Araştırma Makalesi

DOI :10.26650/JPLC2022-1196120   IUP :10.26650/JPLC2022-1196120    Tam Metin (PDF)

Violence by a Female Confidant in Turkiye in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Gender Shadow Pandemic

Nuray ÖzkanSevil Atasoy

This research aims to determine the impact of “stay-at-home” practices on violence against women during the Covid-19 epidemic process, contribute scientifically to the regulation of practices based on existing policies, and develop recommendations for remedial and preventative policies. In the research designed as a scanning model, violence against women news was searched for retrospectively in all national and local newspapers and news sites published online before the pandemic (12.03.2019-12.03.2020) and during the pandemic (13.03.2020-13.03.2021) using keywords. In the study, the data were compiled from a total of 545 news articles, 247 of which were from before the pandemic and 298 during the pandemic period. The SPSS 25.0 statistical analysis program was used in the analysis of the data. In summary, it was determined that the number of cases during the epidemic was significantly higher than the number of cases before the pandemic (p <0.05), and the number of cases of violence (83.4%) before the pandemic decreased (65.1%) during the pandemic period. It was determined that violence, which is a crime of intentional injury, increased by 34.9% during the pandemic period compared to the pre-epidemic (16.6%) (p <0.05). It is thought that the research will shed light on the development of policies to prevent violence against women, early intervention, and recovery.

PDF Görünüm


  • Afacan, E., & Avcı, N. (2020). A sociological view of epidemics through the example of the coronavirus (Covid-19). Journal of Eurasian Social and Economic Studies,7 (5), 1-14. google scholar
  • Akalın, A. & Ayhan, F. (2021). Intimate partner violence against women in Turkey during the COVID-19 pandemic. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, Online, 68-75. https://doi.10.1080/01612840.2021.1949764 google scholar
  • Alon, T., Doepke, M., Olmstead-Rumsey, J., & Tertilt, M. (2020). The impact of covıd-19 on gender equality. National Bureau of Economic Research. Date of Access: 17.04.2022, Access Address: papers/w26947.pdf google scholar
  • Atan, S.V., & Atan, M. (2017). The effects of violence on women’s employment. TBBD, (Special Issue), 285-302. google scholar
  • Bozkurt, Y., Zeybek, Z., & Aşkın, R. (2020). Covid-19 pandemic: Psychological implications and therapeutic interventions. Istanbul Commerce University Journal of Social Sciences, 19 (37), 304-318. google scholar
  • Bradbury-Jones, C., &Isham, L. (2020). The pandemic paradox: The consequences of COVID-19 on domestic violence. J ClinNurs, 29, 2047-9. google scholar
  • Bullinger, L.R., Carr, J.B., & Packham, A. (2020). Covid-19 and Crime: Effects of Stay-at-Home Orders on Domestic Violence, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No: 27667, 1-45. google scholar
  • Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., et al. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psych. Res. 287:112934. google scholar
  • Cheng, K. K., Lam, T. H., & Leung, C. C. (2020). Wearing face masks in the community during the COVID-19 pandemic: altruism and solidarity. The Lancet. 399(10336), e39-e40. google scholar
  • Dişsiz, M. ve Hotun, Ş. (2008). A universal women’s health problem: violence against women. Maltepe University Journal of Nursing Science and Art, 1 (1), 50- 58. google scholar
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2019). Ranking of countries with the highest prevalence of violence against women. Date of Access: 26.03.2022, Access Address: https://tr.euronews. com/2022/03/31/erkeklerden-fiziksel-veya-cinsel-siddet-goren-kad-nlar-n-oran-avrupa-ve-oecd-nin-lideri-tu google scholar
  • Ergönen, A. T., Biçen, E., & Ersoy, G. (2020). Domestic violence during the covid-19 pandemic. TheBullet in of Legal Medicine, 25, 47-56. google scholar
  • Euronews. (2020). Pandemide ABD’de silah satışları artışı. Date of Access: 19.04.2022, Access Address: https:// google scholar
  • Federation of Women’s Associations of Turkey [TKDF]. (2020). Terrible picture from TKDF: Violence against women increased by 80 percent in the days of coronavirus. Date of Access: 03.03.2022, Access Address: https://www. s-gunlerinde-kadina-yonelik-siddet-yuzde-80-artti. google scholar
  • Fornari, L. F., Lourenço, R. G., Oliveira, R. N. G. D., Santos, D. L. A. D., Menegatti, M. S., & Fonseca, R. M. G. S. D. (2021). Domestic violence against women amidst the pandemic: coping strategies disseminated by digital media. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 74, 1-8. google scholar
  • Görücü, M. (2018). Legislation in the prevention of violence against women in Turkey, practice in police departments, and the example of Antalya. Master’s thesis, Akdeniz University Institute of Social Sciences, Antalya. google scholar
  • Gupta, A.H., & Stahl, A. (2020). For abused women, a pandemic lockdown holds dangers of its own. The New York Times, Date of Access: 24.03.2022. Access Address: coronavirus-lockdown-domestic-violence.html google scholar
  • Güneş, G., & Yıldırım, B. (2019). A Gender-Based War: An Evaluation of the Media Representation of Femicide. Community and Social Service,30(3), 936-964. google scholar
  • Jang, B., Farise, K., & Gender, B. (2020). Violence during the covıd-19 pandemic and economic, social, and cultural rights. Date of Access: 20.03.2022. Access Address: google scholar
  • John, N., Casey, S. E., Carino, G., & McGovern, T. (2020). Lessons never learned: crisis and gender-based violence. Dev World Bilet. google scholar
  • KAMER. (2015). 2015 Household Visits Results. Date of Access: 14.04.2022. Access Address: https://www. google scholar
  • Karakaş, M. (2020). Covid-19 salgınının çok boyutlu sosyolojisi ve yeni normal meselesi. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Dergisi, 40 (1), 541-573. google scholar
  • KCDP. (2020). We Will Stop Femicide Platform.Nisan 2020 Başvuru Karşılama Raporu. Date of Access: 24.04.2022. Access Address: google scholar
  • Koyuncu, H. (2020). After the Covid-19 outbreak, crime rates have fallen, and domestic violence is increasing. Euronews. Date of Access: 12.04.2022. Access Address: google scholar
  • Lemmon, G. T. (2021). Advancing the rights of women and girls in the middle east: an analysis of current trends and u.s. policy. Date of Access: 17.03.2022. Access Address: google scholar
  • Leslie, E., & Wilson, R. (2020). “Sheltering in Place and Domestic Violence: Evidence from Calls for Service During COVID-19”, Journal of Public Economics, Forthcoming, 1-25. google scholar
  • Martı, H. Ö. (2014). Thematic evaluation of the theses made in the last 10 years on violence against women. Master’s thesis. Ege University Institute of Social Sciences, Izmir. google scholar
  • O’campo, P., Kub, J., Woods, A., Garza, M., Jones, A. S., Gielen, A. C., & Campbell, J. (2006). Depression, PTSD, and comorbidity related to intimate partner violence in civilian and military women. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 6(2):99. google scholar
  • Odman, T. (2012). Sexual violence against women. Violence Against Women and Children Symposium with International Participation, Ankara: 27-28 April 2012. google scholar
  • Official Gazette. (2012). Law on Protection of Family and Prevention of Violence Against Women. Law No. 6284, dated 20/3/2012.Date of Access: 19.04.2022. Access Address: mevzuatmetin/1.5.6284.pdf google scholar
  • Orgiles, M., Morales, A., Delvecchio, E., Mazzeschi, C., & Espada, J. P. (2020). Immediate psychological effects of the COVID-19 quarantine in youth from Italy and Spain. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 29-86. google scholar
  • Palker-Corell, A., & Marcus, D. K. (2004). Partner abuse, learned helplessness, and trauma symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23 (4), 445-462. google scholar
  • Singh, J., and Singh, J. (2020). COVID-19 and its impact on society. Electronic Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2(1):102-106. google scholar
  • Şahin, H., Çakmak, A., & Erdem, Y. (2021). Examining the effect of the pandemic on violence against women through the cases reflected in the print media. OPUS International Journal of Society Researches, 18 (43), 7348-7367. google scholar
  • T.C. Ministry of Family and Social Policies, (2015). Research on domestic violence against women in Turkey. Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies, Ankara. google scholar
  • Taghısoylu, R. (2021). Investigation of self-confidence and anger control in individuals who have been exposed to domestic violence in childhood. Master’s thesis, Selcuk University Institute of Social Sciences, Konya. google scholar
  • Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2000). Full report of the prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. google scholar
  • Uçar, A. (2016). Violence against women in the national press with statistical data. Journal of İnönü University Faculty of Law, 7 (2), 315-364. google scholar
  • UNFPA (2020). World Population Report 2020 Summary.Date of Access: 12.03.2022. Access Address: https:// google scholar
  • United Nations Development Programme, (2020), Covid-19 Global Gender Response Tracker. Date of Access: 11.04.2022. Access Address: google scholar
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2019). 2019 Global Murder Report. Date of Access: 22.03.2022, Access Address: 22.03.2022 google scholar
  • Usher, K., Bhullar, N., Durkin, J., Gyamfi, N., & Jackson, D. (2020). Family violence and COVID-19: Increased vulnerability and reduced options for support. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 29(4): 549-552. google scholar
  • Vergeer, M. and Hermans, L. (2008). Analyzing online political discussions: methodological considerations. Javnost/The Public 15, 37-56. google scholar
  • Walker, L.E.A. (2000). The Battered Women Syndrome.2ed Edition, USA: Springer Publishing Company. google scholar
  • Wallace, C. L., Wladkowski, S. P., Gibson, A., & White, P. (2020). Grief during the COVID-19 pandemic: considerations for palliative care providers. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 60, 70-76. google scholar
  • Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17 (5), 1729. google scholar
  • WHO. (2014). World health organization. Healthcare for women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence a clinical handbook -field testing version. Geneva, Switzerland: world health organization, Date of Access: 17.04.2022. Access Address: vaw-clinical-handbook/en/. google scholar
  • WHO. (2020). COVID-19 and violence against women: What the health sector/system can do. World Health Organization Date of Access: 09.05.2022. Access Address: publications/vaw-covid-19/en/ google scholar
  • WHO. (2002). Word Report on Violence and Health: Summary. Geneva. Date of Access: 17.04.2022. Access Address: pdf;jsessionid=E51A2EEB2DDDCA368479972BAD2628CA?sequence=1 google scholar
  • Yılmaz, B. (2006). Posttraumatic stress symptoms and variables associated with posttraumatic growth in Search and Rescue studies. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Ankara University Institute of Social Sciences. Ankara. google scholar
  • Zara, A., & İnci, M. (2008). A compilation on domestic violence. Turkish Psychological Writings, 11 (22), 81-94. google scholar
  • Zeyrek, R. (2022). Evaluation Of Violence Against Women During The Covid- 19 Pandemic In Turkey In Terms Of Routine Activities Theory. Master’s Thesis. Istanbul University, Institute of Social Sciences, İstanbul. google scholar


Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın



Özkan, N., & Atasoy, S. (2019). Violence by a Female Confidant in Turkiye in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Gender Shadow Pandemic. Ceza Hukuku ve Kriminoloji Dergisi, 0(0), -.


Özkan N, Atasoy S. Violence by a Female Confidant in Turkiye in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Gender Shadow Pandemic. Ceza Hukuku ve Kriminoloji Dergisi. 2019;0(0):-.


Özkan, N.; Atasoy, S. Violence by a Female Confidant in Turkiye in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Gender Shadow Pandemic. Ceza Hukuku ve Kriminoloji Dergisi, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 0, p. -, 2019.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Özkan, Nuray, and Sevil Atasoy. 2019. “Violence by a Female Confidant in Turkiye in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Gender Shadow Pandemic.” Ceza Hukuku ve Kriminoloji Dergisi 0, no. 0: -.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Özkan, Nuray, and Sevil Atasoy. Violence by a Female Confidant in Turkiye in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Gender Shadow Pandemic.” Ceza Hukuku ve Kriminoloji Dergisi 0, no. 0 (Jun. 2023): -.

Harvard: Australian Style

Özkan, N & Atasoy, S 2019, 'Violence by a Female Confidant in Turkiye in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Gender Shadow Pandemic', Ceza Hukuku ve Kriminoloji Dergisi, vol. 0, no. 0, pp. -, viewed 9 Jun. 2023,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Özkan, N. and Atasoy, S. (2019) ‘Violence by a Female Confidant in Turkiye in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Gender Shadow Pandemic’, Ceza Hukuku ve Kriminoloji Dergisi, 0(0), pp. -. (9 Jun. 2023).


Özkan, Nuray, and Sevil Atasoy. Violence by a Female Confidant in Turkiye in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Gender Shadow Pandemic.” Ceza Hukuku ve Kriminoloji Dergisi, vol. 0, no. 0, 2019, pp. -. [Database Container],


Özkan N, Atasoy S. Violence by a Female Confidant in Turkiye in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Gender Shadow Pandemic. Ceza Hukuku ve Kriminoloji Dergisi [Internet]. 9 Jun. 2023 [cited 9 Jun. 2023];0(0):-. Available from: doi: 10.26650/JPLC2022-1196120


Özkan, Nuray - Atasoy, Sevil. Violence by a Female Confidant in Turkiye in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Gender Shadow Pandemic”. Ceza Hukuku ve Kriminoloji Dergisi 0/0 (Jun. 2023): -.


Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma03.03.2023


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.