Yapay Kıyıların Jeomorfolojik Tanımlaması: Diliskelesi Kıyıları Örneği (Kocaeli, Türkiye)Hüseyin Turoğlu
Yapay kıyıların jeomorfolojik tanımlamaları ile hukuki problemlerin çözümlerine ait teknik yaklaşımlar arasında bazı problemlerin olduğu görülmektedir. Bu çalışmada; yapay kıyıların jeomorfolojik tanımlamasının yapılması ve mülkiyet problemleri temelli hukuki sorunların çözümüne yönelik bakış açısı verilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Öncelikle, konu ile ilgili teorik altyapı tanımlaması yapılmıştır. Örnekleme sahası olarak, tipik bir yapay kıyı jeomorfoloji özelliğine sahip olan Diliskelesi kıyıları tercih edilmiştir. Bu çerçevede; ArcMap 10.2 yazılımı kullanılarak, 1962 ve 1976 tarihli hava fotoları, güncel Google Earth görüntüleri, batimetri ve sondaj verileri, 1/25000 ölçekli 1972 tarihli topografya haritası, eski tarihli fotoğraflardan faydalanılmıştır. Jeomorfolojik olarak kıyı; güncel morfodinamik etken ve süreçlerin şekillendirici faaliyetleri altında olan, güncel bir yeryüzü şeklidir. Kıyı, kıyının bölümleri ve onların sınırları denizselliğin indikatör delillerine dayandırılan bir tanımlama ile yapılır. Mülkiyet problemlerine ait davaların çözümünde ise yapay kıyıya ait dolgu alanının yatay ve düşeydeki sınırları ve ayrıca eski doğal kıyının sınırlarının belirlenmesine ihtiyaç vardır.
Geomorphological Identification of Artificial Coasts: The Case of Diliskelesi (Kocaeli, Turkey)Hüseyin Turoğlu
Problems exist regarding not just the geomorphological definition of what constitutes an artificial coast but also the technical approach used in resolving legal issues with such coasts. The aim of this study was to construct a geomorphological description of what an artificial coast is and to express the geomorphological point of view for solving legal problems arising from the ownership of areas reclaimed by filling in part of the sea. Firstly, natural coasts and their constituent parts and boundaries are described from a geomorphological perspective. The coast of Diliskelesi and its vicinity was selected as the sample site. The research utilised ArcMap 10.2 software, aerial photos from 1962 and 1976, current Google Earth images, bathymetry and drilling data, a 1972 1:25000 scale topographical map, and old photographs of the location studied. Geomorphologically, a coast is a landform with a surface of earth under the influence of current geomorphological processes. The definition of a coast, parts of a coast and its boundaries are based on indicative evidence of marine effects. To find a solution to litigation issues on artificial coast ownership, the horizontal and vertical boundaries of the area of the artificial coast need to be determined, as well as the borders of the old natural coast.
A coast is a geomorphological unit with unique characteristics representing a landform in-between a body of water (marine, lake, river) and a land environment (Turoğlu, 2017a). Due to its widespread use in this study, the water body is referred to here as the “Sea”. The “Marine Coastal Borderline” is the sea-side border of the coast and the “Terrestrial Coastal Borderline” represents the border of the coast on the land side. The area between these two borders is a landform, a geomorphic unit, termed a “Coast”. The line formed by the points where the sea water touches the land is defined as the “Shoreline” (Erinç, 1971; Turoğlu, 2017a). The Nearshore, Foreshore, and Backshore are all parts of a natural coast (Erol, 1991; Turoğlu, 2017a). The parts of a natural coast are determined based on geomorphological, hydrographic, biogeographical and sedimentological evidence (Edwards, 2001; Bird, 2008; DavidsonArnott, 2010; Erginal & Öztürk, 2010; Karunarathna, 2012; Avcı, 2017). Artificial coasts arise from filling of the sea either legally or illegally for various reasons (Anthony, 1994; Kelletat, 1995; Hudson, 1980; Szabó, 2010; Kobayashia, 2015; Li et al., 2017; Turoğlu, 2019). Problems are experienced in construing the geomorphological definition of an artificial coast along with its planning and usage, property issues, etc. In order to solve these problems, Turkish Coastal Law was taken as the basis of this study and expert opinions were obtained. Moreover, it should be noted that different assessments have been made of similar problems.
This study aims to provide a geomorphological description of artificial coasts in which the natural shore, natural coastal parts and boundary features are discussed as well as their meaning and significance in the legal framework of artificial coastal geomorphology. The geomorphology of the Diliskelesi (Koceli, Turkey) coast was selected as the case study area because it has examples of typical artificial coastal features. The subject was investigated working with 1:18000 scale aerial photographs from 1962 and 1976, current Google Earth images, a 1:25000 scale topography map dated from 1972, old photos, bathymetry data, and ArcMap 10.2 software. The evaluation results were tested and verified with field observations.
“Diliskelesi coast” as a geomorphologic unit is described as having artificial coastal geomorphology. From the 1962 aerial photographs, it is understood that the geomorphology of the study area was a natural coast consisting of “Narrow-High Coast” and “Large-Low Coast” types. In the early 1960s, during the construction of a railway line and tunnel, the sea was filled with excavated material, representing the first stage in Diliskelesi becoming an artificial coast. In the following years, filling the harbour/port along with dock construction continued and the current artificial coast was formed. The area and dimensions of the artificial coast were determined by evaluating drilling data and old photographs. The thickness of the artificial filler, depth of marine sediments, bedrock depths and drilling locations were used as the determinative data.
As a result, the coast was transformed into the current geomorphological unit. Indicator evidence defines the coast as being shaped and developed under the influence of current morphodynamic factors and processes. The coast now being artificial may cause differences in the activity of current morphodynamic factors and processes but does not change the reality of the “current coast” from the geomorphological perspective. Morphodynamic factors and processes continue to affect erosion, transportation and accumulation based on the characteristics of man-made artificial coastal geomorphology, maintaining the shape of the new artificial coast. The previous natural coast is now an old (paleo) coast, and has geomorphologically lost its coastal nature. The usage of artificial coasts and property problems are different aspects of the issue and should be evaluated within the framework of legal regulations.