15 Temmuz Afişlerinin Göstergebilim Çerçevesinde Grafik Tasarım Yapısının DeğerlendirilmesiEngin Uğur
15 Temmuz darbe girişiminin başarısız olmasında toplumsal refleksin ne kadar önemli olduğu görülmüştür. Darbelere karşı bilincin oluşturulması büyük önem taşımaktadır. 15 Temmuz darbe girişiminden sonra kamu ve özel kurumlar tarafından, toplumsal duyarlılık ve farkındalık oluşturulması adına çeşitli iletişim araçlarının kullanıldığını görmekteyiz. Bu kitle iletişim araçlarından birisi de afiştir. Afiş, kitlelerin fikir ve kanaatlerini etkileme düzleminde, önemli rol oynar. Bundan dolayı afiş, çok yoğun tercih edilmektedir. Çeşitli amaçlar için hazırlanan afişin mesajını kolayca aktarabilecek yapıda olması gerekmektedir. Hele günümüzün hızlı ve yoğun temposu içinde saniyelerle sınırlı zaman diliminde görülüp algılanması gerekmektedir. Bu nedenle hedef kitlenin dikkatini çekecek yapıya sahip olması gerekmektedir. Afişin fikirsel altyapısı ve tasarımı, konusunda uzman kişiler tarafından hazırlanmalıdır. Afişin etkinlik değerlendirmesinde iki temel kriter vardır: 1. aktardığı mesajın anlamsal boyutu, 2. tasarım boyutudur. Afişin anlamsal boyutu, göstergebilim çözümlemesi yapılarak değerlendirilirken tasarım boyutu, grafik tasarım ilkelerine göre değerlendirilmektedir. Makalede, 15 Temmuz darbe girişiminin sonrasında ve yıl dönümlerinde resmi kurumlar, vakıflar, dernekler ve özel kurumlar tarafından hazırlanan afişlerden rastgele seçilen örneklerin anlamsal çözümlemesi çerçevesinde tasarım yapısı, geçmişten günümüze kadar ortak kanaatler ışığında oluşan grafik tasarım ilkelerine göre değerlendirilmeye tabi tutulmuştur. Kişisel olarak yapılan değerlendirmeler, farklı yorumlara ve eleştiriye açıktır.
Evaluation of Graphic Design Structure within the Framework of Semiotics Analysis of Posters Related to the Impact of July 15Engin Uğur
The crucial of social reflex in the failure of the July 15 coup attempt was seen. Creating social awareness against coups is of great importance. After the July 15 coup attempt, it is seen that various communication tools are used by public and private institutions to create social awareness. One of these media tools is the poster. Poster plays an important role in influencing the ideas and opinion of the masses. Poster is therefore one of the most preferred media tools. The poster prepared for various purposes should be able to transfer the message easily. Especially in today’s fast and intense pace, it should be seen and perceived in seconds. Therefore, the poster should have a structure that can attract the attention of the target audience. The intellectual background and design of the poster should be prepared by experts. There are two basic criteria in the effectiveness assessment of the poster: 1. the semantic dimension of the message it conveys, 2. the design dimension. Semantic dimension of the poster is evaluated by semiotic analysis and design dimension is evaluated according to graphic design principles. In the article, after the July 15 coup attempt and anniversaries, within the framework of semantic analysis of randomly selected samples from the posters prepared by official institutions, foundations, associations and private institutions, the design structure has been evaluated according to the principles of graphic design that have been formed from the past to the present. Personal evaluations are open to different interpretations and criticisms.
It is the common opinion of social scientists that mass media is a great force that can influence and direct people. One of these posters is an important means of mass communication in terms of reaching many people. It is a graphic design product in terms of preparation. The main purpose and criterion of graphic communication is to communicate a message in a clear, economic and aesthetic way. Its economic means that the smallest number of visual images can transmit the highest number of information possible. This is also one of the basic rules of communication and each graphic element should be designed to increase the effect of the message. Planning is the first step in the design process. Within the framework of this plan, the design elements that would be appropriate to be included in the design are tried to be simplified and made easy to be perceived with the help of consultation and mind filter. Design elements that do not make any sense or have a meaning on their own (singular) are brought together around a purpose to create a new meaning. The new meaning and effect, that is, the integrity of all design elements, which emerge as a result of a special relationship, work or interaction between them in a creative way, is realized by means of visual invention. The most basic way to ensure the integrity of the various design elements is to create a balanced whole. Integrity prevents disintegration and clutter in the composition when properly constructed. When elements that are related to each other are grouped, elements with the same basic form, size, texture, color, or feeling can form the ideal integrity in a design. In a way, it is a dialectical interaction and the purpose of this union is to ensure the legibility and consistency of the design.
G.1. Definition of graphic design elements
On the poster floor, there are images of resistance against the coup attempt on the left side, images of the War of Independence on the right side, and faded (watermark).
G.1. Semiotics evaluation
Photographs of heroes who put their lives against the coup attempt constitute the semiotic reference of the poster. Armed photograph of Martyr Ömer Halisdemir and photographs of martyr female police officers stationed on a pale and blurred background expresses thankfulnes and gratitude to the soldiers and members of the police who were martyred in the coup attempt. The composition coming from the fluffy background towards the viewer refers to the presence of rescuers coming out of hopeless situations. It is seen that the Turkish Armed Forces prepared the poster for the 18 March Çanakkale Victory with the same semantic expression.
G.1. Graphic design evaluation
The poster design, which consists of photographs of coup heroes, is based on reality. The use of ready-made photography, which is considered to be an easy way for graphic design, has greatly reduced its artistic value. This design does not include any original structure in terms of design. The visuals in the foreground and in the background and the typographic elements related to the subject of the poster constitute integrity. The photos of Martyr Ömer Halisdemir and the women police officers who changed the course of the coup attempt were emphasized in the foreground by using prominent and large amounts. Stress; A direction, size, shape, texture, color, tone or line contrast can be achieved between the elements that should come to the forefront and those that should remain in the foreground. Concepts such as foreground and background are other visual design rules that should be mentioned with emphasis. A symmetrical balance has been created with the photos placed on both sides of the big photo and the background placed on both sides. Poster floor is divided into two parts as color. On the left side where the impact visuals are located, the yellow color is expressed in the right side where the War of Independence images are displayed in the twilight of the past.
In the graphic design works with social content, it is a priority to have an effective (strong) structure before artistic and aesthetic concerns. An effective visual communication object should be of interest to the audience and be clear. Instead of gathering the audience’s attention at one point, a study that will divide the audience to different points and cause different interpretations leads to great losses in terms of meeting expectations. The posters prepared for the July 15 coup attempt are not problematic in terms of message expression, but the means used in the message expression are stuck in a narrow band. Considering the technological possibilities of today, it is very clear that they are very poor work. Moreover, the fact that it is prepared by professional agencies at secondary level is a very significant situation. A graphic design product should attract the attention of the target audience and visual elements should be handled with striking and unexpected approaches. The effective and arousing interest of the design depends on the fact that the visual elements to be used are handled with a comment other than the known, usual effects. While doing this, the designer should pay attention to the use of graphic language.