Araştırma Makalesi

DOI :10.26650/ASE20221199598   IUP :10.26650/ASE20221199598    Tam Metin (PDF)

Green Synthesized Nanoceria Applied as a Fenton-Like Catalyst for Degrading Methylene Blue

Dilek ÖzyurtFatoş Ayça Özdemir OlgunBirsen Demirata ÖztürkMustafa Reşat Apak

Nanomaterials are preferred for scientific studies due to their spectral properties and perfect surface appearance. This study aims to introduce a novel, environmentally friendly, photocatalytic method for degrading methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solutions. With this purpose in mind, the study synthesizes nanoceria particles and coats them with zahter (Thymbra spicata; zahter-coated nanoceria, ZCNC) following the main outlines of green chemistry as characterized by SEM and FTIR analyses. The study proposes this new nanoparticle (with the aid of H2 O2 and UV combinations) as an alternative to iron in Fenton-type reactions for enabling MB degradation. The maximum efficiency was observed through the ternary combination of zahter-coated nanoceria, UV light, and H2 O2 at 63% concentration. The degradation of the MB solution was achieved by installing a small amount of ZCNC (0.1g), after which the absorbance values were measured at 664 nm. According to the possible reaction kinetics discussed within the study, the reaction rate was calculated at 1.49 × 10-2 min -1, thus enabling a faster reaction for a better evaluation of the reaction mechanism compared to other degradation processes that have been previously investigated.

PDF Görünüm


  • Aguedach, A., Brosillon, S., Morvan, J., Lhadi, E.K., 2005. Photocatalytic degradation of azo-dyes reactive black 5 and reactive yellow 145 in water over a newly deposited titaniumdioxide. Appl. Catal. B. 57 55-62. google scholar
  • Aleboyeh, A., Kasiri, M.B., Aleboyeh, H., 2012. Influence of dyeing auxiliaries on AB74 dye degradation by UV/H2O2 process, J. Environ. Manag. 113, 426-431. google scholar
  • Anastas P.T., Warner, J.C., 1998. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice; Oxford University Press, London. google scholar
  • Babuponnusami, A., Muthukumar, K., 2014. A review on Fenton and improvements to the Fenton process for wastewater treatment. J. Environ. Chem. Engin. 2, 557-572. google scholar
  • Chan, S.H.S., Wu, T.Y., Juan, J.C., The C.Y., 2011. Recent developments of metal oxide semiconductors as photocatalysts in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for treatment of dye waste-water, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 86, 1130-1158. google scholar
  • Channei, D., Inceesungvorn, B., Wetchakun, N., 2014. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange by CeO2 and Fe-doped CeO2 films under visible light, Sci. Rep. 4, 1-7. google scholar
  • Choe, E., Min, D. B., 2006. Chemistry and Reactions of Reactive Oxygen Species in Foods, J. Food Sci. 70, 142-159. google scholar
  • Corma, A., Atienzar, P., Garcia, H., Chane-Ching, J.Y., 2004. Hierarchically Mesostructured Doped CeO2 with Potential for Solar-Cell Use. Nature Mater. 3, 394-397. google scholar
  • Dong X., Lin Y., Ren G., Ma Y., Zhao L., 2021. Catalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue by Fenton-like Oxidation of Ce-doped MOF. Colloids and Surfaces A 608 125-578. google scholar
  • Foo, K.Y., Hameed, B.H., 2012. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of adsorptive properties of orange peel based activated carbon via microwave induced K2CO3 activation, Bioresour. Technol. 104, 679-686. google scholar
  • Ghaedi, M., Golestani Nasab, A., Khodadoust, S., Rajabi, M., Azizian, S., 2014. Application of activated carbon as adsorbents for efficient removal of methylene blue: Kinetics and equilibrium study, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 20, 2317-2324. google scholar
  • Ghaedi, M., Mazaheri, H., Khodadoust, S., Hajati, S., Purkait, M.K., 2015. Application of central composite design for simultaneous removal of methylene blue and Pb(2+) ions by walnut wood activated carbon, Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 135, 479-490. google scholar
  • Ghaly, A., Ananthashankar, R., Al-Hattab, M.K., Ramakrishnan, V., 2014. Production, Characterization and Treatment of Textile Effluents: A Critical Review, J. Chem. Eng. Process Technol. 5, 1-18. google scholar
  • Gogoi, A., Sarma, K.C., 2017. Synthesis of the novel P—cyclodextrin supported CeO2 nanoparticles for the catalytic degradation of methylene blue in aqueous suspension. Mater. Chem. Phys. 194, 327-336. google scholar
  • Grulke, E., Reed, K., Beck, M., Huang, X., Cormack, A., Seal, S., 2014. Nanoceria: factors affecting its pro- and anti-oxidant properties. Environ. Sci.: Nano. 1, 429-444. google scholar
  • Hameed, B.H., 2009. Spent tea leaves: a new non-conventional and lowcost adsorbent for removal of basic dye from aqueous solutions. J. Hazard. Mater. 161, 753-759. google scholar
  • Hong, Q., Hardcastle, J.L., Mckeown, R.A.J., Marken, F., Compton, R.G., 1999. The 20 kHz sonochemical degradation of trace cyanide and dye stuffs in aqueous media, New J. Chem. 23, 845-849. google scholar
  • Jin, Y., Li, N., Liu, H., Hua, X., Zhang, Q., Chen, M., Teng, F., 2014. Highly efficient degradation of dye pollutants by Ce-doped MoO3 catalyst at room temperature, Dalton Trans. 43 12860-12870. google scholar
  • Jo, W.K., Tayade, R.J., 2014. Recent developments in photocatalytic dye degradation upon irradiation with energy-efficient light emitting diodes, Chin. J. Catal. 35, 1781-1792. google scholar
  • Joshi, M., Bansal, R., Purwar, R., 2004. Colour removal from textile effluents, Indian J. Fibre Text, 29, 239-259. google scholar
  • Kamer, G., Demirata, B., Bayraktar, R., Ozyurt, D., Apak, R., 2019. Nanoceria-based reactive species scavenging activity of antioxidants using N,N-dimethyl-pphenylenediamine (DMPD) probe, Anal. Methods 14, 1837- 1986. google scholar
  • Katafias, A., Lipinska, M., Strutynski, K., 2010. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide as a degradation agent of methylene blue—kinetic and mechanistic studies, React. Kinet. Mech. Catal. 101, 251-266. google scholar
  • Liu, B., Sun, Z., Jimmy Huang, P.J., Liu, J., 2015. Hydrogen Peroxide Displacing DNA from Nanoceria: Mechanism and Detection of Glucose in Serum, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 1290-1295. google scholar
  • Lu, X., Zhai, T., Cui, H., Shi, J., Xie, S., Huang, Y., Liang, C., Tong, Y., 2011. Redox cycles promoting photocatalytic hydrogen evolution of CeO2 nanorods, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 5569-5572. google scholar
  • Maezawa, A., Nakadoi, H., Suzuki, K., Furusawa, T., Suzuki, Y., Uchida, S., 2007. Treatment of dye wastewater by using photo-catalytic oxidation with sonication, Ultrason. Sonochem. 14, 615-620. google scholar
  • Martinez, S., Sanchez, J.V., Estrada, J.R.M., Velasquez, R.F., 2011. FeIII supported on ceria as effective catalyst for the heterogeneous photo-oxidation of basic orange in aqueous solution with sunlight, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol Cell. 95, 2010 -2017. google scholar
  • Mills, A., Wang, J., 1999. Photobleaching of methylene blue sensitised by TiO2: an ambiguous system?, J. Photoch. Photobio. A.Chem. 127123134. google scholar
  • Mohammad, M., Ansari, S., Pradhan, D., Han, D., Lee, J., Cho, M., 2014. Defect-induced band gap narrowed CeO2 nanostructures for visible light activities, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53, 9754-9763. google scholar
  • Munter, R., 2001. Advanced Oxidation Processes: Current Status and Prospects, Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Chem, 50, 59-80. google scholar
  • Natarajan, T.S., Natarajan, K., Bajaj, H.C., Tayade, R.J., 2013. Study on identification of leather industry waste water constituents and its photocatalytic treatment, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 855-864. google scholar
  • Natarajan, S., Bajaj, H.C., Tayad, R.J., 2018. Recent advances based on the synergetic effect of adsorption for removal of dyes from waste water using photocatalytic process, J. Environ. Sci. 65, 201-202. google scholar
  • Navgire, M.E., Gogoi, P., Mallesham, B., Rangaswamy, A., Reddy, B.M., Lande, M.K., 2016. P—Cyclodextrin supported MoO3 - CeO2 nanocomposite material as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for degradation of phenol, RSC Adv. 6, 28679-28687. google scholar
  • Nguyen, A.T., Juang, R.S., 2014. Photocatalytic degradation of p-chlorophenol by hybrid H2O2 and TiO2 in aqueous suspensions under UV irradiation. J. Environ. Manag. 147, 271-277. google scholar
  • Ni, P., Wei, X., Guo, J., Ye, X., Yang, S., 2015. On the origin of the oxidizing ability of ceria nanoparticles, RSC Adv. 5, 97512-97519. google scholar
  • Ozdemir Olgun, F.A., Üzer, A., Ozturk, B.D., Apak, R., 2018. A novel cerium oxide nanoparticles-based colorimetric sensor using tetramethyl benzidine reagent for antioxidant activity assay, Talanta 182, 55-61. google scholar
  • Pathania, D., Sharma, S., Singh, P., 2017. Removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto activated carbon developed from Ficus carica bast, Arab. J. Chem. 10, 1445-1451. google scholar
  • Rao, A.N., Sivasankar, B., Sadasivam, V., 2009. Kinetic studies on the photocatalytic degradation of direct yellow 12 in the presence of ZnO catalyst, J. Mol. Catal. A Chem. 306, 77-81. google scholar
  • Reddy, P.V., Kim, K.H., 2015. Review of photochemical approaches for the treatment of a wide range of pesticides. J. Hazard. Mater. 285, 325-335. google scholar
  • Reza, K. M., Kurny, A.S.W., Gulshan, F., 2017. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2: a review, Appl. Water Sci. 7, 1569-1578. google scholar
  • Safardoust-Hojaghan, H., Salavati-Niasari, M., 2017. Degradation of methylene blue as a pollutant with N-doped graphene quantum dot/ titanium dioxide nanocomposite, J. Clean. Prod. 148, 31-36. google scholar
  • Shinde, S.S., Bhosale, C.H., Rajpure, K.Y., 2014. Photodegradation of organic pollutants using N-titanium oxide catalyst. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 141, 186-191. google scholar
  • Sobana, N., Swaminathan, M., 2007. Combination effect of ZnO and activated carbon for solar assisted photocatalytic degradation of direct blue 53, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 727-734. google scholar
  • Solano, C., Lessard, R.A., Roberge, P.C., 1987. Methylene blue sensitized gelatin as a photosensitive medium for conventional and polarizing holography, Appl. Opt. 26, 1989-1997. google scholar
  • Srivastava, P., Goyal, S., Tayade, R., 2013. Ultrasound-assisted adsorption of reactive blue 21 dye on TiO2 in the presence of some rare earths (La, Ce, Pr and Gd). Can. J. Chem. Eng. 9999, 1-11. google scholar
  • Tufekci, N., Sivri, N., Toroz, i., 2007. Pollutants of Textile Industry Wastewater and Assessment of its Discharge Limits by Water Quality Standards, Turkish J. Fisheries Aquatic. Sciences 7, 97-103. google scholar
  • Xu, C., Qu, X., 2014. Cerium oxide nanoparticle: a remarkably versatile rare earth nanomaterial for biological applications, NPG Asia Mater. 6, 1-16. google scholar
  • Xiazhang L, Ni C., Yao C., Chen Z. 2012. Development of attapulgite/ Ce1-xZrxO2 nanocomposite as catalyst for the degradation of methylene blue, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 117, 118-124. google scholar
  • Wei, X., Wang, Y., Feng,Y., Xie, X., Li, X., Yang, S. 2019. Different adsorption-degradation behavior of methylene blue and Congo red in nanoceria/H2O2 system under alkaline conditions, Scientific Reports, 9:4964, 1-10. google scholar
  • Yang, X.J., Xu, X.M., Xu, J., Han, Y.F., 2013. Iron oxychloride (FeOCl): an efficient fentonlike catalyst for producing hydroxyl radicals in degradation of organic contaminants, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 16058 -16061. google scholar
  • Yang, S., He, H., Wu, D., Chen, D., Liang, X., Qin, Z., Fan, M., Zhu, J., Yuan, P., 2009. Decolorization of methylene blue by heterogeneous Fenton reaction using Fe3xTixO4 (0 < x < 0.78) at neutral pH values, Appl Catal B-Environ. 89, 527-535. google scholar
  • Yurkov, G.Yu., Fionov, A.S., Koksharov, Yu.A., Koleso, V.V., Gubin, S. P., 2007. Electrical and magnetic properties of nanomaterials containing iron or cobalt nanoparticles, Inorg. Mater. 43, 834-844. google scholar
  • Zaera, F., 2013. Nanostructured materials for applications in heterogeneous catalysis, Chem. Soc. Rev. 7, 2473-3174. google scholar
  • Zang C., Zhang X., Hu S., Chen F., 2017. The role of exposed facets in the Fenton-like reactivity of CeO2 nanocrystal to the Orange II, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 216, 106-113. google scholar
  • Zheng, X., Huang, S., Yang, D., Zhai, H., You, Y., Fu, X., Yuan, J., Zhou, X., Wen, J., Liu, Y., 2017. Synthesis of X-architecture CeO2 for the photodegradation of methylene blue under UV-light irradiation, J. Alloys Compd. 705, 131-137. google scholar
  • Zidan, H.M., El-Ghamaz, N.A., Abdelghany, A.M., Waly, A.L., 2018. Photodegradation of methylene blue with PVA/PVP blend under UV light irradiation, Spectrochim. Acta A. Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 199, 220-227. google scholar


Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın



Özyurt, D., Özdemir Olgun, F.A., Demirata Öztürk, B., & Apak, M.R. (2023). Green Synthesized Nanoceria Applied as a Fenton-Like Catalyst for Degrading Methylene Blue. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, 38(1), 74-80.


Özyurt D, Özdemir Olgun F A, Demirata Öztürk B, Apak M R. Green Synthesized Nanoceria Applied as a Fenton-Like Catalyst for Degrading Methylene Blue. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering. 2023;38(1):74-80.


Özyurt, D.; Özdemir Olgun, F.A.; Demirata Öztürk, B.; Apak, M.R. Green Synthesized Nanoceria Applied as a Fenton-Like Catalyst for Degrading Methylene Blue. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, [Publisher Location], v. 38, n. 1, p. 74-80, 2023.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Özyurt, Dilek, and Fatoş Ayça Özdemir Olgun and Birsen Demirata Öztürk and Mustafa Reşat Apak. 2023. “Green Synthesized Nanoceria Applied as a Fenton-Like Catalyst for Degrading Methylene Blue.” Aquatic Sciences and Engineering 38, no. 1: 74-80.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Özyurt, Dilek, and Fatoş Ayça Özdemir Olgun and Birsen Demirata Öztürk and Mustafa Reşat Apak. Green Synthesized Nanoceria Applied as a Fenton-Like Catalyst for Degrading Methylene Blue.” Aquatic Sciences and Engineering 38, no. 1 (Jun. 2023): 74-80.

Harvard: Australian Style

Özyurt, D & Özdemir Olgun, FA & Demirata Öztürk, B & Apak, MR 2023, 'Green Synthesized Nanoceria Applied as a Fenton-Like Catalyst for Degrading Methylene Blue', Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 74-80, viewed 5 Jun. 2023,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Özyurt, D. and Özdemir Olgun, F.A. and Demirata Öztürk, B. and Apak, M.R. (2023) ‘Green Synthesized Nanoceria Applied as a Fenton-Like Catalyst for Degrading Methylene Blue’, Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, 38(1), pp. 74-80. (5 Jun. 2023).


Özyurt, Dilek, and Fatoş Ayça Özdemir Olgun and Birsen Demirata Öztürk and Mustafa Reşat Apak. Green Synthesized Nanoceria Applied as a Fenton-Like Catalyst for Degrading Methylene Blue.” Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, vol. 38, no. 1, 2023, pp. 74-80. [Database Container],


Özyurt D, Özdemir Olgun FA, Demirata Öztürk B, Apak MR. Green Synthesized Nanoceria Applied as a Fenton-Like Catalyst for Degrading Methylene Blue. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering [Internet]. 5 Jun. 2023 [cited 5 Jun. 2023];38(1):74-80. Available from: doi: 10.26650/ASE20221199598


Özyurt, Dilek - Özdemir Olgun, FatoşAyça - Demirata Öztürk, Birsen - Apak, MustafaReşat. Green Synthesized Nanoceria Applied as a Fenton-Like Catalyst for Degrading Methylene Blue”. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering 38/1 (Jun. 2023): 74-80.


Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma24.01.2023


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.