Sosyal İlişkiler Ölçeği’nin Geliştirilmesi ve Psikometrik ÖzellikleriMehmet Fatih Köse, Mehmet Ata Öztürk, Ayşegül Acar
Bu araştırma, bireyin sosyal ilişkilerinin kapsamını ve yakınlığını bütüncül olarak değerlendirmeye yönelik geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı geliştirmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Kişilerarası ilişkiler ya da sosyal ilişkiler alanyazınında yoğun olarak ilişki tarzlarına ve unsurlarına odaklanan çalışmaların öne çıktığı görülmektedir. Sosyal ilişkilerin ölçümünde ise aile, arkadaşlık, okul ilişkileri gibi özel ve dar alanlara odaklı ölçek çalışmaları dikkat çekmektedir. Dolayısıyla sosyal ilişkilerin kapsamının ve yakınlığının tüm kişisel ve sosyal ilişki alanlarını içerecek bütüncül bir modelle değerlendirilmesine yönelik bir ölçek çalışmasının alanyazına önemli bir katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmüştür. Buna göre araştırma bir ölçek geliştirme çalışması olarak tasarlanmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 973 üniversite öğrencisi ve 1158 25-29 yaş arası genç oluşturmuştur. Ölçeğin yapısal özelliklerini değerlendirmek üzere açımlayıcı (AFA) ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) yapılmıştır. AFA sonuçları, sosyal ilişkilerin; aile, akraba/komşu ve arkadaş ilişkileri olmak üzere üç temel boyutta değerlendirilebileceğini göstermektedir. DFA sonuçları ise üç faktörlü yapının hem üniversite öğrencileri grubu için [x 2 /sd=5.02; RMSEA=.06; GFI=.97; CFI=.95; NFI=.94], hem de 25-29 yaş grubundaki gençler için [x 2 /sd=5.09; RMSEA=.06; GFI=.98; CFI=.97; NFI=.96] kabul edilebilir bir model uyumu gösterdiğini ortaya koymaktadır. İç tutarlılık katsayıları ölçeğin tümü için .79, alt boyutlar için sırası ile .73, .74 ve .67 bulunmuştur.
Development and Psychometric Properties of the Social Relationship ScaleMehmet Fatih Köse, Mehmet Ata Öztürk, Ayşegül Acar
This study seeks to develop a valid, reliable metric for holistically measuring the scope and depth of interpersonal social relations. Several studies are found in the literature to have focused on interpersonal and social relations and the components making up these relations. Because numerous scales are encountered focusing mainly on the private sphere such as relationships between friends and family members and on closed environments such as relationship that occur in school, an excellent contribution to the literature would be a study that seeks to develop a scale able to holistically evaluate the scope and depth of social relations that takes into account all personal and social spheres. The research group consists of 973 university students and 1,158 young adults aged 25–29. We conducted both exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to determine the scale’s structural properties. The EFA results reveal social relations to be evaluable under three subdimensions (i.e., family, kinship/neighborhood relations, and friendship). The CFA confirmed the scale to be composed of three factors and to have acceptable fit for use with both university students (x 2 /df = 5.02; RMSEA = .06; GFI = .97; CFI = .95; NFI = .94) and young adults aged 25–29 (x 2 /df = 5.09; RMSEA = .06; GFI = .98; CFI = .97; NFI = .96). Internal consistency values were found to be .79 for the entire scale and .73, .74, and .67 for the respective subdimensions. The study’s results provide robust evidence that the Social Relations Scale is a valid and reliable scale for measuring the scope and depth of the social relations university students and young adults build.
This study seeks to develop a valid, reliable metric for holistically measuring the scope and depth of interpersonal social relations.
Interpersonal relations constitute an important field of study in modern social psychology. Humans are social creatures who interact with their environment through various means. The quality of these interactions also impacts other aspects of human life. According to Leary (2004), 20th-century studies delving into human nature shifted their focus from the individual self to one’s relationships with others. Humans have an innate need to form intimate relations with others and are able to satisfy their basic needs and perpetuate their existence through these relations (Bilgin, 2003). Humans interact and build relationships with others for various reasons such as needing to love and be loved, satisfying physical and social needs, achieving a sense of belonging, minimizing fear and anxiety through cohabitation, relieving loneliness, and developing personal identity (Adler & Towne, 1996).
The relations people establish with their environment and the types of interpersonal relations in which they are involved are important predictors of their quality of life and life satisfaction levels at the individual level (Tunç & Kaygas, 2016). Understanding this reveals the importance of evaluating the scope and depth of the relations individuals have with their immediate and wider surroundings, as doing so will shed light on two fundamental components of what makes one human: quality of life and life satisfaction.
Just as social relations can be evaluated using comprehensive scales, so can they also be scrutinized using a few items. Studies in the literature even exist in which social relations are evaluated with one single question (i.e., how often does one meet up with friends, relatives, or coworkers?; Güler & Gül, 2021; European Social Survey [ESS], 2018). A study conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 2020) examining social relations looked at life satisfaction in this way. OECD’s study addressed social support, time spent engaged in social interactions, and satisfaction with interpersonal relations all through one question each. Social interaction is a quality-of-life indicator as prepared by Eurostat (2018) and comprises such elements as social support, interpersonal relations, and satisfaction with these relations. Studies on social interaction evaluate social interaction levels by measuring how often one meets up with family, relatives, and friends.
A large number of studies are found in the literature focusing on relation styles and components when evaluating interpersonal or social relations. Likewise, numerous scales are found to have focused mainly on the private sphere, such as the relationships between friends and family members or in closed environments such as the relationships that occur in school. Accordingly, a study seeking to develop a scale able to holistically evaluate the scope and depth of social relations that takes into account all personal and social spheres would make an excellent contribution to the literature. As such, this scale development study has been designed to take into account all the social relations an individual has with family members, close and distant relatives, neighbors, circles of friends, and social groups as well as with society at large. Given the importance afforded to relatives and neighbors in Turkish culture, the current study noteworthily includes these in its scope. As such, the basic aim of this study is to develop a usable metric for determining how individuals perceive the scope and depth of their social relations.
The scale’s developmental phase first surveyed the scales present in the literature that are used to evaluate interpersonal and social relations, after which the components of social relations were determined that the scale should incorporate. The scale consists of 23 items dealing with the individuals or groups with whom the respondent considers to be in close contact. The item pool was developed after organizing and realizing a focus group composed of 12 field experts in the educational sciences, sociology, psychology, and educational assessment. After the focus group, the group of experts decided that a 10-item form should be used for substantiating the scale’s content validity. As a result, a data collection study was implemented over university students and young adults aged 25–29 in order to examine the draft scale’s psychometric properties. EFA and CFA were conducted to examine the scale’s structural properties. After conducting the EFA on all the data sets to identify the scale’s structural properties, the scale’s validity and reliability were tested separately for university students and for young adults aged 25–29.
This study was conducted with two separate research groups. Differences in developmental stages, knowledge, skills, perceptions, attitudes, and values require the scale’s validity and reliability to be tested individually for each group and their psychometric properties to be substantiated separately. Two separate groups composed of individuals at different developmental stages were formed to test psychometric adequacy for the scale’s usability with other age groups. The first group was comprised of 973 university students, whereas the second was composed of 1,158 young adults between the ages of 25 and 29 years.
The study’s data collection phase was performed online due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. After testing the assumptions necessary for analyzing the data, the EFA and CFA were performed to test the scale’s structural properties. After conducting the EFA to ascertain the scale’s structure, no need was found to make any changes to the items contained in the scale. The CFA was then conducted on the same data set to confirm the scale’s structure, after which Cronbach’s alpha was calculated and the correlation values between the scale’s subdimensions were ascertained to examine the scale’s reliability.