Eyüp’te Kurtarılması Gereken Bir Yapı: Balçık TekkesiAhmet Vefa Çobanoğlu
Balçık Tekkesi İstanbul, Eyüp semtinde Fatih devrinde eğitim yapısı olarak inşa edilmiş olan Darülhadis binasının yerinde kurulmuştur. 16. yüzyılın sonlarına doğru tesis edilen yapı zaman içerisinde birkaç defa yenilenerek varlığını 20. yüzyılın başına kadar sürdürmüştür. 1925 yılında terk edilen yapı, 1939 yılında geçirdiği bir yangınla harap olmuş ve büyük oranda ortadan kalkmıştır. Kuruluşundan itibaren sırasıyla Halvetî/Sünbülî, Halvetî/Uşşakî ve Sa’dî tekkesi olarak kullanılmıştır. Günümüzde ulaşan türbede lahit şeklinde ele alınmış üç adedi taş sandukalı olmak üzere biri sade, dört kabir vardır. Bu kabirlerde tespit edilen şahidelerde yazılı olan kitabeler Arapçadır. Bunlar Derviş Muhammed, Aişe Sultan (1584), Hasan oğlu Mustafa Bey (1606), Ahmed oğlu Mehmed Bey (1609), Mehemmed Bey (1623)’e aittir. Ayrıca kaynaklar bu türbede ve hazirede Tarihçi Şemdânîzâde Süleymân Efendi ile tekkenin ilk sekiz şeyhin kabirlerinin de olduğunu belirtmektedir. Kâgir ve ahşap yapılardan oluşan tekkede Mescid-tevhidhane ve türbe mekânları kağir duvarlıdır. Almaşık örgülü duvarlarda bir sıra kesme küfeki taşı ile iki sıra tuğla kullanılmıştır. Yapının dıştan kiremit kaplı ahşap çatı ile örtülü olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Doğu ve kuzey yönünde köşeye yakın konumda kesme taş söveli, yuvarlak kemerli açıklıklı ve demir şebekeli pencereler türbe yapısına aittir. Türbenin batı yanında ve türbeye bitişik konumda kareye yakın planda ele alınmış olan mescid-tevhidhane mekânının kıble duvarı günümüzde yıkılmıştır. Bu çalışmada Balçık Tekkesi’nin tarihi süreçteki değişimi ve günümüzdeki durumu ele alınmıştır.
A Structure that Needs to Be Saved in Eyüp: Balchik TekkeAhmet Vefa Çobanoğlu
Balchik Tekke was established on the site of the Darülhadis building, which was built as an educational structure in the Fatih era in the Eyüp district of Istanbul. The structure, which was established towards the end of the 16th century, has been renovated several times over time and has been in existence since the 20th century. Abandoned in 1925, the structure was destroyed by a fire in 1939 and has largely disappeared. Since its foundation, it has been used as a Halveti/Sunbuli, Halveti/Ushshaki and Sa’di Tekke, respectively. In the tomb that has reached today, there are four simple graves, one of which has three stone chests, which are considered sarcophagi. The inscriptions of the witnesses identified in these graves are in Arabic. These belong to Dervish Muhammad, Aisha Sultan (1584), Mustafa Bey, the son of Hasan (1606), Mehmed Bey, the son of Ahmed (1609), and Mehemmed Bey (1623). In addition, sources state that there are also the graves of Historian Şemdanizade Süleyman Efendi and the first eight sheikhs of the tekke in this tomb and cemetery. The mosque-tawhidhane and tomb spaces in the tekke, which consist of masonry and wooden structures, have masonry walls. A row of cut mould stones and two rows of bricks were used on the alternating braided walls. It is understood that the structure is covered with a wooden roof covered with tiles from the outside. The windows with cut stone cornices, round-arched openings and iron railings located near the corner in the east and north directions belong to the tomb. The Qibla wall of the masjid-tawhidhane site, which was covered in a square plan on the western side of the tomb and adjacent to the tomb, has been demolished today. This study focuses on the changes of the Balchik Tekke throughout the history and its current situation.
In 1453, during the siege of the city, the Conqueror’s teacher, one of the Bayrami sheikhs Akshemseddin, discovered the location of the tomb of an important name known as Ayyub al-Ansari, a companion in the region. This important name has become a symbol of the rapidly developing Muslim city. In a short time, the Eyüp Sultan Complex consisting of the mausoleum, mosque, madrasa and bath buildings was built around the tomb. The most impressive examples of Ottoman mausoleums and tombs have been made in the region, which has continued to increase in importance over time. Thus, one of the largest cemetery areas of the city was formed here.
Then in the 16th century, the Zal Mahmud Pasha Complex was built by Mimar Sinan. During the time of Sultan Ahmed I, the Eyüp Sultan Tomb was fundamentally overhauled, and additional spaces and buildings with different functions were added according to the need. During the reign of Sultan Selim III, a complex based in imaret was built for his mother Mihrişah Sultan. Selim’s sister Shah Sultan also built a small complex in his name. In addition, in the Eyüp Sultan Complex, which forms the core of the Selim district and is considered as the centre of attraction, Sultan Selim III had the mosque rebuilt in a new style with a portico courtyard and arranged its surroundings accordingly.
The traces of the changing structure of the Ottoman world in the 19th century can be easily traced in the region. The Rami Barracks, built on the ridges behind the settlement, and large industrial structures such as Feshane and Iplikhane, which are located on the coast, have also rapidly changed the social topography of the region.
The district has always been important in terms of Ottoman ceremonies. When the Sultans ascended the throne, a visit was made to the Eyüp Sultan Tomb located here and a sword-laying ceremony was held. The Sultans usually came to the ceremony by the sea and returned to the palace by making some visits by land.
It is known that a large number of tekkes were established in Eyüp District during the historical process. Although some of them exist today, some of them have either completely disappeared or have partially survived to the present day with their balances. Among thirty eight lodges present known two of them were established in the 15th century, thirteen of them were in the 16th century, three of them were in the 17th century, thirteen of them were in the 18th century and seven of them were established in the 19th century.
One of the educational buildings built in the region during the Era of Fatih is the Darülhadis building, which was once present on the site of the Balchik Tekke. Later, the establishment of the tekke here took place in 1000 Hijri (1591). At the site of the Balchik Tekke, there was a Balchik Pier, where mud used to be collected and distributed from the mouths of streams that used to flow into the estuary was collected and distributed. It is understood that the name of the tekke also comes from here.
After the establishment of the tekke, Sheikh Mahmud Sunbuli Efendi, from the Sunbuli branch of the Halvetilik, took over. Later, Sheikh Mahmud-u Sani and his son Abdullah Efendi and his sons Sheikh Abdulgani Efendi, Sheikh Abdurrahman Efendi and Sheikh Salim Efendi respectively assumed this position. Later, Sheikh Mehmed Sadik Efendi, who belonged to the Ushshaki branch of the Halvetilik, served, and when he fell ill, he transferred the tekke to Sa’di Sheikh Mehmed Emin Efendi along with his trusteeship. Later, first, his son Sheikh Mehmed Ziya Efendi, then Ziya Efendi’s brother Sheikh Mahmud Efendi and his son Sheikh Halid Efendi served in the tekke depending on the Sa’di sect. The tekke, which underwent various repairs over time, was mainly renovated and had been rebuilt by Sultan Mahmud II in 1251/ 1835.
The inscription that was known to have been placed on the main gate of the tekke was found intact in the old photographs, while it has been fragmented and some parts of it have been destroyed today.
The department of the tekke, which is used as a selamlık (the men’s quarters in a Turkish house or palace), was rebuilt from new ones towards the end of the 19th century. After the closure of the tekke and lodges in 1925, the tekke was abandoned and the wooden units in and around the masjid tawhidhane were partially destroyed by a fire in 1939. In the following years, the remaining wooden parts completely disappeared.
Today, there are four simple graves, one of which is three stone chests, which are considered sarcophagi in the tomb section of the tekke. The inscriptions on the tomb stones found on the head and foot stones in these graves are in Arabic. These belong to Dervish Muhammad, Aisha Sultan (1584), Mustafa Bey, the son of Hasan (1606), Mehmed Bey, the son of Ahmed (1609), and Mehemmed Bey (1623). In addition, sources state that the graves of Historian Şemdanizade Suleyman Efendi and the first eight sheikhs were also here in this tomb and the cemetery.
The mosque-tawhidhane and the tomb are gathered in a common structure in a tekke consisting of masonry and wooden structures. The places of Masjid-tawhidhane and mausoleums with stone walls. A row of cut mould stones and two rows of bricks were used on the alternating braided walls. It is understood that the structure is covered with a wooden roof covered with tiles from the outside. The windows with cut stone cornices and round-arched openings and iron railings, located near the corner in the east and north directions, belong to the tomb structure. The Qibla wall of the masjid-tawhidhane place, which was considered in a square plan on the western side of the tomb and adjacent to the tomb, was destroyed.