Araştırma Makalesi


DOI :10.26650/annales.2023.73.0006   IUP :10.26650/annales.2023.73.0006    Tam Metin (PDF)

Green Is the New Black: The Rise of Green Marks and Possible Solutions to Greenwashing

Çiğdem Yatağan ÖzkanBerrin Dinçer Özbey

If a popularity contest were to occur among colors nowadays, green would be the winner by far. Fast and alarming global warming has created huge and obligatory changes to consumer habits. This has put some big burdens on companies to massively change their production processes. Due to a significant percentage of consumers having changed their purchasing habits, companies are taunted with being green, and they have started greenwashing practices to take advantage of consumers’ new habits without changing their corporate policies. The rise of greenwashing has caused an urgent need to protect consumers and the market. Both Turkish and foreign governments regulate certain markets such as food and agriculture and also bring certain restrictions in terms of advertisement law to eliminate deceptive images from being created in consumers’ eyes. However, the gap in green marks shows the urgent need to amend the trademark law approach to protect consumers from greenwashing and to safeguard the proper functioning of the market. This work first examines the definition of green marks and ecolabels, as well as their confusing concepts, followed by present regulations regarding different legal areas. Upon this, the study then discusses the urgent need to regulate trademark law regarding green marks and makes proposals for legislation in line with recent EU regulation proposals regarding green claims.


PDF Görünüm

Referanslar

  • Ahmed A. and Qureshi S., ‘Green Marketing: A Door To Sustainable Development’ (2019) 7(8) JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory 1979 - 1987 google scholar
  • Alnıaçık Ü., ‘Tüketicilerin Çevreye Duyarlılığı Ve Reklamlardaki Çevreci İddialar’ (2009) 18 google scholar
  • Kocaeli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 48 - 79 google scholar
  • Arkan S., Marka Hukuku I (BTHAE 1997) google scholar
  • Arkan S., ‘Marka Tescil Başvurusunun Lisans Sözleşmesine Konu Olması-Bazı Sorunlar’ (2019) 35(3) Banka ve Ticaret Hukuku Dergisi 39 - 44 google scholar
  • Aslan Y., Tüketici Hukuku Dersleri (Ekin 2021) google scholar
  • Ayhan R. Çağlar H. Yıldız B. İmirlioğlu D., Sınai Mülkiyet Hukuku (Adalet 2021) google scholar
  • Bainbridge D., Intellectual Property (9th edn Pearson 2012) google scholar
  • Belson J., ‘Ecolabels: Ownership, Use, and the Public Interest’ (2012) 7(2) Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 96 - 106 google scholar
  • Belson J., ‘Environmental Trademarks’ (2014) 104(3) The Trademark Reporter 822 - 826 google scholar
  • Berrone P. Fosfuri A. and Liliana Gelabert, ‘Does Greenwashing Pay Off? Understanding Between Environmental Actions and Environmental Legitimacy’ (2017) 144(2) Journal of Business Ethics 363 - 379 google scholar
  • Birpınar M. E. Atay S. and Yetiş Ü., ‘Sürdürülebilir Üretim ve Tüketimde Eko-Etiketlerin Önemi: Türkiye Çevre Etiket Sistemi’ (2023) 3 Çevre Şehir ve İklim Dergisi 60 - 81 google scholar
  • Eminoglu C., ‘The Principle of Uniqueness of Trademark Owner and the Examination of This Principle in the Context of Its Transfer (an Assessment in Context of the Decision of the Constitutional Court That Cancelled the Article 16/5 of the Decree No. 556)’ (2016) 1 YBHD 229 - 254 google scholar
  • Ende L. Reinhard M.A. and Göritz L., ‘Detecting Greenwashing! The Influence of Products Colour and Product Price on Consumers’ Detection Accuracy of Faked Bio-fashion’ (2023) 46 Journal of Consumer Policy 155 - 189 google scholar
  • Engels G. and Grubler U., ‘Sustainable Brands, Eco-Labels and the New EU Certification Mark’, (2017) 264 Managing Intellectual Property 88 - 91 google scholar
  • Eşiyok E., ‘Türkiye’de Reklamların Denetimi: Reklam Kurulu Kararları Üzerinden Bir İnceleme’ (2018) 9/2 İnönü Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi 593 - 606 google scholar
  • Gallicano T.D., ‘A Critical Analysis of Greenwashing Claims’ (2011) 5(3) The Public Relations Journal 1 - 21 google scholar
  • Gürbüz Güngör E., ‘Tüketicilerin Çevre Konusundaki Duyarlılığına Yönelik Reklamların Hukuki Açıdan İncelenmesi’ (2021) 12(1) Ege Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi 21-50 google scholar
  • Heh W., ‘Who Certifies the Ceritifers?’ (2015) 16(4) Vermont Journal of Environmental Law 688 - 715 google scholar
  • Hetu J. M. and Owen Kramer A., ‘It’s Not Easy Being Green: Use of the Terms Organic, Sustainable, and Natural in Trademarks and Advertising’ (2011) 4(1) Landslide 46 - 57 google scholar
  • Hotten R, ‘What is Volkswagen accused of?’ (bbc.com, 10 December 2015) <https://www.bbc. com/news/business-34324772> accessed 31 July 2023 google scholar
  • Innaou I., Kassinis G., Papagiannakis G., “The Impact of Percieved Greenwashing on Customer Satisfaction and the Contingent Role of Capability Reputation” (2023) 185 Journal of Business Ethics 333 - 347 google scholar
  • Iraldo F. Griesshammer R. and Kahlenborn W., ‘The Future of Ecolables’ (2020) 25 The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 833 - 839 google scholar
  • Jain S. and Hagenbeek O., ‘2022 Global Sustainability Study: The Growth Potential of Environmental Change’ (simon-kucher.com, 23 October 2022) <https://www.simon-kucher. com/en/insights/2022-global-sustainability-study-growth-potential-environmental-change > accessed 30 July 2023 google scholar
  • Jessop S. Dickie G. and Mallet B., ‘Environmental groups sue TotalEnergies over climate marketing claims’ (reuters.com, 3 March 2022) <https://www.reuters.com/business/sustainable-business/ environmental-groups-sue-totalenergies-over-climate-marketing-clyani yaims-2022-03-03/> accessed 31 July 2023 google scholar
  • Kara İ.,Tüketici Hukuku, (Engin, 2015) google scholar
  • Kaya A., Marka Hukuku (Arıkan 2006) google scholar
  • Kraus D., ‘Green Marketing - ein Ansatz nachhaltiger Unternehmensführung aus Sicht des Marketings’ (2018) 4 Erfurter Hefte Zum Angewandten Marketing 1 - 42 google scholar
  • Koyuncu A. Ç., Tüketici Hukuku Çerçevesinde Haksız Ticari Uygulamalar (Seçkin Yayıncılık, 2022) google scholar
  • Lindberg S., ‘Aftonbladet’s investigation into H&M’s recycling in 9 points’ (aftonbladet.se, 13 June 2023) <https://www.aftonbladet.se/nyheter/a/jlME1e/aftonbladet-investigation-into-h-m-s-recycling-airtags-in-items> accessed 31 July 2023 google scholar
  • McQueen C. L., ‘Certified Green: Using Subsets of Trademark law to Bring Legitimacy to the Eco-Friendly Products Market’ (2016) 7(2) Journal of Animal & Environmental 100 - 124 google scholar
  • Mogyoros A., ‘Improving eco-labels: are green certification marks up to the task?’ (2023) 18(5) Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 367 - 374 google scholar
  • Pattie K. Cane A., ‘Green Marketing: legend, myth, farce or propesy?’ (2005) 8(4) Qualitative Market Research 357 - 370 google scholar
  • Rusko M. and Koraus A., ‘Type I, II and III of Ecolabels’ (2013) 2(1) Journal of Environmental Protection, Safety, Education and Management 1 - 10 google scholar
  • Sheehan K., ‘This Ain’t Your Daddy’s Greenwashing: An Assessment of the American Petroleum Institute’s Power Past Impossible Campaign’ (2018) Intellectual Property and Clean Energy 301 - 321 google scholar
  • Şişman Aydın G., ‘Eko-Etiketleme ve Türkiye Çevre Etiketi’ (2019) 4(1) Harran Üniversitesi Mühendislik Dergisi, 40 - 47 google scholar
  • Tekinalp Ü, Fikri Mülkiyet Hukuku (Vedat 2012) google scholar
  • Thiele L., Systemic Accumulation and Cost Re-Externalizations in the Green Economy (1st edn Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany) ProQuest Dissertations Publishing 2020) google scholar
  • Uzunallı S., Avrupa Birliği’ne Uyum Sürecinde Markanın Köken Ayırt Etme İşlevi ile Bağlantılı Kavramların Yorumu ’Köken Ayırt Etme’ (Çağa 2008) google scholar
  • Watson T., ‘Green Marketing: It’s not All Bunnies and Flowers’ (2010) 27(6) Intellectual Property Law 34 - 35 google scholar
  • Zevkliler A./Özel Ç, Tüketicinin Korunması Hukuku (Seçkin 2016 google scholar
  • ‘Buying Green for Consumers’ <https://www.epa.gov/greenerproducts/buying-green-consumers> accessed 3 August 2023 google scholar
  • ‘Companies Accused of Greenwashing-When companies green it, they better mean it’ (truthindadvertising.org, 13 June 2023) <https://truthinadvertising.org/articles/companies-accused-greenwashing/> accessed 02 August 2023 google scholar
  • ‘Eco-label index’ < https://www.ecolabelindex.com/ > accessed 3 August 2023 google scholar
  • European Commision Directorate General Environement Circular Economy, Sustainable Production and Consumption ‘Strategic EU Eco-label, Work Plan 2020 - 2024’ 2020, 3 < https://ec.europa. eu/environment/ecolabel/documents/EU%20Ecolabel%20Work%20plan%202020-2024%20 Dec%202020.pdf> accessed 9 August 2023 google scholar
  • Introduction to Ecolabels and Standards for Greener Products (epa.gov 12 September 2022) <https://www.epa.gov/greenerproducts/introduction-ecolabels-and-standards- google scholar
  • greener-products#:~:text=standards%20and%20ecolabels-,What%20is%20 an%20ecolabel%3F,therefore%20deemed%20%E2%80%9Cenvironmentally%20 preferable%E2%80%9D.> accessed 31 July 2023 google scholar
  • ISO 14024:1999 Environmental labels and declarations — Type I environmental labelling — Principles and procedures (iso.org, March 1999) <https://www.iso.org/standard/23145.html> accessed 1 August 2023 google scholar
  • ‘ISO 14024:1999 Environmental labels and declarations — Type I environmental labelling — Principles and procedures’ (iso.org, March 1999) <https://www.iso.org/standard/23145.html> accessed 1 August 2023 google scholar
  • ‘ISO 14024:2018(en), Environmental labels and declarations — Type I environmental labelling — Principles and procedures’ (iso.org, February 2018) <https://www.iso.org/standard/72458. html#:~:text=ISO%2014024%3A2018%20establishes%20the,for%20assessing%20and%20 demonstrating%20compliance.> art 3.1 google scholar
  • ‘ISO 14021:2016(en) Environmental labels and declarations — Self-declared environmental claims (Type II environmental labelling)’ (March 2016) < https://www.iso.org/standard/66652. html> accessed 1 August 2023 google scholar
  • ‘ISO 14025:2006(en) Environmental labels and declarations — Type III environmental declarations — Principles and procedures’ (July 2006) < https://www.iso.org/standard/38131.html> accessed 1 August 2023 google scholar
  • ‘Ecolabel with history’ < https://www.blauer-engel.de/en/blue-angel/our-label-environment/eco-label-history> accessed 2 August 2023 google scholar
  • ‘Life Cycle Assessment’ <https://www.eea.europa.eu/help/glossary/eea-glossary/life-cycle-assessment> accessed 1 August 2023 google scholar
  • ‘Meausuring Fashion, Environmental Impact of the Global Apparel and Footwear Industries Study’ <quantis.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/measuringfashion_globalimpactstudy_full-report_ quantis_cwf_2018a.pdf> accessed 21 September 2023 google scholar
  • Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries, <https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/ greenwash?q=greenwashing> accessed 30 July 2023 google scholar
  • ‘Rainforest Alliance’ <https://www.rainforest-alliance.org/> accessed 3 August 2023 google scholar
  • The Guideline For Environmental Claims In Advertising, (tuketici.ticaret.gov.tr, 2023) <https://tuketici.ticaret.gov.tr/data/63ada5bc13b876a1c8715f73/2023%C3%87evreye%20 %C4%B0li%C5%9Fkin%20Beyanlar%20%C4%B0%C3%A7eren%20Reklaml.pdf> accessed 31 July 2023 google scholar
  • Türk Patent ve Marka Kurumu Çevrimiçi Arama Motoru (turkpatent.gov.tr, August 2023) www.turkpatent.gov.tr/arastirma-yap?form=trademark> accessed 4 August 2023 google scholar
  • Turkish Republic Ministry of Trade, Çevreye İlişkin Beyanlar İçeren Reklamlar Hakkında Kılavuz (tüketici.ticaret.gov.tr, August 2023) <https://tuketici.ticaret.gov.tr/ data/63ada5bc13b876a1c8715f73/2023Çevreye%20İlişkin%20Beyanlar%20İçeren%20 Reklaml.pdf> accessed 01 August 2023 google scholar
  • Turkish Trademark and Patent Office, Marka İnceleme Kılavuzu (turkpatent.gov.tr, August 2023) <https://www.turkpatent.gov.tr/duyurular/marka-inceleme-kilavuzu-guncellendi-18082021> accessed 01 August 2023. google scholar
  • ‘Yeşil Mutabakat Eylem Planı ve Yeşil Mutabakat Çalışma Grubu 2022 Faaliyet Raporu’ (ticaret. gov.tr 2022) < https://ticaret.gov.tr/data/643ffd6a13b8767b208ca8e4/YMEP%202022%20 Faaliyet%20Raporu.pdf> accessed 31 July 2023. google scholar

Atıflar

Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın


DIŞA AKTAR



APA

Yatağan Özkan, Ç., & Dinçer Özbey, B. (2023). Green Is the New Black: The Rise of Green Marks and Possible Solutions to Greenwashing. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, 0(73), 183-206. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2023.73.0006


AMA

Yatağan Özkan Ç, Dinçer Özbey B. Green Is the New Black: The Rise of Green Marks and Possible Solutions to Greenwashing. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul. 2023;0(73):183-206. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2023.73.0006


ABNT

Yatağan Özkan, Ç.; Dinçer Özbey, B. Green Is the New Black: The Rise of Green Marks and Possible Solutions to Greenwashing. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 73, p. 183-206, 2023.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Yatağan Özkan, Çiğdem, and Berrin Dinçer Özbey. 2023. “Green Is the New Black: The Rise of Green Marks and Possible Solutions to Greenwashing.” Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul 0, no. 73: 183-206. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2023.73.0006


Chicago: Humanities Style

Yatağan Özkan, Çiğdem, and Berrin Dinçer Özbey. Green Is the New Black: The Rise of Green Marks and Possible Solutions to Greenwashing.” Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul 0, no. 73 (Mar. 2024): 183-206. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2023.73.0006


Harvard: Australian Style

Yatağan Özkan, Ç & Dinçer Özbey, B 2023, 'Green Is the New Black: The Rise of Green Marks and Possible Solutions to Greenwashing', Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, vol. 0, no. 73, pp. 183-206, viewed 5 Mar. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2023.73.0006


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Yatağan Özkan, Ç. and Dinçer Özbey, B. (2023) ‘Green Is the New Black: The Rise of Green Marks and Possible Solutions to Greenwashing’, Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, 0(73), pp. 183-206. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2023.73.0006 (5 Mar. 2024).


MLA

Yatağan Özkan, Çiğdem, and Berrin Dinçer Özbey. Green Is the New Black: The Rise of Green Marks and Possible Solutions to Greenwashing.” Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, vol. 0, no. 73, 2023, pp. 183-206. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2023.73.0006


Vancouver

Yatağan Özkan Ç, Dinçer Özbey B. Green Is the New Black: The Rise of Green Marks and Possible Solutions to Greenwashing. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul [Internet]. 5 Mar. 2024 [cited 5 Mar. 2024];0(73):183-206. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2023.73.0006 doi: 10.26650/annales.2023.73.0006


ISNAD

Yatağan Özkan, Çiğdem - Dinçer Özbey, Berrin. Green Is the New Black: The Rise of Green Marks and Possible Solutions to Greenwashing”. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul 0/73 (Mar. 2024): 183-206. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2023.73.0006



ZAMAN ÇİZELGESİ


Gönderim08.08.2023
Kabul01.10.2023
Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma12.10.2023

LİSANS


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


PAYLAŞ




İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.