Araştırma Makalesi


DOI :10.26650/JECS2021-903064   IUP :10.26650/JECS2021-903064    Tam Metin (PDF)

Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde Güvencesiz Çalışma

Ahmet Nusret Baştuğ

Güvencesiz çalışma olgusu yalnızca belirli meslekler veya sektörler ile sınırlı kalmayarak birçok çalışma alanını kapsamaktadır. Bu çalışma alanlarından biri de; 1980’li yıllar itibariyle profesyonelleşerek küresel boyutta ekonomik bir çalışma alanı haline gelen profesyonel spordur. ILO, 2020 yılında düzenlemiş olduğu Spor Dünyasında İnsana Yaraşır İş başlıklı Küresel Diyalog Forumunda profesyonel sporda güvencesiz çalışma sorunlarına dikkat çekerek, sorunların çözümü doğrultusunda gerçekleştirilecek düzenlemelerin gerekliliğini vurgulamıştır. Bu çalışma; ILO’nun (2020) belirlemiş olduğu profesyonel sporda güvencesiz çalışma sorunlarının Türkiye Basketbol Liglerindeki yansımasını, spor kulüpleri tarafından çalıştırılan basketbolcuların bakış açısından ortaya koyarak sorunlara ilişkin gerçekleştirilecek düzenlemelere ışık tutmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu doğrultuda Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde spor kulüpleri tarafından çalıştırılan 10 profesyonel basketbolcu ile nitel araştırma yönteminin veri toplama türlerinden biri olan yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme tekniği gerçekleştirilmiş ve basketbolcuların görüşmelerde belirtmiş olduğu sorunlara ilişkin sesli ve görsel materyallerden yararlanılmıştır. Elde edilen verilerin betimsel analiz yoluyla yorumlanması ve özetlenmesiyle bulgulara ulaşılmıştır. Bu çerçevede Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde basketbolcuların güvencesiz çalışma sorunları; ücret, sakatlık ve iş göremezlik, kayıt dışı çalışma, iş sağlığı ve güvenliği, hafta tatili, psikolojik taciz, ayrımcılık, fiziksel şiddet, sendikal temsil, eğitim, geleceğe ilişkin belirsizlik durumları ve Covid-19 sürecine ilişkin sorunlar şeklinde ortaya çıkmıştır.

DOI :10.26650/JECS2021-903064   IUP :10.26650/JECS2021-903064    Tam Metin (PDF)

Precarious Work in Turkish Basketball Leagues

Ahmet Nusret Baştuğ

Precarious work is not limited to certain professions or market sectors but involves many fields of work. One such area is a professional sport that has become an economic field of work on a global scale. It has done so by becoming more professional since the 1980s. In the Global Dialogue Forum titled Decent Work in the World of Sports organized in 2020, the International Labor Organization (ILO) highlighted the problems of precarious work in professional sports. It emphasized the necessity of regulations to be implemented in line with the solution of the problems. In this study, the author aimed to shed light on the regulations to be promulgated regarding the problems by demonstrating the problems of precarious working in professional sports determined by the ILO (2020) in Turkish Basketball Leagues from the perspective of basketball players employed by sports clubs. In this effort, the author employed a semi-structured interview technique, one of the data collection types of qualitative research method, with ten professional basketball players employed by sports clubs in Turkish Basketball Leagues and benefited from the audio and visual materials related to the problems provided by basketball players in the interviews. Findings were reached by interpreting and summarizing the data obtained through descriptive analysis. In this context, the precarious working problems of basketball players in Turkish Basketball Leagues have given rise to wage disparities, disability and incapacity issues, unregistered and uncompensated work, occupational health and safety problems, weekend vacation, psychological harassment, discrimination, physical violence, union representation, education, uncertainty about the future, and problems related to the Covid-19 process.


GENİŞLETİLMİŞ ÖZET


Aim

The perception that professional athletes earn tremendous amounts of money and lead a luxurious lifestyle ignores their precarious working conditions. Although the social image created by few elite athletes gives the impression that sportsmanship profession is a respected field of work, most of their colleagues earn their livings from sports work under precarious working conditions. The ILO recently organized a Global Dialogue Forum titled Decent Work in the World of Sports in January 2020 to iden tify and regulate the precarious work problems of professional athletes. In this forum, the group found problems with protecting the right to pay, social insurance and unregistered work, occupational health and safety, discrimination, union representation, and education problems. This study will shed light on the regulations to be issued regarding these problems by revealing the consideration of the precarious working problems in professional sports determined by the ILO (2020) in Turkish Basketball Leagues from the perspective of basketball players employed by sports clubs.

Method

In this study, phenomenological design, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was used. The phenomenological design generally requires interviews, one of the data collection types of qualitative research methods. For this reason, the author conducted semi-structured interviews with ten professional basketball players employed by sports clubs in Turkish Basketball Leagues. Moreover, in addition to the semi-structured interviews about insecure working problems, audio and visual materials were used because of a suggestion of the interviewed basketball players to increase the validity and reliability of the study. Audio and visual materials are considered as one of the important data collection types of qualitative research methods. The findings were arrived at by applying descriptive analysis to the data obtained from the semi-structured interviews and audio and visual materials. The scope of this study constitutes the professional basketball players employed by the sports clubs in Turkish Basketball Leagues. In this context, ten professional basketball players comprise the study sample. They were determined using the same purposeful sampling method. The purposeful sampling method allows for in-depth investigation of the information obtained from individuals or groups that share certain features depending on the purpose of the study. For this reason, basketball players employed by Turkish Basketball League (TBL), Turkish Basketball Second League (TB2L), and Men's Regional Basketball League (EBBL) clubs, where problems are more frequent, were given preference in the selection of the samples in line with the purpose of the study.

Findings & Conclusion

Precarious working problems of basketball players in Turkish Basketball Leagues including wage disparities, disability and incapacity, unregistered and uncompensated work, occupational health and safety issues, lack of a weekend break, psychological harassment, discrimination, physical violence, union representation problems, education, uncertainty about the future, and problems related to the Covid-19 process appeared in the form. Problems of precarious working in Turkish Basketball Leagues overlap with the problems of precarious working in professional sports generally as determined by the ILO (Young (1993), Grove et al. (1997), Roderick (2006), Lazarevic et al. (2014), and Schwab’s (2018)). As the number of teams decrease in Turkish Basketball Leagues, the impact of precarious working problems on basketball players'’working life increases. The lack of union representation of basketball players in their working lives causes precarious working problems that cannot be solved easily. In addition to all these problems, the peculiar problems presented by the Covid-19 pandemic are affecting the precarious working problems of basketball players in Turkish Basketball Leagues. Unlike other studies examining precarious working problems in professional sports, in this study, the author has considered the problems relating to the Covid-19 process in Turkey Basketball League. In this process, the problem of precarious work in Turkish Basketball Leagues has increased the perception of precarity about the future of basketball in general by stratifying specific problems with the Covid-19 proces


PDF Görünüm

Referanslar

  • Akşar, T. ve Kutlu, M. (2006). Futbol ekonomisi. İstanbul: Literatür Yayınları. google scholar
  • Andreff, W. (2008). Globalization of the sports economy. Rıvısta Dı Dırıtto Ed Economia Dello Sport, 4(3), 13-32. google scholar
  • Ashford, S. J., Lee, C., & Bobko, P. (1989). Content, cause, and consequences of job insecurity: A theory-based measure and substantive test. Academy of Management Journal. 32(4), 803-829, https://doi.org/10.2307/256569 google scholar
  • Ataçocuğu, M. Ş. (2012). Futbol sektörünün emek ekonomisi açısından analizi. (Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi), Marmara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Ataçocuğu, M. Ş. ve Zelyurt, M. K. (2016). Profesyonel futbolda emek-sermaye ilişkileri: Alt liglerde ücret, sosyal güvence ve sendika olgusu üzerine nitel bir çalışma. Sportif Bakış: Spor ve Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 3(2), 99-115. google scholar
  • Aydın, U. (2009). Profesyonel spor sendikacılığında İngiltere ve Türkiye’ye öneriler. Uluslararası Spor Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1(1), 4-18. google scholar
  • Aydın, U., Özgüler, V. C., Kocabaş, F., Solmaz, D. Y., Katırcı, H., Demirkaya, S., Yüce, A. ve Etci, H., (2017). Türkiye’de profesyonel sporcuların çalışma Koşulları ve örgütlenme eğilimleri. Çalışma ve Toplum Dergisi, 55(4), 1873-1911. google scholar
  • Aytaç, S. ve Keser, A. (2002). İşsizliğin çalışan birey üzerindeki etkisi: İşsizlik kaygısı. ISGUC The Journal of Industrial Relations and Human Resources, 4(2). google scholar
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çakmak, E. K., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş. ve Demirel, F. (2018). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Pegem Akademi. google scholar
  • Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory. London, Thousand Oaks, Sage, google scholar
  • Cranford, C. J., & Vosko, L. F. (2006). Conceptualizing precarious employment: Mapping wage work across social location and occupational context. Precarious Employment: Understanding Labour Market Insecurity in Canada, 43-66. google scholar
  • Creswell, J. W. (2017). Araştırma deseni: Nitel, nicel ve karma yöntem yaklaşımları. (S. B. Demir, Çev.). Ankara: Eğiten Kitap. google scholar
  • Çakır, Ö. (2007). İşini kaybetme kaygısı: İş güvencesizliği. Çalışma ve Toplum Dergisi, 1(12), 117-140, google scholar
  • De Witte, H. (2005). Job insecurity: Review of the international literature on definitions, prevalence, antecedents and consequences. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31(4), 1-6, https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v31i4.200 google scholar
  • Demir, F. (2009). İş Hukuku ve Uygulaması. İzmir: Birleşik Matbaası. google scholar
  • Downward, P., & Dawson, A. (2000). The Economics of Professional Team Sports, London: Routledge. google scholar
  • El-Hodiri, M., & Quirk, J. (1971). An economic model of a professional sports league. Journal of Political Economy, 79(6), 1302-1319, https://doi.org/10.1086/259837 google scholar
  • EU Athletes. (2018). Common position paper of the members of the european elite athletes association. Brussels: European Elite Athletes Association. google scholar
  • Federation Internationale des Associations de Footballeurs Professionnels. (2016). Global employment report: Working conditions in professional football. Hoofddorp, Netherlands: FIFPro World Players Union. google scholar
  • Flint, W. C., & Eitzen, D. S. (1987). Professional sports team ownership and entrepreneurial. Capitalism Sociology of Sport Journal, 4(1), 17-27. google scholar
  • Gerrard, B. (1999). Team sports as a free-market commodity. New Political Economy, 4(2), 273-278, https://doi. org/10.1080/13563469908406400 google scholar
  • Giddens, A. (2005). Sosyoloji (C. Güzel, Çev.). Ankara: Ayraç Yayınevi. google scholar
  • Greenhalgh, L., & Rosenblatt, Z. (1984). Job insecurity: Toward conceptual clarity. Academy of Management Review, 9(3), 438-448, https://doi.org/10.2307/258284 google scholar
  • Grove, J. R., Lavallee, D., & Gordon, S. (1997). Coping with retirement from sport: The influence of athletic identity. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 9(2), 191-203, https://doi.org/10.1080/10413209708406481 google scholar
  • Guardiancich, I., & Molina, O. (2018). Örgütlenmesinde güçlük çekilen çalışanların örgütlenmesi ve temsili: Türkiye için çıkarımlar. Çalışma Hayatında Sosyal Diyaloğun Geliştirilmesi Projesi, International Labour Organization. google scholar
  • Hacısalihoğlu, E. (2015). Çalışma yaşamında güvencesizleşme, belirsizlik ve korku üzerine düşünceler. Toplum ve Hekim Dergisi, 30(4), 243-250. google scholar
  • Hartley, J., & Jacobson, D. (1991). Mapping the context job insecurity: Coping with jobs at risk, London: Sage Publications. google scholar
  • Heaney, C. A., Israel, B. A., & House, J. S. (1994). Chronic job insecurity among automobile workers: effects on job satisfaction and health. Social Science and Medicine. 38(10), 1431-1437, https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(94)90281-X google scholar
  • International Labour Organization. (2020). Global dialogue forum on decent work in the world of sport. Geneva: International Labour Office. google scholar
  • İyem, C. (2012). Kramponlu işçiler: Bir boş zaman çalışması olarak futbolcular. İstanbul: On iki Levha Yayınları. google scholar
  • Kara, L. Y. (2018). Üniversite öğrencilerinin işsizlik kaygısı: Celal Bayar üniversitesi çalışma ekonomisi ve endüstri ilişkileri bölümü öğrencileri üzerine nitel bir araştırma. (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Ankara: Gazi Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. google scholar
  • Kaya, P. A. (1999). İş güvencesi: Türk çalışma mevzuatındaki düzenleme-158 sayılı ILO sözleşmesi ve Temmuz 2000 tarihli iş güvencesi yasa taslağının kısaca değerlendirilmesi. ISGUC The Journal of Industrial Relations and Human Resources, 3(1). google scholar
  • Kalleberg, A. L. (2009). Precarious work, insecure workers: Employment relations in transition. American Sociological Review, 74(1), 1-22, https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240907400101 google scholar
  • Kinnunen, U., & Nâtti, J. (1994). Job insecurity in Finland: Antecedents and consequences. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 4(3), 297-321, https://doi.org/10.1080/13594329408410490 google scholar
  • Klandermans, B., & Van Vuuren, T. (1999). Job insecurity: Introduction. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(2), 145-153, https://doi.org/10.1080/135943299398294. google scholar
  • Laszlo, K. D., Pikhart, H., Kopp, M. S., Bobak, M., Pajak, A., Malyutina, S., & Marmot, M. (2010). Job insecurity and health: A study of 16 European countries. Social Science and Medicine, 70(6), 867-874, https://doi. org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.11.022 google scholar
  • Lazarevic, S., Dugalic, S., Milojevic, A., Koropanovski, N., & Stanic, V. (2014). Unethical forms of behavior in sports. Facta Universitatis-Series: Physical Education and Sport, 12(2), 155-166. google scholar
  • McLean Parks, J., Kidder, D. L., & Gallagher, D. G. (1998). Fitting square pegs into round holes: Mapping the domain of contingent work arrangements onto the psychological contract. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 19(1), 697-730, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(1998)19:1+<697::AID-JOB974>3.0.CO;2-I google scholar
  • Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. London: Sage Publications. google scholar
  • Oğuz, Ş. (2011). Tekel direnişinin ışığında güvencesiz çalışma/yaşama: Proletaryadan “prekarya” ya mı?. Mülkiye Dergisi, 35(271), 7-24. google scholar
  • Özmen, A. Ö. (2016). Türkiye’de kamu çalışma ilişkilerinde güvencesizlik: Uyum ve direniş örüntüleri. (Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi). Kocaeli: Kocaeli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. google scholar
  • Özveri, M. (2012). Güvencesiz çalışmanın hukuki dayanakları. Çalışma ve Toplum, 33(2), 147-172. google scholar
  • Roderick, M. (2006). A very precarious profession: Uncertainty in the working lives of professional footballers. Work, Employment and Society Journal, 20(2), 245-265, https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017006064113 google scholar
  • Rodgers, G., & Rodgers J. (1989). Precarious jobs in labour market regulation: The growth ofatypical employment in western europe. Brussels: International Institute for Labour Studies Free University of Brussels. google scholar
  • Rosenblatt, Z., & Ruvio, A. (1996). A test of a multidimensional model of job insecurity: The case of Israeli teachers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(1), 587-605, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199612)17:1+<587::AID-JOB825>3.0.CO;2-S google scholar
  • Roskies, E., Louis-Guerin, C., & Fournier, C. (1993). Coping with job insecurity: How does personality make a difference?. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14(7), 617-630, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140702 google scholar
  • Savul, G. (2008) Güvencesiz istihdam, örgütsel dönüşüm ve çalışma üzerine etkileri, (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. google scholar
  • Seçer, B. (2007). Kariyer sermayesi ve istihdam edilebilirliğin iş güvencesizliği üzerindeki etkisi. (Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi), İzmir: Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. google scholar
  • Seçer, B. (2009). İş güvencesizliği: Türleri, başa çıkma süreci, belirleyicileri ve sonuçları. A. Keser, G. Yılmaz ve S. Yürür (Ed). Çalışma yaşamında davranış: Güncel yaklaşımlar kitabı içinde (s. 307-344). İzmit: Umuttepe Yayınevi google scholar
  • Schwab, B. (2018). Celebrate humanity: Reconciling sport and human rights through athlete activism. Journal of Legal Aspects Sport, 28(2), 170-207, https://doi.org/10.18060/22570 google scholar
  • Standing, G. (2019). Prekarya yeni tehlikeli sınıf (E. Bulut, Çev.). İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları. google scholar
  • Temiz, H. E. (2004). Eğreti istihdam: İşgücü piyasasında güvencesizliğin ve istikrarsızlığın yeni yapılanması. Çalışma ve Toplum Dergisi, 2(2), 55-80. google scholar
  • Young, K. (1993). Violence, risk and liability in male sports culture. Sociology of Sport, 10(4), 373-396, https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.10.4.373 google scholar
  • UNI Global Union. (2013). An analysis of the working conditions of professional sports players. Lyon, France: UNI Europa Sport. google scholar

Atıflar

Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın


DIŞA AKTAR



APA

Baştuğ, A.N. (2022). Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde Güvencesiz Çalışma. Journal of Economy Culture and Society, 0(65), 239-266. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-903064


AMA

Baştuğ A N. Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde Güvencesiz Çalışma. Journal of Economy Culture and Society. 2022;0(65):239-266. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-903064


ABNT

Baştuğ, A.N. Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde Güvencesiz Çalışma. Journal of Economy Culture and Society, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 65, p. 239-266, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Baştuğ, Ahmet Nusret,. 2022. “Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde Güvencesiz Çalışma.” Journal of Economy Culture and Society 0, no. 65: 239-266. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-903064


Chicago: Humanities Style

Baştuğ, Ahmet Nusret,. Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde Güvencesiz Çalışma.” Journal of Economy Culture and Society 0, no. 65 (Dec. 2022): 239-266. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-903064


Harvard: Australian Style

Baştuğ, AN 2022, 'Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde Güvencesiz Çalışma', Journal of Economy Culture and Society, vol. 0, no. 65, pp. 239-266, viewed 2 Dec. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-903064


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Baştuğ, A.N. (2022) ‘Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde Güvencesiz Çalışma’, Journal of Economy Culture and Society, 0(65), pp. 239-266. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-903064 (2 Dec. 2022).


MLA

Baştuğ, Ahmet Nusret,. Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde Güvencesiz Çalışma.” Journal of Economy Culture and Society, vol. 0, no. 65, 2022, pp. 239-266. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-903064


Vancouver

Baştuğ AN. Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde Güvencesiz Çalışma. Journal of Economy Culture and Society [Internet]. 2 Dec. 2022 [cited 2 Dec. 2022];0(65):239-266. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-903064 doi: 10.26650/JECS2021-903064


ISNAD

Baştuğ, AhmetNusret. Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde Güvencesiz Çalışma”. Journal of Economy Culture and Society 0/65 (Dec. 2022): 239-266. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-903064



ZAMAN ÇİZELGESİ


Gönderim25.03.2021
Kabul19.10.2021
Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma24.01.2022

LİSANS


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


PAYLAŞ




İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.