Turizmin Sürdürülebilir Gelişiminde Yerel Halkın Davranışsal Rolü, Çevresel Tutumu ve Verdiği Destek Arasındaki İlişki: Alanya ÖrneğiFurkan Baltacı
Bu çalışmanın amacı, bir turizm destinasyonunun sürdürülebilir gelişim sürecinde yerel halkın davranışsal rolünü ve bu role etki eden faktörleri belirlemektir. Bu kapsamda ulusal ve uluslararası alanda önemli bir kitle turizm destinasyonu olan Alanya’da yaşayan 18 yaş ve üzeri yerel halk çalışmanın evreni olarak belirlenmiştir. İhtiyaç duyulan birincil veriler oluşturulan anket formları aracılığıyla elde edilmiştir. Toplamda 450 yerel halka ulaşılmış ve bu kişilerle birebir anket uygulaması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yapılan faktör analizi sonucunda, yerel hakın çevresel tutumlarını ölçmeye yönelik 20 madde iki boyut altında toplanmıştır. Bunlar ekosentrik tutum ve antroposentrik tutum olarak adlandırılmıştır. Davranışsal rol ölçeğini oluşturan 24 madde dört boyut altında toplanmıştır. Bunlar ekonomik rol, sosyal rol, kültürel rol ve çevresel rol olarak adlandırılmıştır. Yerel halkın sürdürülebilir turizm gelişimine verdiği destek 6 madde ile ölçülmüştür. Ölçeği oluşturan altı madde tek boyut altında değerlendirilmiş ve analizler bu boyut üzerinden yürütülmüştür. Araştırma sonucunda yerel halkın çevresel tutumlarının, davranışsal rolleri üzerinde etkili olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca yerel halk, Alanya’da sürdürülebilir turizm gelişimini de (STG) desteklemektedir. Yerel halkın davranışsal rollerini sergileme derecesi ve çevreye yönelik tutumlarının bir model dahilinde sürdürülebilir turizm gelişim sürecine verdikleri destek üzerinde etkili olduğu görülmüştür.
The Relationship Between The Environmental Attitude, Behavioral Role And Support Of The Local Resident In Sustainable Development Of Tourism: The Example Of AlanyaFurkan Baltacı
The aim of this study is to determine the behavioral role of local people in the sustainable development process of a tourism destination and the affecting factors of this role. In this context, local residents living in Alanya, which is an important mass tourism destination both nationally and internationally, have been determined as the population of this study. A total of 450 local people were reached and a one-to-one survey was conducted with them. As a result of the analysis, the environmental attitudes of the local right are divided into two dimensions, ecocentric and anthropocentric. The items in the behavioral role scale are gathered under four dimensions. These are economic roles, social roles, cultural roles and environmental roles. The six items that local people support to sustain tourism development are evaluated under one dimension. According to the results, the variables affecting the behavioral role of the local people were determined as their environmental attitudes. Local residents also support sustainable tourism development in Alanya. The behavioral roles and environmental attitudes of local people predict their support for sustainable tourism development processes within a model.
One of the most important stakeholders in a tourism destination is local people. Local people are shown as key stakeholders of this process in many studies. The tolerance and acceptance of the local people is the basic element in the start of tourism activities in a region. In addition, local residents are constantly staying in tourism destinations and using tourism resources. Therefore, the local people should act with a protective and responsible thought. Some typologies have been developed in studies on local people. These are typologies based on consulting the local people in the tourism development process. In other words, they represent the cognitive dimension, not the behavioral dimension. There is a deficiency in the literature on this subject. These typologies do not respond to “how the local people should behave?”. To eliminate this shortcoming in the literature is the main purpose of this study. Thus, a role model and behavioral role scale will be developed for the local people.
Method & Hypotheses
In this study, quantitative research methods were used. Within the scope of the study, three basic research questions were identified. The first of these is “what are the dimensions of the behavioral roles of the local people?” The second is “are there any variables that affect local people’s behavioural roles?”. The last of them is “does the local people’s behavioral role affect their support for sustainable tourism development?”. In order to find answers to these questions, a study was conducted on the local residents living in the destination. Explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis were performed with three scales on questionnaire form. The structural equation model was performed with a total of seven dimensions of the three scales. Thus, the research hypotheses were tested.
Findings & Conclusion
In the study, it was determined that the variables affecting the behavioral roles of the local people were environmental attitudes. The behavioral role of local people consists of four dimensions. These are social roles, economic roles, cultural roles and environmental roles. The environmental attitude of the local community consists of two dimensions: ecocentric and anthropocentric. The ecocentric and anthropocentric attitude affect the behavioral roles of the local people. The ecocentric attitude has a positive effect on the behavioral role of the local people while anthropocentric attitude has a negative effect. Local people support sustainable tourism development.
This is a very important finding for the healthy development of a tourism destination. Behavioral roles of local people positively affects their support of tourism development. Levels of fulfilling their environmental roles are low. This is an issue to be considered ecause the physical environment is among the most important attraction elements of a tourism destination. The unconscious use of these resources indicates a dangerous situation for the future of the destination. In addition, this will lead to a decrease in the number and quality of visitors in the long term, while the destination will quickly pass the phases on the tourist product life cycle and shorten its lifespan. The degree to which local people exhibit their behavioral roles and their environmental attitudes influence their support for sustainable tourism development as a whole. Creating environmental awareness in the local community will significantly increase their behavioral roles, while increasing their support for sustainable tourism development. In addition, this study is also compatible with the results of the United Nations Environment Development Conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. As a result of the conference, Agenda 21 action plan was created. Agenda 21 has been replaced by the Local Agenda 21 project in order to internalize the criteria determined by Agenda 21 locally and to settle it into society as a culture. Thus, the idea of sustainability will be adopted by the local people and transformed into behavior. City councils have been established under the Local Agenda 21. City councils are local practitioners of the criteria of Local Agenda 21. The behavioral role dimensions obtained in this study will also guide the city councils established within the framework of Local Agenda 21.