Araştırma Makalesi


DOI :10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100   IUP :10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100    Tam Metin (PDF)

Aile Götürülemeyen Garnizon Dışı Görevlerin Asker Eşlerinin Fiziksel Sağlığı, Ruh Sağlığı ve Evlilik Memnuniyeti Üzerindeki Etkileri

Şükrü Umut CeylanAdem Başpınar

Bu çalışmada aile götürülmeyen garnizon dışı görevlerin asker eşlerinin fiziksel sağlığı, ruh sağlığı ve evlilik memnuniyetleri üzerindeki etkileri incelenmiştir. Bu çalışma Türk ordusunda kara, deniz ve hava kuvvetlerine mensup 316 subay, astsubay ve uzman erbaşın eşleri üzerinde yapılmıştır. Çalışmada kadınlar, eşleri garnizon dışına görevlendirilen ve görevlendirilmeyen olarak iki gruba ayrılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen bulgular eşi garnizon dışına görevlendirilen ve görevlendirilmeyen grupların somatik belirtilerinin benzer olduğunu göstermiştir. Ancak iki grubun anksiyete ve depresyon belirtileri arasında fark ortaya çıkmıştır. Analize göre, garnizon dışı görevlerin asker eşlerinin ruh sağlığı üzerinde olumsuz etkisi vardır. Evlilik memnuniyeti düzeyi ise eşi garnizon dışına görevlendirilenlerin görevlendirilmeyenlere kıyasla düşük çıkmıştır. Ordular asker ailelerine yönelik strateji geliştirmek için araştırmalara devam etmesi gerekmektedir çünkü bu stratejiler lider personelin astlarını motive etmesine ve vazifenin yerine getirilmesine yardımcı olacaktır.

DOI :10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100   IUP :10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100    Tam Metin (PDF)

The Effects of Deployment on Military Spouses’ Physical Health, Mental Health, and Marriage Satisfaction

Şükrü Umut CeylanAdem Başpınar

This study examines the impacts deployment has on military spouses’ physical health, mental health, and marital satisfaction. Research was conducted on 316 spouses of soldiers in the Turkish land, naval, and air forces. This research separates the spouses into two groups: spouses of deployed and spouses of nondeployed soldiers. The empirical findings suggest that somatic symptoms are similar for spouses of deployed and nondeployed. However, difference exist between the two groups in terms of anxiety and depression symptoms. According to the analyses, deployment has an adverse impact on spouses’ psychological well-being. As for marital satisfaction, the spouses of deployed soldiers have lower satisfaction compared to the spouses of nondeployed soldiers. The military needs to continue research in order to develop strategies for military families as these strategies will help leaders motivate their soldiers and accomplish the mission.


GENİŞLETİLMİŞ ÖZET


Because the institutions of the military and the family demand commitment, loyalty, energy, and time from their members, both institutions have features in common with what Coser refers to as “ambitious institutions.” Because ambitious institutions are able to survive through individual commitment and loyalty, they want individuals to spend their time and energy on their own institution and struggle for this.

Ambitious families’ adaptation to and satisfaction with military life affect the soldiers’ professional careers. This is because family happiness is very important for soldiers in the military. Soldiers who consider their family to be unhappy may leave their military duty prematurely. This causes the military to lose qualified and experienced personnel. The task motivation decreases in soldiers who are unable to leave the military. These soldiers cause administrative casualties, especially in the battlefield.

Military service is a difficult and risky profession by its nature. Soldiers have to serve in all kinds of terrain and environments in both times of war and peace. While performing their military duty, what is demanded from the soldiers also gets imposed on the families of the soldiers. The main challenges of the military profession are risk of injury/death, separation, relocation, and living abroad.

Families experience separation as a result of assignment or deployment to garrisons where families are not allowed. These duties affect family members’ physical health, mental health, marital satisfaction, and attitudes toward the military. The aim of this study is to measure the effects these duties that cause soldiers serving in the Turkish military who have recently served in different geographies to separate from their families have on their spouses and to offer suggestions to increase family satisfaction with the military lifestyle.

A military family has a structure that consists of spouses or couples living together, with or without children, perhaps with adopted children who reside in the same place where at least one of the partners has a job in the military. The families of those performing compulsory military service are not included in this definition.

Militaries make various demands from their soldiers in order to fulfill the tasks assigned to them. These demands directly or indirectly put pressure on the soldiers’ families because the family is expected to support the military in adapting to military institutions’ demands and expectations and fulfilling the responsibilities imposed on the soldier. However, changes in society and the family structure have made this adaptation process problematic for families. Increased work-family conflicts within the family as a result of women becoming more involved in business life and the increase in the number of married soldiers have revealed the need for militaries to take steps in regard to military families. 

Military families are located at the intersection of military and family. The military asks soldiers to fulfill their duties and responsibilities, as well as to meet what is expected from them in their role as the military parent in the family. In particular, the military family expects the soldier to be with the family at special times and for the soldier to spend energy and time on the family.

The military differs from other institutions in terms of its expectations from soldiers and their families. This is because the military is one of the rare institutions that fully requests other institutions to fulfill the different demands they want their members to fulfill. Although the frequency and severity of the difficulties experienced during the military profession may vary, the personnel and their families will experience them all throughout the process. The possibility military personnel will get injured or die during duty, get relocated, and get relocated due to assignments, become separated from family due to duty, or have to live in different countries are the things the military requests from soldiers and their families.

Military personnel serving in the military are separated from their families at regular intervals for a period of time as a result of things such as their duties, courses, or exercises. This separation process is experienced for various reasons during peacetime and may last from a few days to a year; this can be much longer during wartime.

Soldiers having to be separated from their families due to assignments or other similar reasons has serious effects on the lives of military spouses. The separation process and the reunion of the family after personnel return from duty are seen as great sources of stress in the lives of military families. While most military spouses are able to overcome the difficulties of this period, some may experience these difficulties more than others.

Method

This study uses the survey design, a quantitative research design, in order to examine the effects the difficulties of the military profession have on military spouses’ physical health, mental health, and general satisfaction and to determine spouses’ attitudes toward the military.

Sample

The Turkish Armed Forces has approximately 200,000 officers, non-commissioned officers, and specialist non-commissioned officers in service. The universe of this study consists of the spouses of officers, non-commissioned officers and specialist non-commissioned officers serving in the Land, Naval, and Air Forces, and determining the universe is not possible. Sampling was used because the entire universe in the study is formed of the spouses of soldiers, and accessing the entire universe is too difficult. The sample size has been calculated as 316 people at a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 margin of error. 

Data Collection Tools

A data collection tool was developed for gathering the data. The data collection tool consists of four parts. The first part asks questions to soldiers’ spouses about demographic information. The second part asks soldiers’ spouses questions adapted from the questionnaire applied to the wives of the soldiers serving in the US military by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. This section asks military spouses to answer questions about their experiences during deployments where families were unable to be taken. The third section and fourth sections use the Patient Health Questionnaire- Somatic, Anxiety and Depression Symptoms, whose validity and reliability studies were conducted by Yazıcı Güleç et al.

Findings

Participants’ Demographic Characteristics

When examining the 316 participants’ distribution according to age groups, 7 (2.2%) were determined to be between 18-19 years old, 43 (13.6%) to be between 20-24, 109 (34.5%) to be between 25-29, 77 (24.4%) to be between 30-34, 57 (18.0%) to be between 35-39, and 23 (7.3%) to be 40 or older. When examining the participants’ distribution according to education level, 2 (0.6%) are seen to be literate but did not finish any schooling, 5 (1.6%) to be primary school graduates (5th grade), 13 (4.1%) to be secondary school graduates (8th grade), 77 (24.4%) to be high school graduates (or GED), 190 (60.1%) to be college or faculty graduates (BA), and 29 (9.2%) to have master’s or doctorates. When analyzing participants’ distribution according to employment status, 111 (35.1%) were determined to have paid jobs, 4 (1.3%) to be self-employed, 25 (7.9%) to be unemployed and looking for work, 6 (1.9%) to be students, 1 (0.3%) to be retired, and 141 (44.6%) to be housewives, while 28 (8.9%) chose “other”. When examining the participants’ distributions according to their spouses rank and branch of armed forces, 137 (43.4%) are seen to be married to specialist sergeants, 106 (33.5%) to noncommissioned officers, and 73 (23.1%) to officers; 238 (75.3%) are spouses of members of the Turkish Land Forces, 46 (14.6%) to members of Turkish Naval Forces, and 32 (10.1%) to members of the Turkish Air Force. Of the participants, 229 (72.4%) are married to spouses assigned to garrisons where families cannot be taken, and 87 (27.6%) to spouses not assigned to garrisons where families cannot be taken.

The difference between the somatic symptoms scale averages of the groups was not significant (t = 1.23; p = .218). The somatic symptoms of the group whose spouses had been assigned to garrisons where families could not be taken were seen to resemble those of the group whose spouses had not been assigned to such garrisons.

The differences between the groups’ averages for the scale regarding symptoms of depression (t = 5.33; p = .000) and symptoms of anxiety (t = 6.31; p = .000) were found to be significant. The anxiety and depression levels of those whose spouses were assigned to garrisons that could not take families were found to be significantly higher than those whose spouses were not assigned to such garrisons.

As a result of the analyses, the difference between these groups’ mean marital satisfaction levels (t = -3.80; p = .000) was found to be significant. The marriage satisfaction levels of individuals whose spouses had not been assigned to garrisons that cannot take families were found to be significantly higher than those whose spouses had been assigned to such garrisons.

Results and Recommendations

When examining the answers soldiers’ spouses gave to the patient health questionnaire used in the research, the somatic symptoms of the group whose spouses had been assigned to garrisons where families could not be taken and was seen to resemble that of the group whose spouses had not been assigned to such garrisons. When examining the studies in the literature, one study obtained data from 130 military spouses and compared the somatic symptoms of one group whose spouses had been assigned to garrisons where families could reside (62 military spouses) with another group whose spouses were garrisoned but could not take families (68 military spouses). That study found the somatic symptoms scores of those whose spouses were soldiers assigned to garrisons where families were not taken to be higher than those whose spouses had not been assigned to such garrisons. A study conducted by the USA Military determined that women whose spouses had been assigned to garrisons where families could not be taken showed somatic symptoms such as fatigue, headache, menstrual pain (menses), sleep problems, and eating disorders. A similar study conducted with data obtained from the wives of 346 soldiers concluded the physical health of women whose spouses had been assigned to garrisons where families could not be taken to have deteriorated. Contrary to the literature, the similarity of somatic symptoms between the two groups in this study is attributed to the fact that the spouses of some of the women in the sample had returned from their assignment and these women’s physical health had improved.

When examining the data obtained from the sample, the anxiety and depression levels of those whose spouses had been assigned to non-family garrisons were found to be significantly higher than those whose spouses had not been assigned to such garrisons. These duties start the separation process in the family and are seen to negatively affect the mental health of military spouses. During this time, the problems family members experience reduce the motivation of military personnel. Studies are found in the literature that support this research result. One study conducted with 8,056 military spouses compared the mental health of women whose spouses were on nongarrisoned duty, women whose spouses had recently returned from non-garrisoned duty, and women who belonged to neither group. The mental health of spouses of soldiers who’d been separated more frequently due to non-garrisoned duty was worse than the others. A study conducted with the spouses of 940 soldiers assigned to Iraq and Afghanistan determined that 182 of these spouses met the criteria for major depression and anxiety disorder.

As a result of the data obtained from the research sample, the marital satisfaction levels of those whose spouses were not assigned to garrisons not able to take families were higher than those whose spouses were assigned to such garrisons. Marriage satisfaction and marital quality were measured in a study conducted with the wives of 100 soldiers deployed to Egypt as part of the peace support operation of the US military between 1994-1995. These measurements were made with data obtained from the spouses before, during and after the assignment. The researchers found the spouses’ marital satisfaction to decrease during the assignment but to have no overall long-term change; in other words, no significant change occurred in the quality of the marriage over time. The rate of couples remaining married for those who’d had problems in their relationships before the assignment was low.

Military families should be the first priority of militaries that want to keep soldiers long-term within their own structure. Military families’ harmony, satisfaction, and quality of life are directly related to the importance the military attaches to families as well as the policies they implement. Family happiness and well-being is important for soldiers. Soldiers who think their families are happy also have long careers in the military. Having leaders in units who take care of the families of the military personnel under their command and try to solve their problems increases the morale and motivation of the personnel; this support also positively affects the success of the union. 


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DIŞA AKTAR



APA

Ceylan, Ş.U., & Başpınar, A. (2022). Aile Götürülemeyen Garnizon Dışı Görevlerin Asker Eşlerinin Fiziksel Sağlığı, Ruh Sağlığı ve Evlilik Memnuniyeti Üzerindeki Etkileri. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, 42(1), 65-90. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100


AMA

Ceylan Ş U, Başpınar A. Aile Götürülemeyen Garnizon Dışı Görevlerin Asker Eşlerinin Fiziksel Sağlığı, Ruh Sağlığı ve Evlilik Memnuniyeti Üzerindeki Etkileri. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi. 2022;42(1):65-90. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100


ABNT

Ceylan, Ş.U.; Başpınar, A. Aile Götürülemeyen Garnizon Dışı Görevlerin Asker Eşlerinin Fiziksel Sağlığı, Ruh Sağlığı ve Evlilik Memnuniyeti Üzerindeki Etkileri. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, [Publisher Location], v. 42, n. 1, p. 65-90, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Ceylan, Şükrü Umut, and Adem Başpınar. 2022. “Aile Götürülemeyen Garnizon Dışı Görevlerin Asker Eşlerinin Fiziksel Sağlığı, Ruh Sağlığı ve Evlilik Memnuniyeti Üzerindeki Etkileri.” İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi 42, no. 1: 65-90. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100


Chicago: Humanities Style

Ceylan, Şükrü Umut, and Adem Başpınar. Aile Götürülemeyen Garnizon Dışı Görevlerin Asker Eşlerinin Fiziksel Sağlığı, Ruh Sağlığı ve Evlilik Memnuniyeti Üzerindeki Etkileri.” İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi 42, no. 1 (Dec. 2022): 65-90. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100


Harvard: Australian Style

Ceylan, ŞU & Başpınar, A 2022, 'Aile Götürülemeyen Garnizon Dışı Görevlerin Asker Eşlerinin Fiziksel Sağlığı, Ruh Sağlığı ve Evlilik Memnuniyeti Üzerindeki Etkileri', İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 65-90, viewed 7 Dec. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Ceylan, Ş.U. and Başpınar, A. (2022) ‘Aile Götürülemeyen Garnizon Dışı Görevlerin Asker Eşlerinin Fiziksel Sağlığı, Ruh Sağlığı ve Evlilik Memnuniyeti Üzerindeki Etkileri’, İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, 42(1), pp. 65-90. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100 (7 Dec. 2022).


MLA

Ceylan, Şükrü Umut, and Adem Başpınar. Aile Götürülemeyen Garnizon Dışı Görevlerin Asker Eşlerinin Fiziksel Sağlığı, Ruh Sağlığı ve Evlilik Memnuniyeti Üzerindeki Etkileri.” İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, vol. 42, no. 1, 2022, pp. 65-90. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100


Vancouver

Ceylan ŞU, Başpınar A. Aile Götürülemeyen Garnizon Dışı Görevlerin Asker Eşlerinin Fiziksel Sağlığı, Ruh Sağlığı ve Evlilik Memnuniyeti Üzerindeki Etkileri. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi [Internet]. 7 Dec. 2022 [cited 7 Dec. 2022];42(1):65-90. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100 doi: 10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100


ISNAD

Ceylan, ŞükrüUmut - Başpınar, Adem. Aile Götürülemeyen Garnizon Dışı Görevlerin Asker Eşlerinin Fiziksel Sağlığı, Ruh Sağlığı ve Evlilik Memnuniyeti Üzerindeki Etkileri”. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi 42/1 (Dec. 2022): 65-90. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0100



ZAMAN ÇİZELGESİ


Gönderim14.10.2021
Kabul13.02.2022
Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma30.03.2022

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