Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde Güvencesiz ÇalışmaAhmet Nusret Baştuğ
Güvencesiz çalışma olgusu yalnızca belirli meslekler veya sektörler ile sınırlı kalmayarak birçok çalışma alanını kapsamaktadır. Bu çalışma alanlarından biri de; 1980’li yıllar itibariyle profesyonelleşerek küresel boyutta ekonomik bir çalışma alanı haline gelen profesyonel spordur. ILO, 2020 yılında düzenlemiş olduğu Spor Dünyasında İnsana Yaraşır İş başlıklı Küresel Diyalog Forumunda profesyonel sporda güvencesiz çalışma sorunlarına dikkat çekerek, sorunların çözümü doğrultusunda gerçekleştirilecek düzenlemelerin gerekliliğini vurgulamıştır. Bu çalışma; ILO’nun (2020) belirlemiş olduğu profesyonel sporda güvencesiz çalışma sorunlarının Türkiye Basketbol Liglerindeki yansımasını, spor kulüpleri tarafından çalıştırılan basketbolcuların bakış açısından ortaya koyarak sorunlara ilişkin gerçekleştirilecek düzenlemelere ışık tutmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu doğrultuda Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde spor kulüpleri tarafından çalıştırılan 10 profesyonel basketbolcu ile nitel araştırma yönteminin veri toplama türlerinden biri olan yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme tekniği gerçekleştirilmiş ve basketbolcuların görüşmelerde belirtmiş olduğu sorunlara ilişkin sesli ve görsel materyallerden yararlanılmıştır. Elde edilen verilerin betimsel analiz yoluyla yorumlanması ve özetlenmesiyle bulgulara ulaşılmıştır. Bu çerçevede Türkiye Basketbol Liglerinde basketbolcuların güvencesiz çalışma sorunları; ücret, sakatlık ve iş göremezlik, kayıt dışı çalışma, iş sağlığı ve güvenliği, hafta tatili, psikolojik taciz, ayrımcılık, fiziksel şiddet, sendikal temsil, eğitim, geleceğe ilişkin belirsizlik durumları ve Covid-19 sürecine ilişkin sorunlar şeklinde ortaya çıkmıştır.
Precarious Work in Turkish Basketball LeaguesAhmet Nusret Baştuğ
Precarious work is not limited to certain professions or market sectors but involves many fields of work. One such area is a professional sport that has become an economic field of work on a global scale. It has done so by becoming more professional since the 1980s. In the Global Dialogue Forum titled Decent Work in the World of Sports organized in 2020, the International Labor Organization (ILO) highlighted the problems of precarious work in professional sports. It emphasized the necessity of regulations to be implemented in line with the solution of the problems. In this study, the author aimed to shed light on the regulations to be promulgated regarding the problems by demonstrating the problems of precarious working in professional sports determined by the ILO (2020) in Turkish Basketball Leagues from the perspective of basketball players employed by sports clubs. In this effort, the author employed a semi-structured interview technique, one of the data collection types of qualitative research method, with ten professional basketball players employed by sports clubs in Turkish Basketball Leagues and benefited from the audio and visual materials related to the problems provided by basketball players in the interviews. Findings were reached by interpreting and summarizing the data obtained through descriptive analysis. In this context, the precarious working problems of basketball players in Turkish Basketball Leagues have given rise to wage disparities, disability and incapacity issues, unregistered and uncompensated work, occupational health and safety problems, weekend vacation, psychological harassment, discrimination, physical violence, union representation, education, uncertainty about the future, and problems related to the Covid-19 process.
The perception that professional athletes earn tremendous amounts of money and lead a luxurious lifestyle ignores their precarious working conditions. Although the social image created by few elite athletes gives the impression that sportsmanship profession is a respected field of work, most of their colleagues earn their livings from sports work under precarious working conditions. The ILO recently organized a Global Dialogue Forum titled Decent Work in the World of Sports in January 2020 to iden tify and regulate the precarious work problems of professional athletes. In this forum, the group found problems with protecting the right to pay, social insurance and unregistered work, occupational health and safety, discrimination, union representation, and education problems. This study will shed light on the regulations to be issued regarding these problems by revealing the consideration of the precarious working problems in professional sports determined by the ILO (2020) in Turkish Basketball Leagues from the perspective of basketball players employed by sports clubs.
In this study, phenomenological design, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was used. The phenomenological design generally requires interviews, one of the data collection types of qualitative research methods. For this reason, the author conducted semi-structured interviews with ten professional basketball players employed by sports clubs in Turkish Basketball Leagues. Moreover, in addition to the semi-structured interviews about insecure working problems, audio and visual materials were used because of a suggestion of the interviewed basketball players to increase the validity and reliability of the study. Audio and visual materials are considered as one of the important data collection types of qualitative research methods. The findings were arrived at by applying descriptive analysis to the data obtained from the semi-structured interviews and audio and visual materials. The scope of this study constitutes the professional basketball players employed by the sports clubs in Turkish Basketball Leagues. In this context, ten professional basketball players comprise the study sample. They were determined using the same purposeful sampling method. The purposeful sampling method allows for in-depth investigation of the information obtained from individuals or groups that share certain features depending on the purpose of the study. For this reason, basketball players employed by Turkish Basketball League (TBL), Turkish Basketball Second League (TB2L), and Men's Regional Basketball League (EBBL) clubs, where problems are more frequent, were given preference in the selection of the samples in line with the purpose of the study.
Findings & Conclusion
Precarious working problems of basketball players in Turkish Basketball Leagues including wage disparities, disability and incapacity, unregistered and uncompensated work, occupational health and safety issues, lack of a weekend break, psychological harassment, discrimination, physical violence, union representation problems, education, uncertainty about the future, and problems related to the Covid-19 process appeared in the form. Problems of precarious working in Turkish Basketball Leagues overlap with the problems of precarious working in professional sports generally as determined by the ILO (Young (1993), Grove et al. (1997), Roderick (2006), Lazarevic et al. (2014), and Schwab’s (2018)). As the number of teams decrease in Turkish Basketball Leagues, the impact of precarious working problems on basketball players'’working life increases. The lack of union representation of basketball players in their working lives causes precarious working problems that cannot be solved easily. In addition to all these problems, the peculiar problems presented by the Covid-19 pandemic are affecting the precarious working problems of basketball players in Turkish Basketball Leagues. Unlike other studies examining precarious working problems in professional sports, in this study, the author has considered the problems relating to the Covid-19 process in Turkey Basketball League. In this process, the problem of precarious work in Turkish Basketball Leagues has increased the perception of precarity about the future of basketball in general by stratifying specific problems with the Covid-19 proces