Toplumsal Yük ve Kariyer: Konaklama Sektöründeki Kadın Yöneticilerin Kariyer Gelişimlerini Etkileyen Toplumsal Cinsiyet Faktörlerinin AnaliziAslı Ersoy, Vesile Rüya Ehtiyar
Bu çalışmanın temel amacı konaklama işletmelerinde çeşitli yönetsel pozisyonlarda görev yapan kadın yöneticilerin toplumsal cinsiyet düşünce ve algılarının kariyer süreçleri üzerindeki etkisini bulgulamak ve bu süreçte yaşadıkları deneyimleri ve zorlukları cinsiyet temelinde ortaya koymaktır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda Antalya İl merkezinde konaklama işletmelerinde çeşitli pozisyonlarda görev yapan 14 kadın yönetici kolay ulaşılabilir durum örneklemesi yoluyla seçilmiştir. Araştırma verilerinin toplanmasında derinlemesine görüşme tekniği ve yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formundan yararlanılmıştır. Çalışma nitel araştırma desenlerinden biri olan olgubilim deseni kapsamında yürütülmüştür. Araştırma verilerinin analizinde içerik analiz tekniğinden yararlanılmış ve veri analiz sürecinde QSR NVivo 10 programı kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın analizleri sonucunda; Türkiye’de kadının kariyer yapması konusundaki görüşler, sektörde kadının kariyer yapmasını zorlaştıran faktörler, kadınların sektördeki zorluklarla başa çıkma davranışları, kadının kariyer yapmasını kolaylaştıran faktörler ve kadın erkek fırsat eşitliği konusundaki görüşler olmak üzere 5 adet kategori ve 28 adet kavramsal kod elde edilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler bütüncül olarak değerlendirildiğinde toplumsal cinsiyet rolünün kadın yöneticilerin kariyer süreçlerinde etkili olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Buna rağmen kadınların çoklu rolleri yürütebilme konusunda beceriye sahip oldukları, tüm bu zorluk ve engellere rağmen vazgeçmeyerek kariyerlerinde ilerlemeyi tercih ettikleri ve bu anlamda mücadele ettikleri elde edilen sonuçlar arasındadır.
Social Load and Career: An Analysis of Gendered Factors Affecting the Career Progression of Female Managers in the Hospitality IndustryAslı Ersoy, Vesile Rüya Ehtiyar
This study aims to discover the effect of gender-related thoughts and perceptions of female managers in the hospitality industry on their career progression and to uncover the experiences and difficulties that gender perceptions cause them during their careers. For this purpose, we used convenience sampling to select 14 female managers who were employed in various positions at hospitality businesses operating in central Antalya. In-depth interview technique and semi-structured interview form were used to collect the research data. The study was conducted within the scope of phenomenological design, which is one of the qualitative research designs. The content analysis technique and QSR NVivo 10 qualitative analysis software program were used to analyze the research data. In the research, the following five categories were determined: opinions on career opportunities for women in Turkey, factors hindering women’s career advancement in the hospitality industry, behavioral methods of coping with industry-related challenges for women, factors facilitating women’s career development, and opinions on the equality of opportunity between men and women. Based on the five aforementioned categories, 28 conceptual codes were obtained. When the obtained data was evaluated as a whole, we could conclude that gender roles affect the career processes of female managers. Nevertheless, the research determined that women can fulfill multiple roles, they do not prefer giving up despite all the difficulties and obstacles, and they prefer to progress and struggle in their careers.
Gender stereotypes are made up of various components. Among these components are the beliefs that members of each gender have shared traits and should fulfill certain role behaviors and have a certain physical appearance. Furthermore, gender stereotypes hold that members of each gender should have certain beliefs and some occupations are more suitable for one gender than the other (Deaux and Lewis, 1984, p. 992). Although women have served in supervisory and managerial positions in the last two decades, they still often work as waitrons, tailors, nurses, teachers, and civil servants (Lloyd-Fore, 1988, p. 9). Evidently, gender-based thoughts and perceptions cause some professions to be categorized as “male professions” and “female professions” (Tekin and Gençer, 2016, p. 496). Although there are a significant number of female managers in the hospitality sector following its expansion in recent years, many factors prevent women from reaching senior managerial positions (Li and Leung, 2001, p. 189). The biggest organizational problem faced by working women is the so-called glass ceiling, an invisible barrier, which prevents women from rising to the highest level of management (Gini, 2001, p. 97-98). All of the above serve to illustrate the fact that gender roles and stereotypes affect women’s access to jobs. With this in mind, this study aims to determine the role of gender-based thoughts and perceptions on female managers working in various management positions in the hospitality industry and to reveal their experiences and the difficulties they face.
This study uses phenomenology, which is a qualitative research pattern. We chose phenomenology to reveal how the experiences of female managers were formed. This study focuses on how female managers working in various positions in the hospitality industry make sense of their career progression experiences. We selected participants using convenience sampling, which is a purposeful sampling method. In the study, the average age of the 14 study participants was 38 years. Among the participants, two had high school degrees, one had an associate’s degree, ten were university graduates, and one had a master’s degree. The participants were employed as one of the following: housekeeping managers, human resources managers, sales and marketing managers, accounting managers, garden managers, wellness spa managers, and general managers. The working period of the participants in their respective organizations varied between 10 months and 14 years, and in the tourism sector, it varied between 18 months and 30 years. To obtain research data, in-depth and semi-structured interviews, which are qualitative data collection techniques, were used. Audio recordings of the interviews were made with the participants’ permission. The interviews continued until data saturation was achieved. Theoretical saturation was achieved after all the 14 participants were interviewed. The average time of each interview was 30 minutes. The content analysis technique was used to analyze the data obtained from the participants. Direct quotations reflecting the participants’ views on the subject were included. Each participant was given a code, which was between K1 and K14 and had a similar pattern. The QSR NVivo 10 package program was used to assist in the determination of the codes and categories. Five categories and 28 codes defining these categories were obtained through analysis. These codes and categories were then arranged and the findings interpreted. The five categories that emerged are as follows: opinions on career opportunities for women in Turkey, factors hindering women’s career advancement in the hospitality sector, behavioral methods of coping with industry-related challenges for women, factors facilitating women’s career development, and opinions of the participants on the equality of opportunity between men and women. In conclusion, although the multiple roles that women fulfill, their family and social responsibilities, and work/family conflicts all appear to be factors that make it difficult for women to progress in their careers, social prejudice, pressure from spouses and family, and gender discrimination in career planning emerged as the important factors that prevent women from reaching senior management positions. However, we also found out that women can carry out multiple roles and try to progress in their careers despite all these difficulties and obstacles.