Araştırma Makalesi


DOI :10.26650/SJ.2019.39.1.0013   IUP :10.26650/SJ.2019.39.1.0013    Tam Metin (PDF)

Durkheim and the Nation

Eric Malczewski

This article elucidates key elements of the Durkheimian framework that bear specifically on studies of nations and nationalism. Durkheim’s theory of collective representations and his general theoretical view of the nature of human experience and the constitutive forces of social life are shown to offer leverage on problems of contemporary general interest to sociology. A Durkheimian approach to the study of nations and nationalism centers on three key elements: i) the definition of the form of collective consciousness characterizing the putative national unit; ii) a focus on the historical or genealogical development of the national unit; and, iii) the analysis of this unit in its theoretical aspect as a set of collective representations. Seeing nations and nationalism from a Durkheimian standpoint affords an understanding of these phenomena in terms of what they suggest about the nature of human social order as such. The contributions of Anthony Smith and Liah Greenfeld are discussed in light of this framework so as to make manifest the enduring significance of Durkheim’s thought.


PDF Görünüm

Referanslar

  • Alpert, H. (1939). Émile Durkheim and his sociology. New York, NY: Columbia University Press and London, UK: P.S. King & Son, Ltd. google scholar
  • Alexander, J. (1982). Theoretical logic in sociology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. google scholar
  • Alexander, J. (1982–1983). The antinomies of classical thought: Marx and Durkheim (Vol. 2 of Theoretical logic in sociology). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. google scholar
  • Alexander, J. (1988). Durkheimian sociology: Cultural studies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Alexander, J. (2008). Iconic experience in art and life: Surface/depth beginning with Giacometti’s Standing Woman. Theory, Culture & Society, 25(5), 1–19. google scholar
  • Alexander, J. (2010). Iconic consciousness: The material feeling of meaning. Thesis Eleven, 103(1), 10–25. google scholar
  • Alexander, J. (2012). Iconic power and performance: The role of the critic. In J. C. Alexander, D. Bartmanski, & B. Giesen (Eds.), Iconic power: Materiality and meaning in social life (pp. 25–38). New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan. google scholar
  • Alexander, J. (2013). Afterword. Nations and nationalism, 19(4), 693–695. google scholar
  • Alexander, J., & Smith, P. (2001). The handbook of sociological theory. New York, NY: Kluwer. google scholar
  • Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism. London, UK: Verso. google scholar
  • Bartmanski, D. (2012). Iconspicuous revolutions of 1989: Culture and contingency in the making of political icons. In J. C. Alexander, D. Bartmanski, & B. Giesen (Eds.), Iconic power: Materiality and meaning in social life (pp. 39–66). New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan. google scholar
  • Bartmanski, D. (2014). The word/image dualism revisited: Towards an iconic conception of visual culture. Journal of Sociology, 50(2), 164–181. google scholar
  • Bartmanski, D., & Alexander, J. (2012). Materiality and meaning in social life: Toward an iconic turn in cultural sociology. In J. C. Alexander, D. Bartmanski, & B. Giesen (Eds.), Iconic power: Materiality and meaning in social life (pp. 1–14). New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan. google scholar
  • Bellah, R. (1959). Durkheim and history. American Sociological Review, 24(4), 447–461. Bellah, R. (2005). Durkheim and ritual. In J. C. Alexander & P. Smith (Eds.), The Cambridge companion to Durkheim (pp. 183–210). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Benoit, O. (2007). Ressentiment and the Gairy social revolution. Small Axe, 22(11), 95–111. google scholar
  • Benoit, O. (2011). The question of national identity and the institutionalization of the visual arts in Grenada. Nations and Nationalism 17(3), 561–580. google scholar
  • Bernard, T. (1983). The consensus-conflict debate: Form and content in social theories. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. google scholar
  • Brubaker, R. (2012). Religion and nationalism: Four approaches. Nations and Nationalism, 18(1), 2–20. google scholar
  • Cerulo, K. (2014). Review of Mind, modernity, and madness: The impact of culture on human experience by Liah Greenfeld. American Journal of Sociology, 119(5), 1527–1528. google scholar
  • Collins, R. (2005). The Durkheimian movement in France and in world sociology. In J. Alexander & P. Smith (Eds.), The Cambridge companion to Durkheim (pp. 101–135). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Dayan, D., & Katz, E. (1988). Articulating consensus: The ritual and rhetoric of media events. In J. Alexander (Ed.), Durkheimian sociology: Cultural studies (pp. 161–186). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Deacon, T. (1997). The symbolic species: The co-evolution of language and the brain. New York, NY: Norton. google scholar
  • Debs, M. (2013). Using cultural trauma: Gandhi’s assassination, partition and secular nationalism in post- independence India. Nations and Nationalism, 19(4), 635–653. google scholar
  • Dingley, J. (2008). Nationalism, social theory, and Durkheim. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. google scholar
  • Du Bois, W. E. B. (1999). The souls of black folk. New York, NY: Norton. (Orginal work published 1903) google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (1930). De la division du travail social. Paris, FR: Quadrige Presses Universitaires de France. (Orginal work published 1893) google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (1937). Les règles de la méthode sociologique. Paris, FR: Quadrige Presses Universitaires de France. (Orginal work published 1895) google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (2004a). Le suicide: étude de sociologie. Paris, FR: Quadrige Presses Universitaires de France. (Orginal work published 1897) google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (1897-1898). Définition des phénomènes religieux. Année Sociologique, Année 2, 1–27. google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (1898a). L’Individualisme et les intellectuels. Revue Bleue, 4(X), 7–13. Paris: Éditions Mille et Une Nuits, 2002. (Orginal work published 1895) google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (1898b). Représentations individuelles et representations collectives. In Sociologie et philosophie (pp. 1–48). Paris, FR: Quadrige Presses Universitaires de France. google scholar
  • Durkheim, E. (1898c). Préface. In L’Année sociologique (Vol. 1 première année, 1896-1897, pp. 1–7). Paris, FR: Alcan. google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (1901). Préface de la seconde édition. In É. Durkheim, Les règles de la méthode sociologique (pp. xi-xxiv). google scholar
  • Durkheim, E. (1901-1902). Sociologie générale: Objet et méthode de la sociologie. In L’Année sociologique (Vol. 6, pp. 123–125). Paris, FR: Alcan. google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (2004b). Jugements de valeur et jugements de réalité. In Sociologie et philosophie (pp. 117–141). Paris, FR: Quadrige Presses Universitaires de France. (Original work published 1911) google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (1960). Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Paris, FR: Quadrige Presses Universitaires de France. (Original work published 1912) google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (1915). L’Allemagne au-dessus de tout: La mentalité allemande et la guerre. Paris, FR: Colin. google scholar
  • Durkheim, E. (1938a). L’ Évolution pédagogique en France. Des origines à la Renaissance. Paris, FR: Alcan. google scholar
  • Durkheim, E. (1938b). L’ Évolution pédagogique en France. De la Renaissance à nos jours. Paris, FR: Alcan. google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (1958). Socialism and Saint-Simon (C. Sattler, Trans.). Yellow Springs, Ohio: The Antioch Press. google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (1960). Montesquieu and Rousseau: Forerunners of sociology (R. Mannheim, Trans.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (1961). Moral education (E. Wilson, Ed.). New York, NY: Free Press. (Original work published 1925) google scholar
  • Durkheim, É. (2003 [1957]). Professional ethics and civic morals. New York, NY: Routledge. Eastwood. J. (2006). The rise of nationalism in Venezuela. Gainesville, FL: The University Press of Florida. google scholar
  • Emirbayer, M. (1996a). Durkheim’s contribution to the sociological analysis of history. Sociological Forum, 11(2), 263–284. google scholar
  • Emirbayer, M. (1996b). Useful Durkheim. Sociological Theory, 14(2), 109–130. Emirbayer, M. (2004). The Alexander School of cultural sociology. Thesis Eleven, 79, 5–15. google scholar
  • Fournier, M. (2013). Émile Durkheim: A biography. Cambridge, UK: Polity. google scholar
  • Gehlke, C. (1915). Émile Durkheim’s contributions to sociological theory. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. google scholar
  • Gellner, E. (1983). Nations and nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Giddens, A. (1971). Durkheim’s political sociology. The Sociological Review, 19(4), 477–519. google scholar
  • Greenfeld, L. (1992). Nationalism: five roads to modernity. Cambridge, UK: Harvard University Press. google scholar
  • Greenfeld, L. (1996). The modern religion? Critical Review, 10(2), 169–191. google scholar
  • Greenfeld, L. (2001). The spirit of capitalism: Nationalism and economic growth. Cambridge, UK: Harvard University Press. google scholar
  • Greenfeld, L. (2004). A new paradigm for the social sciences? Critical Review, 16(2–3), 288–322. google scholar
  • Greenfeld, L. (2005a). Nationalism and the mind. Nations and Nationalism, 11(3), 325–341. google scholar
  • Greenfeld, L. (2005b). The trouble with social science: A propos some new work on nationalism. Critical Review, 17(1–2), 101–116. google scholar
  • Greenfeld, L. (2007). Main currents and sociological thought. In B. P. Frost & D. J. Mahoney (Eds.), Political reason in the age of ideology: Essays in honor of Raymond Aron (pp. 125–143). New Brunswick & London, UK: Transaction Publishers. google scholar
  • Greenfeld, L. (2013). Mind, modernity, madness: The impact of culture on human experience. Cambridge, UK: Harvard University Press. google scholar
  • Greenfeld, L., & Chirot, D. (1994). Nationalism and aggression. Theory and Society 9, 79–130. google scholar
  • Guibernau, M. (1996). Nationalisms: the nation-state and nationalism in the twentieth century. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. google scholar
  • Guibernau, M. (1997). Marx and Durkheim on nationalism. In Hans-Rudolf Wicker (Ed.), Rethinking nationalism and ethnicity: The struggle for meaning and order in Europe (pp. 73– 90). New York, NY: Oxford. google scholar
  • Guibernau, M. (2004). Anthony D. Smith on nations and national identity: A critical assessment. Nations and Nationalism, 10(1–2), 125–141. google scholar
  • Hayes, C. (1926). Essays on nationalism. New York, NY: Macmillan. google scholar
  • Hobsbawm, E. (1990). Nations and nationalism since 1780: Programme, myth, reality. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Hunt, L. (1988). The sacred and the French revolution. In J. Alexander (Ed.), Durkheimian sociology: Cultural studies (pp. 25–43). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Johnson, T., Dandeker, C., & Ashworth, C. (1984). The structure of social theory. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan. google scholar
  • Kane, A. (2000). Narratives of nationalism: Constructing Irish national identity during the Land War, 1879–1882. National Identities, 2(3), 245–264. google scholar
  • Kim, M., & Schwartz, B. (2010). Northeast Asia’s difficult past: Essays in collective memory. New York, NY: Springer. google scholar
  • Kurakin, D. (2015). Reassembling the ambiguity of the sacred: A neglected inconsistency in readings of Durkheim. Journal of Classical Sociology, 15(4), 377–395. google scholar
  • Llobera, J. (1994). Durkheim and the national question. In W. Pickering & H. Martins (Eds.), Debating Durkheim (pp. 134–158). New York, NY: Routledge. google scholar
  • Lukes, S. (1973). Émile Durkheim: His life and work a historical and critical study. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. google scholar
  • Malczewski, E. (2013). Durkheim’s sui generis reality and the central subject matter of social science. Current Perspectives in Social Theory, 31, 161–175. google scholar
  • Malczewski, E. (2014). This is social science: A ‘patterned activity’ oriented to attaining objective knowledge of human society. The Journal of Classical Sociology, 14(4), 341–362. google scholar
  • Malczewski, E. (2015a). Émile Durkheim. In A. Smith, J. Stone, & R. Dennis (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity and Nationalism. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. google scholar
  • Malczewski, E. (2015b). On the centrality of action: Social science, historical logics, and Max Weber’s legacy. The Journal of Historical Sociology, 28(4), 523–547. google scholar
  • Malczewski, E. (2016). Materiality, iconic nature, and Albert Bierstadt’s ‘Great Pictures’. American Journal of Cultural Sociology, 4(3), 359–384. google scholar
  • Mellor, P. (2002). In defense of Durkheim: Sociology, the sacred and ‘society.’ Durkheimian Studies / Études Durkheimiennes, New Series, 8, 15–34. google scholar
  • Merton, R. (1934). Durkheim’s division of labor in society, American Journal of Sociology, 40, 319–328. google scholar
  • Merton, R. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review, 3, 672–682. google scholar
  • Mitchell, M. (1931). Émile Durkheim and the philosophy of nationalism. Political Science Quarterly, 46(1), 87–106. google scholar
  • Montesquieu, C. (1989). The spirit of the laws. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Morrison, K. (2001). The disavowal of the social in the American reception of Durkheim. The Journal of Classical Sociology, 1(May), 95–125. google scholar
  • Nakano, T. (2004). Theorising economic nationalism. Nations and Nationalism, 10(3), 211–229. google scholar
  • Nefes, T. (2013). Ziya Gökalp’s adaptation of Emile Durkheim’s sociology in his formulation of the modern Turkish nation. International Sociology, 28(3), 335–350. google scholar
  • Parsons, T. (1937). The structure of social action. New York, NY: Free Press. google scholar
  • Phillips, T. (1996). Symbolic boundaries and national identity in Australia. The British Journal of Sociology, 47(1), 113–134. google scholar
  • Ramp, W. (2008). Introduction: Durkheim redux. Journal of Classical Sociology, 8, 147–157. Riley, A. (2015). The social thought of Émile Durkheim. Los Angeles, LA: Sage. google scholar
  • Rose-Greenland, F. (2013). The Parthenon Marbles as icons of nationalism in nineteenth-century Britain. Nations and Nationalism, 19(4), 654–673. google scholar
  • Sandel, A. (2014). The place of prejudice: A case for reasoning within the world. Cambridge, UK: Harvard University Press. google scholar
  • Sandel, M. (1982). Liberalism and the limits of justice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Schmaus, W. (1994). Durkheim’s philosophy of science and the sociology of knowledge. Chicago, CA: The University of Chicago Press. google scholar
  • Schmaus, W. (2004). Rethinking Durkheim and his tradition. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Shils, E. (1957). Primordial, personal, sacred, and civil ties. The British Journal of Sociology, 7, 113–145. google scholar
  • Shils, E. (1995). Nation, nationality, nationalism, and civil society. Nations and Nationalism, 1(1), 93–118. google scholar
  • Smith, A. (1983). Nationalism and classical social theory. The British Journal of Sociology, 34(1), 19–38. Smith, A. (1986). The ethnic origins of nations. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. google scholar
  • Smith, A. (1991). National identity. London, UK: Penguin. google scholar
  • Smith, A. (1996). Opening statement: Nations and their pasts. Nations and Nationalism, 2(3), 358– 365. google scholar
  • Smith, A. (1998). Nationalism and modernism. London, UK: Routledge. Smith, A. (2002). What is a nation? Geopolitics, 7(2), 5–32. google scholar
  • Smith, A. (2014). The rites of nations: Elites, masses and the re-enactment of the “national past.” In R. Tsang & E. T. Woods (Eds.), The cultural politics of nationalism and nation-building (pp. 21–37). New York, NY: Routledge. google scholar
  • Smith, P., & Alexander, J. (2005). Introduction: The new Durkheim. In J. Alexander & P. Smith (Eds.), The Cambridge companion to Durkheim (pp. 183–210). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Tsang, R., & Woods, E.T. (Eds.). (2014). The cultural politics of nationalism and nation-building. New York, NY: Routledge. google scholar
  • Türkmen-Dervişoğlu, G. (2013). Coming to terms with a difficult past: The trauma of the assassination of Hrant Dink and its repercussions on Turkish national identity. Nations and Nationalism, 19(4), 674–692. google scholar
  • Turner, S. (1986). The search for a methodology of social science: Durkheim, Weber, and the Nineteenth-Century problem of cause, probability, and action. Dordrect, NL: Reidel. google scholar
  • Verdery, K. (1999). The political lives of dead bodies: Reburial and post-socialist change. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. google scholar
  • Walzer, M. (1983). Spheres of justice: a defense of pluralism and equality. New York, NY: Basic Books. google scholar
  • Woods, E. T., & Debs, M. (2013). Towards a cultural sociology of nations and nationalism. Nations and Nationalism, 19(4), 607–614. google scholar
  • Wyrtzen, J. (2013). Performing the nation in anti-colonial protest in interwar Morocco. Nations and Nationalism, 19(4), 615–634. google scholar
  • Zubrzycki, G. (2011). History and the national sensorium: Making sense of Polish mythology. Qualitative Sociology, 34(1), 21–57. google scholar

Atıflar

Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın


DIŞA AKTAR



APA

Malczewski, E. (2019). Durkheim and the Nation. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, 39(1), 41-64. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2019.39.1.0013


AMA

Malczewski E. Durkheim and the Nation. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi. 2019;39(1):41-64. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2019.39.1.0013


ABNT

Malczewski, E. Durkheim and the Nation. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, [Publisher Location], v. 39, n. 1, p. 41-64, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Malczewski, Eric,. 2019. “Durkheim and the Nation.” İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi 39, no. 1: 41-64. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2019.39.1.0013


Chicago: Humanities Style

Malczewski, Eric,. Durkheim and the Nation.” İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi 39, no. 1 (Jul. 2021): 41-64. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2019.39.1.0013


Harvard: Australian Style

Malczewski, E 2019, 'Durkheim and the Nation', İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 41-64, viewed 25 Jul. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2019.39.1.0013


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Malczewski, E. (2019) ‘Durkheim and the Nation’, İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, 39(1), pp. 41-64. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2019.39.1.0013 (25 Jul. 2021).


MLA

Malczewski, Eric,. Durkheim and the Nation.” İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, vol. 39, no. 1, 2019, pp. 41-64. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2019.39.1.0013


Vancouver

Malczewski E. Durkheim and the Nation. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi [Internet]. 25 Jul. 2021 [cited 25 Jul. 2021];39(1):41-64. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2019.39.1.0013 doi: 10.26650/SJ.2019.39.1.0013


ISNAD

Malczewski, Eric. Durkheim and the Nation”. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi 39/1 (Jul. 2021): 41-64. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2019.39.1.0013



ZAMAN ÇİZELGESİ


Gönderim14.05.2018
Son Revizyon28.10.2018
Kabul04.11.2018

LİSANS


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


PAYLAŞ




İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.