Araştırma Makalesi

DOI :10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0019   IUP :10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0019    Tam Metin (PDF)

ABD’de Hıristiyan Siyonizmi: Kökeni, İnanç Esasları ve Günümüz Amerikan Siyasetine Etkisi

Hafize Şule Albayrak

Bu makale, din siyaset ilişkilerini sosyolojik çerçevede inceleme girişimi olarak Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nde siyasetteki etkisi artan Hıristiyan siyonizmini konu edinmektedir. Çalışmamızda cevap aradığımız temel sorular, “ABD’de evanjelik Protestanlar arasında yer alan Hıristiyan Siyonistler kimlerdir?”, “Tarihi köken ve kaynakları nelerdir?”, “Hem dini hem siyasi bir oluşum olan Hıristiyan siyonizminin inanç esasları, siyasi yönelimleri ve Amerikan siyasetine etkileri nelerdir?” olarak sıralanabilir. Bu çerçevede makale tasviri bir çalışma olarak Türk akademisinde konuyla ilgili literatür boşluğunu gidermeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaçla, çalışmamızda öncelikle Hıristiyan siyonizminin 19. yüzyılda İngiltere’deki oluşum sürecine ve ABD’de yayılışına işaret edilecek; ardından temel teolojik ilkeleri ve bu ilkelerde önemli bir yer bulan Yahudilerin ve İsrail devletinin konumuna ışık tutulacaktır. Son olarak Hıristiyan Siyonizmi doktrininin Amerikan siyasetindeki etkisine dikkat çekilecektir. 

DOI :10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0019   IUP :10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0019    Tam Metin (PDF)

Christian Zionism in the US: Its Roots, Founding Principles and Its Influence in American Politics

Hafize Şule Albayrak

This article looks at Christian Zionism in the US from a sociological perspective. For this aim, I will examine the questions of “who are the Christian Zionists?”, “what constitutes the roots and fundamental doctrines of Christian Zionism?” and “how do Christian Zionists view world politics?” In this descriptive work, which aims to elaborate on an under-investigated research topic in Turkish academia, first I will provide a background into its history, dating back to 19th century Britain. Secondly, I will discuss the fundamental theological principles of Christian Zionism and the role played by Jews and Israel in this belief system. Lastly, the increasing influence of Christian Zionists over American politics will be discussed. 


Christian Zionist ideas have been embraced by many presidents in American politics, but the power of Christian Zionism in American politics became clear after Donald Trump was elected in November 2016. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, which had been a long-term ambition of the American Christian Zionists and Jewish Zionists. In this study, Christian Zionists and their theo-political approach will be discussed. In addition, the active participation in politics among evangelical Protestants with an emphasis on their prioritising of Jews and Israeli policies in American politics will be examined. This topic, which can be linked not only to the field of sociology of religion but also to all fields of social sciences, is important for understanding the debates and social poles in American society, as well as for making sense of the determinants of US policy, especially toward the Middle East. The reason behind the US-based Israeli policies in the Middle East has a theological and ideological justification. 

In this descriptive work, I will seek answers to the questions of “who are the Christian Zionists?”, “what constitutes the roots and fundamental doctrines of Christian Zionism?” and “how do Christian Zionists view world politics?” In this context, I will draw attention to the fact that Zionism is not only a concept related to Judaism and that there have been many non-Jewish Christian Zionists in the past and many who are still actively present in the American administration. My work sets out the conceptual framework of Christian Zionism as a theo-political ideology and sheds light on the historical background of the subject; It also aims to clarify how the ideology in question has gained power and become an effective discourse within American Protestantism. In this context, the study will trace the imperialist policies of the British Empire on Ottoman lands in the first half of the 19th century when Christian Zionism first emerged; then, the main elements of the Christian Zionists’ ideological and theological approaches to social and political processes, the extent of how Jews benefitted will be discussed, and their effects on American politics will also be pointed out.

Christian Zionism has, in general, evolved from evangelical and fundamentalist Christians. This approach adopts the reading of The Bible with a literal, premillennial approach and takes Biblical eschatology crucial. In order to understand the Christian Zionists’ support for Israel and their insistence on directing American policies, it is necessary to consider the pre-millennial dispensationalism that centered on Jews and the doctrines of the End Times. Pre-Millennial dispensationalism is the fundamental doctrine of Christian Zionists. In addition, Christian fundamentalists are based on the literal (literalism) reading of the scripture. While giving Jews a central place in the doctrine of the End Times, they have a very negative attitude towards Muslims. 

In general terms, the term “Christian Zionist” is given to a constituent of the most influential apocalyptic beliefs of today’s American society, which emerged in Britain in the 19th century, later coming to the US in the middle of the same century. Christian Zionism, which proposes rather radical ideas, is widespread among American Protestants. According to the results of a 2013 poll conducted by the Pew Research Center, 82% of the white evangelical Protestants in the United States believe that Israel was given to the Jews by God; whereas this rate is only 40% among Jews. In general, 44% of Americans believe that God gave Israel to the Jews. When the period and the environment in which Christian Zionism emerged are evaluated, it is possible to see that the ideologies that were formed on the basis of the activities of British imperialism in the Middle East were transformed into religious discourse. Christian Zionism, which formed an important ideological basis for British imperialism in the first period of its emergence, provides an ideological basis for American imperialism today. It is also an important part of the Israeli lobby in the US.

The enduring teachings of the Christian Zionists, who have gained more influence in recent American politics compared to previous periods, have reached the point of power to be able to affect US foreign policy. Trump’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and his declarations that Golan Heights belong to Israel are closely related to the theological teachings of Christian Zionism. The fact that a group with a radical theo-political ideology in the US is so effective in politics and state administration raises questions about American secularism. The important question of whether there is a reversal from American secularism –given the current developments in spite of the Constitution of America, where religion and state affairs are clearly separated- should be focused on in the coming years.

PDF Görünüm


  • Albayrak, H. Şule. ABD’de Din Devlet İlişkileri. İstanbul: İz Yayıncılık, 2018. Albayrak, Şule A. Hıristiyan Fundamentalizmi, İstanbul: Etkileşim Yayınları, 2007. google scholar
  • Aldrovandi, Carlo. “Theo-politics in the Holy Land: Christian Zionism and Jewish Religious Zionism.” Religion Compass 5, no. 4 (2011): 114–128. google scholar
  • Ariel, Yaakov. “An Unexpected Alliance: Christian Zionism and Its Historical Significance.” Modern Judaism 26, no. 1 (Feb 2006): 74–100. google scholar
  • Armstrong, Karen. The Battle for God. New York: Ballatine Books, 2001. Berger, Peter. “Secularism in Retreat.” The National Interest, no. 46 (Winter 1996): 3–12. google scholar
  • Casanova, Jose. Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1994. google scholar
  • Curtis, Rodney. “Evangelical Anglican Missionaries and the London Jews Socety: Palestine Place at Bthnal Green and Related Developments, 1813–1895.” google scholar
  • Jewish Historical Studies 50 (1), no. 5 (2018): 69–100. google scholar
  • Davidson, Lawrence. “Christian Zionism as a Representation of American Manifest Destiny.” Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 14, no 2 (Summer, 2005): 157–169. google scholar
  • Durbin, Sean. “I am an Israeli: Christian Zionism as American Redemption.” Culture and Religion: An Interdisciplinary Journal 14, no. 3 (2013): 324–347. google scholar
  • Evans, Mike. How to Pray for the Peace of Jerusalem: A Guide to Praying for Israel, Jerusalem and God’s Chosen People. Illinois: Timothy Books, 2013. google scholar
  • Fahmy, Dalia. “Key Findings about Americans’ Belief in God.” Pew Research Center, April 25, 2018. Erişim: 6 Ekim 2018. google scholar
  • Feldman, David. “Evangelicals, Jews, and anti-Catholicism in Britain, c. 1840-1900.” Jewish Historical Studies 47, (2015): 91–104. google scholar
  • Finney, Mark. “Christian Zionism, the US, and the Middle East: a Sketch and Brief Analysis.” In The Bible, Zionism and Palestine: The Bible’s Role in Conflict and Liberation in IsraelPalestine. Bible in Effect, editör Michael J. Sandford, 20–31. New Zealand: Relegere Academic Press, 2016. google scholar
  • Habermas, Jürgen. “The Political: The Rational Meaning of a Questionable Inheritance of Political Theology.” In The Power of Religion in the Public Sphere, editör Eduardo Mendieta ve Jonathan Vanantwerpen, 15–33. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. google scholar
  • Hadden, Jeffrey K. “The Rise and Fall of American Televangelism.” Annals, no. 527 (May 1993): 113–130. google scholar
  • Halsell, Grace. Tanrıyı Kıyamete Zorlamak. Çeviren Mustafa Acar ve Hüsnü Özmen. Ankara: Kim Yayınları, 2003. google scholar
  • Hunter, James Davison. American Evangelicalism. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1984. google scholar
  • Kayyali, Abdul-wahab. “Zionism and Imperialism: The Historcial Origins.” Journal of Palestine Studies, 6, no. 3 (Spring 1977): 99–112. google scholar
  • Kieval, Hillel J. “Review of ‘The Damascus Affair: Ritual Murder, Politics and the Jews in 1840’, by Jonathan Frankel.” AJS Review 25, no. 1 (April 2001): 137–142. google scholar
  • Kiracofe, Jr. Clifford A. Dark Crusade: Christian Zionism and US Foreign Policy. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2009. google scholar
  • Lewis, Donald M. The Origins of Christian Zionism, Lord Shaftesbury and Evangelical Support for a Jewish Homeland. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. google scholar
  • Lipka, Michael. “More White Evangelicals than American Jews say God Gave Israel the Jewish People.” Pew Research Center, 3 October 2013. Erişim 30 Nisan 2019. https://www. google scholar
  • Marsden, George M. Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism. Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991. google scholar
  • Marsden, George M. Fundamentalism and American Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980. google scholar
  • Mead, Frank S., ve Samuel S. Hill. Handbook of Denominations in the United States. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1985. google scholar
  • Mearsheimer, John J., ve Stephen M. Walt. The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Farra Straus and Giroux, 2007. google scholar
  • Öke, Mim Kemal. Siyonizm ve Filistin Sorunu (1880-1923). İstanbul: Timaş Yayınları, 2018. Philips, Kevin. American Theocracy, New York: Viking, 2006. google scholar
  • Philips, Elizabeth. “We’ve Read The End of The Book: an Engagement with Contemporary Christian Zionism Through The Eschatology of John Howard Yoder.” Studies in Christian Ethics 21, no. 3 (2008): 342–361. google scholar
  • Rodkey, Frederick Stanley. “Lord Palmerston and Turkey: 1830-1841.” The Journal of Modern History 2, no. 2 (June 1930): 193–225. google scholar
  • Sandal, Nukhet A., ve Patrick James. “Religion and International Relations Theory: Towards a Mutual Understanding.” European Journal of International Relations 17, no. 1 (2010): 3–25. google scholar
  • Sizer, Stephen. “The Bible and Christian Zionism: Roadmap to Armageddon?” Transformation 27, no. 2 (2010): 122–132. google scholar
  • Soy, Bayram. “Lord Palmerston’un Osmanlı Toprak Bütünlüğünü Koruma Siyaseti.” Türkiyat Araştırmaları 7, (2007): 141–167. google scholar
  • Spector, Stephen. Evangelicals and Israel. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. google scholar
  • Tejirian, Eleanor H., ve Reeva Spestor Simon. Two Thousand Years of Christian Missions in the Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012. The Constitution of the United States of America. New York: Fall River Press, 2002. google scholar


Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın



Albayrak, H. (2019). ABD’de Hıristiyan Siyonizmi: Kökeni, İnanç Esasları ve Günümüz Amerikan Siyasetine Etkisi. darulfunun ilahiyat, 30(1), 141-169.


Albayrak H. ABD’de Hıristiyan Siyonizmi: Kökeni, İnanç Esasları ve Günümüz Amerikan Siyasetine Etkisi. darulfunun ilahiyat. 2019;30(1):141-169.


Albayrak, H. ABD’de Hıristiyan Siyonizmi: Kökeni, İnanç Esasları ve Günümüz Amerikan Siyasetine Etkisi. darulfunun ilahiyat, [Publisher Location], v. 30, n. 1, p. 141-169, 2019.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Albayrak, Hafize Şule,. 2019. “ABD’de Hıristiyan Siyonizmi: Kökeni, İnanç Esasları ve Günümüz Amerikan Siyasetine Etkisi.” darulfunun ilahiyat 30, no. 1: 141-169.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Albayrak, Hafize Şule,. ABD’de Hıristiyan Siyonizmi: Kökeni, İnanç Esasları ve Günümüz Amerikan Siyasetine Etkisi.” darulfunun ilahiyat 30, no. 1 (Jul. 2022): 141-169.

Harvard: Australian Style

Albayrak, H 2019, 'ABD’de Hıristiyan Siyonizmi: Kökeni, İnanç Esasları ve Günümüz Amerikan Siyasetine Etkisi', darulfunun ilahiyat, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 141-169, viewed 6 Jul. 2022,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Albayrak, H. (2019) ‘ABD’de Hıristiyan Siyonizmi: Kökeni, İnanç Esasları ve Günümüz Amerikan Siyasetine Etkisi’, darulfunun ilahiyat, 30(1), pp. 141-169. (6 Jul. 2022).


Albayrak, Hafize Şule,. ABD’de Hıristiyan Siyonizmi: Kökeni, İnanç Esasları ve Günümüz Amerikan Siyasetine Etkisi.” darulfunun ilahiyat, vol. 30, no. 1, 2019, pp. 141-169. [Database Container],


Albayrak H. ABD’de Hıristiyan Siyonizmi: Kökeni, İnanç Esasları ve Günümüz Amerikan Siyasetine Etkisi. darulfunun ilahiyat [Internet]. 6 Jul. 2022 [cited 6 Jul. 2022];30(1):141-169. Available from: doi: 10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0019


Albayrak, Hafize Şule. ABD’de Hıristiyan Siyonizmi: Kökeni, İnanç Esasları ve Günümüz Amerikan Siyasetine Etkisi”. darulfunun ilahiyat 30/1 (Jul. 2022): 141-169.




Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.