Araştırma Makalesi


DOI :10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071   IUP :10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071    Tam Metin (PDF)

Sosyal İlişkiler Ölçeği’nin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik Özellikleri

Mehmet Fatih KöseMehmet Ata ÖztürkAyşegül Acar

Bu araştırma, bireyin sosyal ilişkilerinin kapsamını ve yakınlığını bütüncül olarak değerlendirmeye yönelik geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı geliştirmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Kişilerarası ilişkiler ya da sosyal ilişkiler alanyazınında yoğun olarak ilişki tarzlarına ve unsurlarına odaklanan çalışmaların öne çıktığı görülmektedir. Sosyal ilişkilerin ölçümünde ise aile, arkadaşlık, okul ilişkileri gibi özel ve dar alanlara odaklı ölçek çalışmaları dikkat çekmektedir. Dolayısıyla sosyal ilişkilerin kapsamının ve yakınlığının tüm kişisel ve sosyal ilişki alanlarını içerecek bütüncül bir modelle değerlendirilmesine yönelik bir ölçek çalışmasının alanyazına önemli bir katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmüştür. Buna göre araştırma bir ölçek geliştirme çalışması olarak tasarlanmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 973 üniversite öğrencisi ve 1158 25-29 yaş arası genç oluşturmuştur. Ölçeğin yapısal özelliklerini değerlendirmek üzere açımlayıcı (AFA) ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) yapılmıştır. AFA sonuçları, sosyal ilişkilerin; aile, akraba/komşu ve arkadaş ilişkileri olmak üzere üç temel boyutta değerlendirilebileceğini göstermektedir. DFA sonuçları ise üç faktörlü yapının hem üniversite öğrencileri grubu için [x 2 /sd=5.02; RMSEA=.06; GFI=.97; CFI=.95; NFI=.94], hem de 25-29 yaş grubundaki gençler için [x 2 /sd=5.09; RMSEA=.06; GFI=.98; CFI=.97; NFI=.96] kabul edilebilir bir model uyumu gösterdiğini ortaya koymaktadır. İç tutarlılık katsayıları ölçeğin tümü için .79, alt boyutlar için sırası ile .73, .74 ve .67 bulunmuştur.

DOI :10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071   IUP :10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071    Tam Metin (PDF)

Development and Psychometric Properties of the Social Relationship Scale

Mehmet Fatih KöseMehmet Ata ÖztürkAyşegül Acar

This study seeks to develop a valid, reliable metric for holistically measuring the scope and depth of interpersonal social relations. Several studies are found in the literature to have focused on interpersonal and social relations and the components making up these relations. Because numerous scales are encountered focusing mainly on the private sphere such as relationships between friends and family members and on closed environments such as relationship that occur in school, an excellent contribution to the literature would be a study that seeks to develop a scale able to holistically evaluate the scope and depth of social relations that takes into account all personal and social spheres. The research group consists of 973 university students and 1,158 young adults aged 25–29. We conducted both exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to determine the scale’s structural properties. The EFA results reveal social relations to be evaluable under three subdimensions (i.e., family, kinship/neighborhood relations, and friendship). The CFA confirmed the scale to be composed of three factors and to have acceptable fit for use with both university students (x 2 /df = 5.02; RMSEA = .06; GFI = .97; CFI = .95; NFI = .94) and young adults aged 25–29 (x 2 /df = 5.09; RMSEA = .06; GFI = .98; CFI = .97; NFI = .96). Internal consistency values were found to be .79 for the entire scale and .73, .74, and .67 for the respective subdimensions. The study’s results provide robust evidence that the Social Relations Scale is a valid and reliable scale for measuring the scope and depth of the social relations university students and young adults build.


GENİŞLETİLMİŞ ÖZET


This study seeks to develop a valid, reliable metric for holistically measuring the scope and depth of interpersonal social relations.

Interpersonal relations constitute an important field of study in modern social psychology. Humans are social creatures who interact with their environment through various means. The quality of these interactions also impacts other aspects of human life. According to Leary (2004), 20th-century studies delving into human nature shifted their focus from the individual self to one’s relationships with others. Humans have an innate need to form intimate relations with others and are able to satisfy their basic needs and perpetuate their existence through these relations (Bilgin, 2003). Humans interact and build relationships with others for various reasons such as needing to love and be loved, satisfying physical and social needs, achieving a sense of belonging, minimizing fear and anxiety through cohabitation, relieving loneliness, and developing personal identity (Adler & Towne, 1996).

The relations people establish with their environment and the types of interpersonal relations in which they are involved are important predictors of their quality of life and life satisfaction levels at the individual level (Tunç & Kaygas, 2016). Understanding this reveals the importance of evaluating the scope and depth of the relations individuals have with their immediate and wider surroundings, as doing so will shed light on two fundamental components of what makes one human: quality of life and life satisfaction.

Just as social relations can be evaluated using comprehensive scales, so can they also be scrutinized using a few items. Studies in the literature even exist in which social relations are evaluated with one single question (i.e., how often does one meet up with friends, relatives, or coworkers?; Güler & Gül, 2021; European Social Survey [ESS], 2018). A study conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 2020) examining social relations looked at life satisfaction in this way. OECD’s study addressed social support, time spent engaged in social interactions, and satisfaction with interpersonal relations all through one question each. Social interaction is a quality-of-life indicator as prepared by Eurostat (2018) and comprises such elements as social support, interpersonal relations, and satisfaction with these relations. Studies on social interaction evaluate social interaction levels by measuring how often one meets up with family, relatives, and friends.

A large number of studies are found in the literature focusing on relation styles and components when evaluating interpersonal or social relations. Likewise, numerous scales are found to have focused mainly on the private sphere, such as the relationships between friends and family members or in closed environments such as the relationships that occur in school. Accordingly, a study seeking to develop a scale able to holistically evaluate the scope and depth of social relations that takes into account all personal and social spheres would make an excellent contribution to the literature. As such, this scale development study has been designed to take into account all the social relations an individual has with family members, close and distant relatives, neighbors, circles of friends, and social groups as well as with society at large. Given the importance afforded to relatives and neighbors in Turkish culture, the current study noteworthily includes these in its scope. As such, the basic aim of this study is to develop a usable metric for determining how individuals perceive the scope and depth of their social relations.

The scale’s developmental phase first surveyed the scales present in the literature that are used to evaluate interpersonal and social relations, after which the components of social relations were determined that the scale should incorporate. The scale consists of 23 items dealing with the individuals or groups with whom the respondent considers to be in close contact. The item pool was developed after organizing and realizing a focus group composed of 12 field experts in the educational sciences, sociology, psychology, and educational assessment. After the focus group, the group of experts decided that a 10-item form should be used for substantiating the scale’s content validity. As a result, a data collection study was implemented over university students and young adults aged 25–29 in order to examine the draft scale’s psychometric properties. EFA and CFA were conducted to examine the scale’s structural properties. After conducting the EFA on all the data sets to identify the scale’s structural properties, the scale’s validity and reliability were tested separately for university students and for young adults aged 25–29.

This study was conducted with two separate research groups. Differences in developmental stages, knowledge, skills, perceptions, attitudes, and values require the scale’s validity and reliability to be tested individually for each group and their psychometric properties to be substantiated separately. Two separate groups composed of individuals at different developmental stages were formed to test psychometric adequacy for the scale’s usability with other age groups. The first group was comprised of 973 university students, whereas the second was composed of 1,158 young adults between the ages of 25 and 29 years. 

The study’s data collection phase was performed online due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. After testing the assumptions necessary for analyzing the data, the EFA and CFA were performed to test the scale’s structural properties. After conducting the EFA to ascertain the scale’s structure, no need was found to make any changes to the items contained in the scale. The CFA was then conducted on the same data set to confirm the scale’s structure, after which Cronbach’s alpha was calculated and the correlation values between the scale’s subdimensions were ascertained to examine the scale’s reliability. 


PDF Görünüm

Referanslar

  • Adler, R. B., & Towne, N. (1996). Looking out looking in. Harcourt Brace College Publishers. google scholar
  • Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. N. (2015). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Psychology Press. google scholar
  • Bilgin, N. (2003). Sosyal psikolojiye giriş. Ege Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayınları. google scholar
  • Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. Basic Books. google scholar
  • Budak, B. (1999). Çocukluk çağı lösemileri ve sosyal destek sistemlerinin aile işlevlerine etkisi (Doctoral dissertation). Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Samsun, Turkey. google scholar
  • Bugental, D. B. (2000). Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: A domain-based approach. Psychological Bulletin, 126,187-219. google scholar
  • Bukowski, W. M., Hoza, B., & Boivin, M. (1994). Measuring friendship quality during pre- and early adolescence: The development and psychometric properties of the Friendship Qualities Scale, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11, 471-484. google scholar
  • Bulut, I.(1990). Aile değerlendirme ölçeği (ADÖ) el kitabı. Özgüzeliş Matbaası. google scholar
  • Büyükşahin, A. (2005). Çok boyutlu ilişki ölçeği: Geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışması. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 16(2), 97-105. google scholar
  • Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38(5), 300-314. google scholar
  • Coşkun, Y. (2009). Ortaöğretim öğrencilerinin öğrenilmiş güçlülükleri ve aile içi ilişkiler. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 18(2), 102-118. google scholar
  • Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2014). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik: SPSS ve LISREL uygulamaları. Pegem. google scholar
  • Dubow, E. F., & Tisak, J. (1989). The relation between stressful life events and adjustment in elementary school children: The role of social support and social problem-solving skills. Child Development, 60(6), 1412-1423. google scholar
  • Duyan, V., Gelbal, S., & Var, E. Ç. (2013). Sosyal ilişki unsurları ölçeğinin türkçeye uyarlama çalışması. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 44, 159-169. google scholar
  • Ekşi, H., Erkilet, A., Otrar, M., Durmuş, A., Erdoğan, A., Kılınç, C., & Gökçek, Y. Z. (2010). Medya profesyonellerinin ve medyanın aile algısı. ASAGEM. google scholar
  • Erikson, E. H., & Erikson, J. M. (1998). The life cycle completed. W. W. Norton & Company. google scholar
  • European Social Survey. (2018). ESS9-2018 Documantation Report. Retrieved from: https://www. europeansocialsurvey.org/docs/round9/survey/ESS9_data_documentation_report_e03_1.pdf google scholar
  • Eurostat. (2018). Quality of life indicators - social interactions. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa. eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Quality_of_life_indicators-social_ interactions#Being_in_contact_with family.2C_relatives_and _friends google scholar
  • Eurostat. (2021). Youth-overview. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/youth. E.T. 23.11.2021 google scholar
  • Ferguson, S., Duffy, A., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Laursen, B. (2019). The Adolescent Friendship Structure Inventory (AFSI): A review and empirical consolidation of existing measures. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 16(6), 654-665. google scholar
  • Field, A., (2017). Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS statistics. Sage Publications. google scholar
  • Gefen, D., Straub, D. W., & Boudreau, M. (2000). Structural equation modeling and regression: Guidelines for research practice. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 4(7), 1-78. google scholar
  • Güler, A., & Gül, S. (2021). Sosyoekonomik faktörler, sosyal ilişki, mutluluk ve yaşam memnuniyeti arasındaki ilişki: 2018 Avrupa sosyal anketinden bulgular. Sosyoekonomi, 29(49), 293-306. google scholar
  • Hamarta, E. (2002). Bağlanma teorisi ve yetişkin ilişkilerinde bağlanma. Eğitime Yeni Bakışlar. Mikro. google scholar
  • Hasta, D., & Güler, M. E. (2013). Saldırganlık: Kişilerarası ilişki tarzları ve empati açısından bir inceleme. Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 4(1), 64-104. google scholar
  • Heider, F. (2013). The psychology of interpersonal relations. Psychology Press. google scholar
  • İmamoğlu, S. (2008). Genç yetişkinlikte kişilerarası ilişkilerin cinsiyet, cinsiyet rolleri ve yalnızlık algısı açısından incelenmesi (Doctoral dissertation). Marmara Üniversitesi, İstanbul, Turkey. google scholar
  • İmamoğlu, S., & Aydın, B. (2009). Kişilerarası ilişki boyutları ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi. Psikoloji Çalışmaları Dergisi, 29, 39-64. google scholar
  • Kaya, A. (2017). Kişilerarası ilişkiler ve etkili iletişim. Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Leary, T. (2004). Interpersonal diagnosis of personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation. Wipf and Stock Publishers.LaFollette, H. (1995). Personal relationships: Love, identity and morality. Wiley & Sons. google scholar
  • Lorr, M., & Knight, L. A. (1986). A short form of the Interpersonal Style Inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 446-469. google scholar
  • Malecki, C., & Demaray, M. K. (2002). Measuring perceived social support: Development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale. Psychology in the Schools, 39(1), 1-18. google scholar
  • McDonald, R. P., & Ho, R. H. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological Methods, 7, 64-82. google scholar
  • Mikucka, M., & Rizzi, E. (2016). Does it take a village to raise a child? The buffering effect of relationships with relatives for parental life satisfaction. Demographic Research, 34, 943-994. google scholar
  • Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. The Guilford. google scholar
  • Moos, R. H., Insel, P. M., & Humphrey, B. (1974). Preliminary manual for Family Environment Scale, Work Environment Scale, Group Environment Scale. Consulting Psychologists Press. google scholar
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2018). Social and emotional skills well-being, connectedness and success. Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/education/school/ UPDATED%20Social%20and%20Emotional%20Skills%20-%20Wellbeing,%20 connectedness%20and%20successpdf%20 google scholar
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2020). How’s life? 2020: Measuring well-being: Social connections. Retrieved from: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/how-s-life-2020_b2090ea8-en#page1 google scholar
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2021). Beyond academic learning: First results from the survey of social and emotional skills. Retrieved from: https://www. oecd.org/education/ceri/social-emotional-skills-study/beyond-academic-learning-92a11084-en.htm google scholar
  • Özdamar, K. (2016). Ölçek ve test geliştirme yapısal eşitlik modellemesi. Nisan Kitabevi. google scholar
  • Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 611-621. google scholar
  • Plutchik, R. (1997). The circumplex as a general model of the structure of emotions and personality. American Psychological Association. google scholar
  • Simone, M., Geiser, C., & Lockhart, G. (2020). Development and validation of the multicontextual interpersonal relations scale (MIRS). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 36(1), 84-95. google scholar
  • Smilkstein, G. (1978). The Family APGAR: A proposal for family function test and its use by physicians. The Journal of Family Practice, 6(6), 1231-1239. google scholar
  • Snell, W. E., Schicke, M., & Arbeiter, T. (2002) The Multidimensional Relationship Questionnaire: Psychological dispositions associated with intimate relations. In W. E. Snell, Jr. (Ed.), New directions in the psychology of intimate relations: Research and theory. Snell Publications. google scholar
  • Şahin, N., Durak, A., & Yasak, İ. (1995). Kişilerarası ilişkiler ölçeği geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. VIII. Ulusal Psikoloji Kongresi [8th National Congress on Psychology], İzmir, Turkey. google scholar
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidel, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Pearson. google scholar
  • Tinsley, H. E., & Tinsley, D. J. (1987). Uses of factor analysis in counseling psychology research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34(4), 414-424. google scholar
  • Tunç, E., & Kaygas, Y. (2016). Eğitim fakültesi öğrencilerinin kişilerarası ilişki tarzları ve psikolojik eğilimlerinin incelenmesi. Uşak Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 9(1), 53-78. google scholar
  • Turner, R. J., Frankel, B. G., & Levin, D. M. (1983). Social support: Conceptualization, measurement, and implications for mental health. Research in Community & Mental Health, 3, 67-111. google scholar
  • Turkish Statistical Institute. (2021). İstatistiklerle gençlik, 2020, Haber bülteni, No: 37242. Retrieved from: https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Istatistiklerle-Genclik-2020-37242 google scholar
  • Yıldırım, A. (1997). Gender role influences on Turkish adolescents’ self-identity. Adolescence, 32(125), 217. google scholar
  • Yıldırım, İ. (2006). Akademik başarının yordayıcısı olarak gündelik sıkıntılar ve sosyal destek. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 30, 258-267. google scholar
  • Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N., & Zimet. S. D. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 30-41. google scholar

Atıflar

Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın


DIŞA AKTAR



APA

Köse, M.F., Öztürk, M.A., & Acar, A. (2022). Sosyal İlişkiler Ölçeği’nin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik Özellikleri. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, 42(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071


AMA

Köse M F, Öztürk M A, Acar A. Sosyal İlişkiler Ölçeği’nin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik Özellikleri. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi. 2022;42(1):1-20. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071


ABNT

Köse, M.F.; Öztürk, M.A.; Acar, A. Sosyal İlişkiler Ölçeği’nin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik Özellikleri. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, [Publisher Location], v. 42, n. 1, p. 1-20, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Köse, Mehmet Fatih, and Mehmet Ata Öztürk and Ayşegül Acar. 2022. “Sosyal İlişkiler Ölçeği’nin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik Özellikleri.” İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi 42, no. 1: 1-20. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071


Chicago: Humanities Style

Köse, Mehmet Fatih, and Mehmet Ata Öztürk and Ayşegül Acar. Sosyal İlişkiler Ölçeği’nin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik Özellikleri.” İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi 42, no. 1 (Dec. 2022): 1-20. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071


Harvard: Australian Style

Köse, MF & Öztürk, MA & Acar, A 2022, 'Sosyal İlişkiler Ölçeği’nin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik Özellikleri', İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1-20, viewed 7 Dec. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Köse, M.F. and Öztürk, M.A. and Acar, A. (2022) ‘Sosyal İlişkiler Ölçeği’nin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik Özellikleri’, İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, 42(1), pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071 (7 Dec. 2022).


MLA

Köse, Mehmet Fatih, and Mehmet Ata Öztürk and Ayşegül Acar. Sosyal İlişkiler Ölçeği’nin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik Özellikleri.” İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, vol. 42, no. 1, 2022, pp. 1-20. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071


Vancouver

Köse MF, Öztürk MA, Acar A. Sosyal İlişkiler Ölçeği’nin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik Özellikleri. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi [Internet]. 7 Dec. 2022 [cited 7 Dec. 2022];42(1):1-20. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071 doi: 10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071


ISNAD

Köse, MehmetFatih - Öztürk, MehmetAta - Acar, Ayşegül. Sosyal İlişkiler Ölçeği’nin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik Özellikleri”. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi 42/1 (Dec. 2022): 1-20. https://doi.org/10.26650/SJ.2022.42.1.0071



ZAMAN ÇİZELGESİ


Gönderim14.12.2021
Kabul13.02.2022
Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma30.03.2022

LİSANS


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


PAYLAŞ




İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.