırma Makalesi


DOI :10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002   IUP :10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002    Tam Metin (PDF)

Avrupa Birliği Hukuku ve Özel Sektördeki Yapay Zekâ ile İlişkili Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi: Taslak Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü Odağında

Salih Tayfun İnce

Yapay zeka sistemlerini özel sektördeki karar alma süreçlerine dahil etmek, ayrımcılık yasağının uygulanmasını tehlikeye atabilir. Bu çalışmada, mezkûr tehdidi göstermek için istihdam, bankacılık, reklamcılık, fiyatlandırma ve sigorta gibi özel sektörün bu açıdan riskli alanları, gerçek yaşamdan alınan yapay zeka ile ilişkili ayrımcılık örnekleri ile birlikte incelenmektedir. Ardından, güncel AB ayrımcılık yasağı ve veri koruma düzenlemeleri mercek altına alınmakta ve söz konusu AB düzenlemelerinin özel sektörde yapay zekâ ile ilişkili ayrımcılıktan kaynaklanan risklerle mücadele etmek için gerekli araçlara sahip olmadığı tespit edilmektedir. Bu nedenle, özel sektörde, yapay zekâ ile ilişkili ayrımcılık risklerini yok etmeyi açıkça hedefleyen yeni AB düzenlemelerine acil gereksinim olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü taslağı, özel sektörde yapay zekâ ile ilişkili ayrımcılığa karşı mücadele için yeni araçlar sağlayabilir. Bu nedenle, bu çalışma, Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü taslağını, yapay zekâ ile ilişkili ayrımcılık risklerine potansiyel etkisi açısından incelemektedir. Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü taslağı tarafından benimsenen beşikten mezara yaklaşımı sayesinde, yüksek riskli yapay zekâ sistemlerinin sağlayıcıları ve kullanıcılarının çeşitli öncül ve ardıl yükümlülüklere uyması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada, Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü taslağı tarafından getirilen bu yükümlülüklerin, yeni yasal araçlar sağlayarak yapay zekâ ile ilişkili ayrımcılığın azaltılmasına katkıda bulunabileceği tespit edilmiştir. Ancak bu araçlar, yapay zekâ ile ilişkili ayrımcılık riskleri karşısında yeterli değildir. Bu nedenle, özel sektördeki yapay zekâ ile ilişkili ayrımcılık risklerini azaltmak için bu alana özgü hukuki düzenlemelere duyulan yaşamsal gereksinimin varlığını hâlen devam ettirdiği kanaatine varılmıştır.

DOI :10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002   IUP :10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002    Tam Metin (PDF)

European Union Law and Mitigation of Artificial Intelligence-Related Discrimination Risks in the Private Sector: With Special Focus on the Proposed Artificial Intelligence Act

Salih Tayfun İnce

Integrating AI systems into decision-making processes in the private sector may place the right to non-discrimination in danger. In order to illustrate this threat, risky fields in the private sector, namely employment, banking, advertising, pricing and insurance, were investigated in this paper with authentic examples of AI-related discrimination. Then, the current EU non-discrimination laws and data protection laws were examined, and it was found out that these EU laws do not have the necessary tools to tackle specific risks arising from AI-related discrimination in the private sector. Therefore, there is an immediate need for new EU legislation equipped with tools which explicitly target AI-related discrimination risks in the private sector. The proposed AI Act may provide new tools against AI-related discrimination in the private sector. Thus, this paper analyzes the proposed AI Act in terms of its potential impacts on mitigating AI-related discrimination risks. Due to the cradle-to-grave approach adopted by the proposed AI Act, providers and users of high-risk AI systems are required to comply with various specific ex-ante and ex-post obligations. It is found out that these obligations can contribute to the mitigation of AI-related discrimination by providing new legal tools. However, these tools are not sufficient in the face of AI-related discrimination risks. Therefore, it is concluded that the crucial need for specific legislation to mitigate AI-related discrimination risks in the private sector is still present.


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DIŞA AKTAR



APA

İnce, S.T. (2019). Avrupa Birliği Hukuku ve Özel Sektördeki Yapay Zekâ ile İlişkili Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi: Taslak Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü Odağında. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, 0(0), -. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002


AMA

İnce S T. Avrupa Birliği Hukuku ve Özel Sektördeki Yapay Zekâ ile İlişkili Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi: Taslak Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü Odağında. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul. 2019;0(0):-. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002


ABNT

İnce, S.T. Avrupa Birliği Hukuku ve Özel Sektördeki Yapay Zekâ ile İlişkili Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi: Taslak Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü Odağında. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 0, p. -, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

İnce, Salih Tayfun,. 2019. “Avrupa Birliği Hukuku ve Özel Sektördeki Yapay Zekâ ile İlişkili Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi: Taslak Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü Odağında.” Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul 0, no. 0: -. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002


Chicago: Humanities Style

İnce, Salih Tayfun,. Avrupa Birliği Hukuku ve Özel Sektördeki Yapay Zekâ ile İlişkili Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi: Taslak Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü Odağında.” Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul 0, no. 0 (Jul. 2022): -. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002


Harvard: Australian Style

İnce, ST 2019, 'Avrupa Birliği Hukuku ve Özel Sektördeki Yapay Zekâ ile İlişkili Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi: Taslak Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü Odağında', Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, vol. 0, no. 0, pp. -, viewed 6 Jul. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002


Harvard: Author-Date Style

İnce, S.T. (2019) ‘Avrupa Birliği Hukuku ve Özel Sektördeki Yapay Zekâ ile İlişkili Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi: Taslak Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü Odağında’, Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, 0(0), pp. -. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002 (6 Jul. 2022).


MLA

İnce, Salih Tayfun,. Avrupa Birliği Hukuku ve Özel Sektördeki Yapay Zekâ ile İlişkili Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi: Taslak Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü Odağında.” Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, vol. 0, no. 0, 2019, pp. -. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002


Vancouver

İnce ST. Avrupa Birliği Hukuku ve Özel Sektördeki Yapay Zekâ ile İlişkili Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi: Taslak Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü Odağında. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul [Internet]. 6 Jul. 2022 [cited 6 Jul. 2022];0(0):-. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002 doi: 10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002


ISNAD

İnce, SalihTayfun. Avrupa Birliği Hukuku ve Özel Sektördeki Yapay Zekâ ile İlişkili Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi: Taslak Yapay Zekâ Tüzüğü Odağında”. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul 0/0 (Jul. 2022): -. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2022.71.0002



ZAMAN ÇİZELGESİ


Gönderim06.08.2021
Kabul21.09.2021
Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma26.04.2022

LİSANS


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PAYLAŞ




İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.