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DOI :10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2022.932126   IUP :10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2022.932126    Tam Metin (PDF)

Microscopic examination and comparison of exine layer of bee pollen and bee bread (Perga)

Aslı ÖzkökMonireh BakhspourNazlı MaydaAdil DenizliKadriye Sorkun

Background and Aims: Thanks to their high nutritional content and therapeutic effects, bee pollen and bee bread (perga) are used as a food supplement. Studies have shown that bee bread has more bioavailability than bee pollen. This situation has been explained by the fragmentation of the exine layers of pollen in bee bread in some studies. However, there is no clear microscopic study showing that the exine layer is broken. This study investigated for the first time whether the pollen grains in bee bread were fragmented in the exine layers after fermentation, in comparison with the pollen grains in bee pollen samples. Methods: Bee pollen and bee bread samples were collected from the same hives and pollen slides were prepared for examination with light and SEM microscopes. Both of the pollen slides were compared and microscopic photographs were taken. Results: No deformation was observed in the exine layers of the pollen grains in bee bread after fermentation. Conclusion: In many studies, the higher bioavailability of bee bread has been explained by the deformation at exine structure of the pollen grains. But it has not been supported microscopically in detail with both light and SEM microscopes. Our study’s conclusion was that no deformation was observed in the exine structures of the pollen in bee bread after fermentation.


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APA

Özkök, A., Bakhspour, M., Mayda, N., Denizli, A., & Sorkun, K. (2022). Microscopic examination and comparison of exine layer of bee pollen and bee bread (Perga). İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, 52(2), 187-191. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2022.932126


AMA

Özkök A, Bakhspour M, Mayda N, Denizli A, Sorkun K. Microscopic examination and comparison of exine layer of bee pollen and bee bread (Perga). İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy. 2022;52(2):187-191. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2022.932126


ABNT

Özkök, A.; Bakhspour, M.; Mayda, N.; Denizli, A.; Sorkun, K. Microscopic examination and comparison of exine layer of bee pollen and bee bread (Perga). İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, [Publisher Location], v. 52, n. 2, p. 187-191, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Özkök, Aslı, and Monireh Bakhspour and Nazlı Mayda and Adil Denizli and Kadriye Sorkun. 2022. “Microscopic examination and comparison of exine layer of bee pollen and bee bread (Perga).” İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 52, no. 2: 187-191. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2022.932126


Chicago: Humanities Style

Özkök, Aslı, and Monireh Bakhspour and Nazlı Mayda and Adil Denizli and Kadriye Sorkun. Microscopic examination and comparison of exine layer of bee pollen and bee bread (Perga).” İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 52, no. 2 (Feb. 2023): 187-191. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2022.932126


Harvard: Australian Style

Özkök, A & Bakhspour, M & Mayda, N & Denizli, A & Sorkun, K 2022, 'Microscopic examination and comparison of exine layer of bee pollen and bee bread (Perga)', İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 187-191, viewed 1 Feb. 2023, https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2022.932126


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Özkök, A. and Bakhspour, M. and Mayda, N. and Denizli, A. and Sorkun, K. (2022) ‘Microscopic examination and comparison of exine layer of bee pollen and bee bread (Perga)’, İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, 52(2), pp. 187-191. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2022.932126 (1 Feb. 2023).


MLA

Özkök, Aslı, and Monireh Bakhspour and Nazlı Mayda and Adil Denizli and Kadriye Sorkun. Microscopic examination and comparison of exine layer of bee pollen and bee bread (Perga).” İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 52, no. 2, 2022, pp. 187-191. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2022.932126


Vancouver

Özkök A, Bakhspour M, Mayda N, Denizli A, Sorkun K. Microscopic examination and comparison of exine layer of bee pollen and bee bread (Perga). İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy [Internet]. 1 Feb. 2023 [cited 1 Feb. 2023];52(2):187-191. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2022.932126 doi: 10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2022.932126


ISNAD

Özkök, Aslı - Bakhspour, Monireh - Mayda, Nazlı - Denizli, Adil - Sorkun, Kadriye. Microscopic examination and comparison of exine layer of bee pollen and bee bread (Perga)”. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 52/2 (Feb. 2023): 187-191. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2022.932126



ZAMAN ÇİZELGESİ


Gönderim07.05.2021
Kabul29.04.2022
Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma29.08.2022

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