Sex-dependent effects of resveratrol and regular exercise on markers related to cellular stress in the hearts and kidneys of ratsNur Banu Bal, Sevtap Han, Suzan Emel Usanmaz, Mecit Orhan Uludağ, Emine Demirel Yılmaz
Background and Aims: Regular exercise and several food supplements are recommended for a healthy lifestyle. In this study, the sex-dependent effects of resveratrol and regular exercise training on cellular stress response were investigated in the hearts and kidneys of rats. Methods: Male and female Wistar rats (3-month-old) were used. Resveratrol (7.5 mg/kg, in the drinking water) and exercise training (for 40 minutes, three days per week) were applied for 6 weeks. The markers related to cellular stress were measured in left ventricle and kidney tissues. Results: Cardiac total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were greater in males than females, but no difference was observed in kidney tissue. Exercise training increased both TAC and nitrite levels in the heart in females but not in males. Even cardiac nitrite levels were decreased in males by exercise. Cardiac phosphorylated-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK) expression and renal glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78) expression were higher in the control male group compared to the female group. Cardiac tumor necrosis factor-ɑ (TNF-ɑ) expression was higher in females than males but not in kidneys. However, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression was higher in males than females in both kidney and cardiac tissues. The phospho-inhibitor κB-ɑ (p-IκB-ɑ) did not change between gender in cardiac tissues but had a decreased level in male kidneys compared to the female control group. Expression of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in females and phospho-protein kinase B (p-Akt) in males were lower in kidney tissue. Resveratrol and exercise treatments markedly decreased Akt protein expression in male kidney tissue. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the markers involved in cellular stress response were affected differently by the resveratrol and exercise treatments considering sex and tissue dependencies.