Araştırma Makalesi


DOI :10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749   IUP :10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749    Tam Metin (PDF)

Türkiye’de Sanayi Üretiminin Sağlık Harcamalarına Etkisi

Ayhan AytaçUmut Akduğan

Döngüsel ekonomide sürdürülebilir üretim ve tüketim ile insan sağlığını önceleyen iş kolları için alternatiflerin bulunması ve doğal kaynak kullanımının azaltılması, üretimin çevre ve sağlık üzerindeki baskısının da azalmasını sağlayacaktır. Bu noktada, doğrusal üretim süreçlerinin insan sağlığı ile ilgili sonuçlarını analiz etmek ve piyasa fiyatlarının sağlık maliyetleri ile ilgili dışsallıkları içselleştirmesini sağlamak oldukça önemlidir. Türkiye için sanayi üretiminin ve ekonomik büyümenin sağlık harcamalarına etkisinin analiz edildiği bu çalışmada temel olarak, mevcut doğrusal üretim modelleri ve doğal kaynak kullanımından kaynaklanan kirliliğin sağlık üzerindeki olumsuz etkileri araştırılmıştır. Bunun yanında, söz konusu negatif dışsallıkları içermeyen GSYH hesaplama yöntemlerini de sorgulamak ve tartışmaya açmak amaçlanmıştır. Bu doğrultuda; Türkiye’de sanayi üretimi ve ekonomik büyüme ile sağlık harcamaları arasındaki uzun dönemli ilişkiler sınır testi ile incelenmiş, kısa dönem ve uzun dönem esneklikleri, EKK ve DOLS yöntemleriyle belirlenmiştir. Bulgular, incelenen dönemde sağlık harcamaları ile sanayi üretimi ve GSYH arasında uzun dönemli ilişki olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Buna ilaveten; tahmin sonuçları, sanayi üretimi ve GSYH ile sağlık harcamaları arasında kısa dönemde anlamlı bir ilişki olmadığını, ancak uzun dönemde sanayi üretiminin ve GSYH’daki değişimlerin, sağlık harcamalarını pozitif etkilediğini göstermektedir. Dolayısıyla, ekonomik büyüme ile birlikte sanayi üretimindeki artışın sağlık harcamalarının da artmasına neden olduğu, başka bir ifadeyle, Türkiye’de sanayileşmenin ve üretim faaliyetlerinin çevre ve dolayısıyla sağlıkla ilgili negatif dışsallıklara neden olduğunu ortaya konmaktadır.

DOI :10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749   IUP :10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749    Tam Metin (PDF)

The Effect of Industrial Production on Healthcare Expenditures in Turkey

Ayhan AytaçUmut Akduğan

In a circular economy, finding alternatives for sustainable production, consumption, and work lines that prioritize human health and reduce the use of natural resources can also reduce the pressure of production on environment and health. At this point, it is very important to analyze the human health related consequences of linear production processes and ensure that market prices internalize externalities related to healthcare costs. In this study, the effects of industrial production and economic growth on healthcare expenditures is analyzed for Turkey. In addition, the negative effects of pollution from current linear production models and the use of natural resources on health are examined. The study aims to question and discuss the GDP calculation methods that do not include these negative externalities. The long-term relationship between healthcare expenditures, industrial production, and economic growth in Turkey were examined with a boundstest. The short-term and long-term flexibilities were determined with EKK and DOLS methods. The findings revealed that there is a long-term relationship between healthcare expenditures, industrial production, and the GDP in the period examined. In addition; the estimation results showed that there is no significant relationship between industrial production, the GDP, and healthcare expenditures in the short-term, but changes in industrial production and the GDP in the long-term affected healthcare expenditures positively. Therefore, this study demonstrated that an increase in industrial production along with economic growth caused an increase in healthcare expenditures. In other words, industrialization and production activities in Turkey causes negative externalities related to the environment and hence health.


GENİŞLETİLMİŞ ÖZET


In most of the world, the situation related to environmental pollution and climate change is deteriorating, whereas, in households air and water pollution related to poverty and lifestyles is decreasing. Forms of pollution, such as atmospheric pollution, chemical pollution, and soil pollution coming from sectors like industrial production, mining, electricity generation, fossil fuel-based transportation, and carriage and mechanized agriculture, are increasing gradually especially in developing and less developed low and middle-income countries. This situation causes permanent damage to human health and also reduces the total well-being and quality of life in these countries. In this context, analyzing the consequences of production processes related to human health is very important in providing information for market actors in order to ensure that market prices internalize the externalities related to health costs. Discussion of macroeconomic indicators and GDP calculation methods will be instructive in questioning whether the existing indicators include the use of natural resources and the health effects of pollution from production. On the other hand; in the design of new policies, measuring the exact extent of the externalities caused by pollution from production processes is an important requirement to internalize and express them in market prices. 

In this study, the impact of industrial production and economic growth on healthcare expenditures was analyzed for Turkey. The negative effects of pollution emanating from current linear production models and the use of natural resources on both human and public health were examined. In addition; GDP calculation methods and other macroeconomic indicators that do not include the negative externalities related to environment and health caused by production activities were also questioned and discussed. The long-term relationship between industrial production, economic growth and healthcare expenditures in Turkey were examined using a bounds test based on the ARDL model and subsequently short-term and long-term flexibilities were calculated with the EKK and DOLS methods using the same models. The findings showed that there is a long-term relationship between healthcare expenditures, industrial production and the GDP. Additionally, estimation results showed that there is no significant relationship between industrial production, the GDP, and healthcare expenditures in the short-term, but changes in industrial production 3 and the GDP in the long-term affected healthcare expenditures positively. In other words, the findings showed that an increase in industrial production along with economic growth in Turkey increases healthcare expenditures. According to the long-term coefficients calculated by estimating the ARDL model with the EKK method; a 1% rise in industrial production increases healthcare expenditures by 0.91%, and a 1% rise in the GDP increases healthcare expenditures by 0.86%. However, according to the long-term coefficients calculated from the DOLS model estimation, a 1% rise in industrial production increases healthcare expenditures by 0.85%, while a 1% rise in the GDP increases healthcare expenditures by 0.74%. 

The analysis shows that industrialization and production activities in Turkey causes negative externalities related to environment and health. Considering that circular economy methods have not been adopted yet, analyzing the negative effects of current production models in a linear economy on the environment and health is very important, especially in order to internalize the negative externalities related to costs that cause an increase in healthcare expenditures and to reflect them in market prices. At this point, some macroeconomic indicators and the methods used for calculating the GDP should be reviewed and updated in a way to take into account healthcare costs and the use of natural resources arising from economic activities and environmental pollution caused by these. 

On the other hand, a successful transition to a circular economy, especially in developing countries, results in a decrease in regional (as well as global) environmental pollution (including the emissions that cause air, water, and soil pollution) arising from production and consumption processes. In a circular economy, the existence of sustainable production, consumption, and business models that prioritize human health will contribute to a decrease in the use of natural resources and the elimination of the pressure of production on environment and health. This will provide longterm indirect health benefits in correlation to the reduction of global environmental pollution.


PDF Görünüm

Referanslar

  • Corvalán, C., Briggs, D. & Kjellström, T. (2000). The need for information: Environmental health indicators. In C. Corvalán, D. Briggs & G. Zielhuis (Eds.), Decision-Making in Environmental Health – From Evidence to Action (pp. 25-55). London: World Health Organization. google scholar
  • Çetin, M. A. (2018). BRICS-T ülkelerinde sağlık harcamaları ile yenilenebilir enerji tüketimi arasındaki uzun dönemli ilişki: Panel ARDL bulguları. ICPESS-International Congress on Politic, Economic and Social Studies, No. 5. google scholar
  • Deniz, M. H. (2009). Sanayileşme perspektifinde kentleşme ve çevre ilişkisi, İstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Coğrafya Bölümü Coğrafya Dergisi, 19, 95-105. google scholar
  • Doğan, S. ve Tüzer, M. (2011a). Küresel iklim değişikliği ile mücadele: Genel yaklaşımlar ve uluslararası çabalar. Sosyoloji Konferansları, (44), 157-194. google scholar
  • Doğan, S. ve Tüzer, M. (2011b). Küresel iklim değişikliği ve potansiyel etkileri. C. Ü. İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 12(1), 21-34. google scholar
  • EMF (2015). Growth within: A circular economy vision for a competitive Europe. Ellen MacArthur Foundation, SUN and McKinsey Center for Business and Environment. google scholar
  • Esteve, V. & Martinez-Zahonero, J. L. (2007). Testing the long-run relationship between health expenditures and GDP in the presence of structural change: the case of Spain. Applied Economics Letters, 14, 271-276. google scholar
  • Green Alliance (2015). The social benefits of a circular economy: Lessons from the UK. London: Green Alliance. google scholar
  • Horbach, J., Rennings, K. & Sommerfeld, K. (2015). Circular economy and employment. In 3rd IZA Workshop: Labor Market Effects of Environmental Policies. google scholar
  • İlkin, A. ve Alkin, E. (1991). Ekonomik ve sosyal sorunlar-çözüm önerileri dizisi: Çevre sorunları, TOBB, Ankara: Ünal Ofset. google scholar
  • Landrigan, P. J. & Fuller, R. (2014). Environmental pollution: an enormous and invisible burden on health systems in low-and middle-income counties. World Hospitals and Health Services, 50(4), 35-40. google scholar
  • Landrigan P. J., Fuller R., Acosta N. J. R., Adeyi, O., Arnold, R., Basu, N. … Zhong, M. (2017). The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. Lancet. 391(10119), 1-51. google scholar
  • Narayan, P. K. & Narayan S. (2005). Estimating income and price elasticities of imports for Fiji in a cointegration framework. Economic Modelling, 22(3), 423-438. google scholar
  • Masih, R. & Masih, A. M. M. (1996). Stock-Watson dynamic OLS (DOLS) and error-correction modelling approaches to estimating long-and short-run elasticities in a demand function: New evidence and methodological implications from an application to the demand for coal in mainland China. Energy Economics, 18(4), 315-334. google scholar
  • Pesaran, M. H., Shin, Y. & Smith, R. J. (2001). Bounds Testing Approaches to the Analysis of Level Relationships. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16(3), 289-326. google scholar
  • OECD (2017). The macroeconomics of the circular economy transition: a critical review of modelling approaches. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. google scholar
  • Quattara, B. (2004). Foreign aid and fiscal policy in Senegal, Mimeo University of Manchester, 262-267. google scholar
  • Spinazzè, A., Borghi, F., Roveli, S. & Cavallo, D. M. (2017). Exposure assessment methods in studies on waste management and health effects: An overview. Environments, 4(19), 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/environments4010019 google scholar
  • Stock, J. H. & Watson, M. W. (1993). A simple estimator of cointegrating vectors in higher order integrated systems. Econometrica, 61(4), 783-820. google scholar
  • WHO (2018). Circular economy and health: Opportunities and risks. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. google scholar
  • WHO (2010). Social and gender inequalities in environment and health. Report to Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health – Protecting children’s health in a changing environment, Parma, Italy, 10–12 March 2010. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. google scholar
  • Wijkman A. & Skánberg K. (2015). The circular economy and benefits for society - Jobs and climate clear winners in an economy based on renewable energy and resource efficiency - A study pertaining to Finland, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. Winterthur: Club of Rome. google scholar

Atıflar

Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın


DIŞA AKTAR



APA

Aytaç, A., & Akduğan, U. (2020). Türkiye’de Sanayi Üretiminin Sağlık Harcamalarına Etkisi. Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics, 0(33), 33-50. https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749


AMA

Aytaç A, Akduğan U. Türkiye’de Sanayi Üretiminin Sağlık Harcamalarına Etkisi. Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics. 2020;0(33):33-50. https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749


ABNT

Aytaç, A.; Akduğan, U. Türkiye’de Sanayi Üretiminin Sağlık Harcamalarına Etkisi. Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 33, p. 33-50, 2020.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Aytaç, Ayhan, and Umut Akduğan. 2020. “Türkiye’de Sanayi Üretiminin Sağlık Harcamalarına Etkisi.” Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics 0, no. 33: 33-50. https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749


Chicago: Humanities Style

Aytaç, Ayhan, and Umut Akduğan. Türkiye’de Sanayi Üretiminin Sağlık Harcamalarına Etkisi.” Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics 0, no. 33 (May. 2021): 33-50. https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749


Harvard: Australian Style

Aytaç, A & Akduğan, U 2020, 'Türkiye’de Sanayi Üretiminin Sağlık Harcamalarına Etkisi', Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics, vol. 0, no. 33, pp. 33-50, viewed 15 May. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Aytaç, A. and Akduğan, U. (2020) ‘Türkiye’de Sanayi Üretiminin Sağlık Harcamalarına Etkisi’, Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics, 0(33), pp. 33-50. https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749 (15 May. 2021).


MLA

Aytaç, Ayhan, and Umut Akduğan. Türkiye’de Sanayi Üretiminin Sağlık Harcamalarına Etkisi.” Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics, vol. 0, no. 33, 2020, pp. 33-50. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749


Vancouver

Aytaç A, Akduğan U. Türkiye’de Sanayi Üretiminin Sağlık Harcamalarına Etkisi. Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics [Internet]. 15 May. 2021 [cited 15 May. 2021];0(33):33-50. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749 doi: 10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749


ISNAD

Aytaç, Ayhan - Akduğan, Umut. Türkiye’de Sanayi Üretiminin Sağlık Harcamalarına Etkisi”. Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics 0/33 (May. 2021): 33-50. https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2020.33.828749



ZAMAN ÇİZELGESİ


Gönderim20.11.2020
Kabul19.12.2020
Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma15.01.2021

LİSANS


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


PAYLAŞ




İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.