Antik Rüzgâr Yakalayıcıların Anadolu’daki Örnekleri: Şanlıurfa’nın BadgelleriAyhan Bekleyen, Yahya Melikoğlu
Dünyanın farklı bölgelerinde geleneksel yaşam alanlarını aşırı sıcak iklim koşullarından korumak için bazı geleneksel tasarım stratejileri geliştirilmiştir. Mekânsal havalandırma ve soğutma bu stratejilerin başında yer almaktadır. Binlerce yıllık bilgi birikiminin ürünü olan rüzgâr yakalayıcılar, sıcak iklim koşullarına karşı mekânsal havalandırma ve soğutma sağlayan eşsiz bina bileşenleridir. Bu çalışmada amaç, rüzgâr yakalayıcılarını kullanma geleneğine sahip ülkeleri belirlemek, bu bileşenlerin yerel isimleri, biçim ve işlevleri hakkında bilgi vermektir. Ayrıca antik rüzgâr yakalayıcıların Anadolu’daki örnekleri olan Şanlıurfa’nın badgellerinin biçimsel ve işlevsel bakımdan ayrıcalıklı yönlerini belgelemek, diğer coğrafyalardaki örneklerle olan benzerlik ve farklılıklarını göstermek temel amaçlar arasında yer almaktadır.
The Examples of Antique Wind Catchers in Anatolia: Badgels of ŞanlıurfaAyhan Bekleyen, Yahya Melikoğlu
Traditional design strategies have been developed in different parts of the world to protect the traditional living spaces from extremely hot weather conditions. Spatial ventilation and cooling are among the most widely used strategies. Windcatchers (badgels), the products of thousands year old information, are incomparable building components that provide spatial ventilation and cooling. The purpose of the present study is to examine the countries that have the tradition of using wind-catchers and to give information about their local names, forms and functions. The main aims of the study are to document the formal and functional aspects of the badgels in Şanlıurfa, which exemplify the wind-catchers in Anatolia, and to show their similarities and differences with the examples in the other geographical areas in the world.
Traditional design strategies have been developed in different parts of the world in order to prevent the living spaces from extremely hot weather conditions. Spatial ventilation and cooling are among the most widely used strategies. Wind-catchers, the products of thousands year old information, are incomparable building components that provide spatial ventilation and cooling. A wind-catcher is known as badgir especially in the geographies where the influence of Persian architecture is widespread and malqaf in the geographies where the influence the ancient Egyptian culture belonging to the Pharaoh period and the Arab architectural influence is stronger. This building component is also referred to as wind scoop or wind trap in the related literature whereas the tower shaped type rising from the flat terrace is called the wind tower. The wind-catcher can be defined as the air-cooling channel that catches the high-level, less dusty wind through the upper openings and carries this air to various places such as the iwan, serdab (the cool room in the basement) and the rooms. The bodies of the wind-catchers can be of various shapes (quadrangular, hexagonal, octagonal or cylinder) or at different heights. The most distinguishing feature of them is the number of directions in which they take the wind (one, two, four, six and eight). From Egypt to India, the wind-catchers are still exhibited in many different regions of the Middle East, contributing to the original images of historical cities. These building components, which are so common in the Middle East geography, are also found in Şanlıurfa in the Anatolia region. The purpose of the present study is to examine the countries that have the tradition of using wind-catchers and to give information about their local names, forms and functions. The main aims of the study are to document the formal and functional aspects of the badgels in Şanlıurfa, which exemplify the wind-catchers in Anatolia, and to show their similarities and differences with the examples in the other geographical areas in the world. Method- A detailed field study was carried out to determine the traditional badgels of Sanliurfa, which are the examples of wind-catchers in Anatolia. After the interviews with relevant institutions and individuals, the remaining houses with wind-catchers were identified and the samples in the houses, where permission was obtained, were documented by photographs and drawings. The information acquired from the interviews with the locals was also included in the study. It has been determined that many of the examples encountered today are changed both formally and functionally. With the data obtained, it was determined how many different types of wind-catchers still exist in Şanlıurfa and their similarities or differences with the examples in the Middle East geography were investigated in terms of form and function. Findings- The wind-catchers in Şanlıurfa are called Badgel or Badia in the local language. The upper parts of the wind-catchers are located on the flat roof (dam) in the houses of Şanlıurfa. This part, or in other words the air inlet section is shaped to catch the wind. In traditional houses with one or two wind-catchers, these building components are only designed for the ventilation and cooling of the iwan unit. In the houses where a single wind-catcher is located, the direction in which this building component takes the wind is north. The wind entering through the north-facing opening of the wind-catcher descends from the air channel and flows to iwan through the opening just above the middle niche on the rear wall of the iwan. Hacı Hafızlar Mansion is one of the traditional houses of Şanlıurfa with a single wind-catcher, although the original form of the wind-catcher has been changed. Within the scope of this study, the drawings of this house have been produced according to its original structure. Some of the traditional houses have two wind-catchers, one definitely facing north and the other facing the northwest or west. These examples, which look in two different directions, transmit the wind from different directions downwards through the air ducts and they usually carry air to the air outlet holes on the two side niches on the rear wall of the iwan where the three niches are located. The traditional house in the Kendirci neighborhood of Şanlıurfa is one of the rare examples with wind-catchers facing the north and the west that ventilate the summer iwan. These important building components are documented with photographs and three-dimensional drawings along with the summer section of the traditional house. Result and Evaluation- Although the wind-catchers in Şanlıurfa have a name resemblance with the examples in Iran that are called badgir, they are more similar in form to the wind-catchers in ancient Egypt, which are called malkaf. It was determined that wind-catcher, which existed from Şanlıurfa to the middle of Iraq, had less height similar to those in Şanlıurfa and were located on the edge of the flat roof. The wind-catchers in Şanlıurfa are more similar to the examples in Mosul, both formally and functionally. Although wind-catchers in the Middle East were produced for the ventilation and cooling of the iwan, serdap and rooms, these building components were produced to ventilate and cool only one space (iwan) in Şanlıurfa. The niches in the back wall of the spaces in Iraq (especially in Baghdad) are the air outlet points of the wind-catchers. In the iwan of the traditional houses in Şanlıurfa, the same design concept can be seen in terms of the location of the air outlets. Furthermore, compared to the examples in the Middle East, the wind-catchers in the traditional houses of Şanlıurfa, where two wind-catchers are located, have a unique design concept because they both ventilate the same space. Wind-catchers, which are passive spatial cooling systems, are extensions of thousands of years of accumulation. This accumulation is not fully known even by the users living in the traditional houses of Şanlıurfa today. As the importance of wind-catchers was not understood by new generations, these components were altered or even destroyed. The wind-catchers, which have been used for spatial cooling in the houses of Şanlıurfa in the past, have been rediscovered in the context of this article and efforts have been made to uncover features that could be a source of inspiration for today’s designers. Emphasizing that the old has a strong potential to be a source of inspiration can be a starting point for designing the new.